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Full text of "Precis of the archives of the Cape of Good Hope"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



PRECIS OF THE ARCHIVES 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 



LETTERS DESPATCHED FROM THE CAPE, 

1652-1869. 



TO WHICH ARE ADDED LAND GRANTS, 

ATTESTATIONS, 

JOURNAL OF VOYAGE TO TRISTAN DA GUN HA, 
NAMES OF FREEMEN, &c. 



H. C. V, LEIBBRANDT, 

KEEPER OF THE ARCHIVES. 



VOLUME III. 



CAPE TOWN 
W. A. RICHARDS & SONS, GOVERNMENT PRINTERS, CASTLE STRKET. 

1900. 



Df 



c 



V, 



PREFACE 



THIS third volume closes the series of documents connected with 
the administration of the founder of the Colony, Johan 
van Riebeeck, the judicial ones excepted, which, as previously 
mentioned, are not yet in my custody. I need add but little now 
to what I said in my preface to the first volume. But I cannot 
let this one see the light without thanking the Survey or- General, 
John Templer Home, Esquire, for tbe assistance so willingly 
rendered me by him in preparing the diagrams of the various 
grants for the press, as well as the Registrar of Deeds, Ben 
Herbert Holland, Esquire, for permitting me to have one of the 
original grants deposited in his department photographed, and 
thus enabling me to add a fac-simile on a reduced scale to this 
volume, which, I trust, will be found as interesting, and made as 
welcome as its predecessors have been. 



11. C. V. LEIBBRA.NDT. 



ARCHIVE DEPARTMENT, 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPK, 

February, 1901, 



1013917 



TRANSCRIPTION OF ANNEXED FACSIMILE. 



No. 17. 

Bij den Com man dear ende Raedt van't fort de Gh>ede Iloope 
aen Cabo de bonne Esperance gesien dat Jan Martensz. de Wacht 
van Vrelandt, vrij burger alhier (te samen geweest hebbende in't 
Cabel-landts No. 2 met Harman Remajenne) sigh van hem heefft 
gescheijden ende volgens dien bij acooordt tot sijn deel becomen 
heefft de helfft van do. landt, belendende ten noorden met J acob 
Cloeten ende ten suiden met voorsz : sijn geweesen maet Harman 
Remajennies landt mitsgadars ten oosten na 't overgeberchte van 
Africa, ende ten westen na 't Caepse Taeffelgeberchte, conform 
haer eerste Erfbrieff in dato 27 en April 1657 daer van verleendt 
&c". ; Soo is't dat denselven Jan Martense op sijn versoeck daer 
van desen jegenwoordigen nieuwen Erfbrieff is verleendt ; ende 
volgens het gedragen consent van mijn Heeren de bewinthebberen 
ter vergaderinge van de Zeventhiene, vermits de steenachtigheijt 
sijns voorsz : lants boven aeii 't oosteijnde oock vergunt ende 
toegestaen wordt in plaetse van de hooghte die onbequaem g'oor- 
deelt wordt, de gansche leechte onder aen 't beneden offte west 
eijnde tot heel over de reviere Liesbeeck, breedt sijnde aen 
voorsz: oosteijnde (die schuijnes loopt) 80 roeden, ende 't 
onderste rechthoeckig 51 roedeii, mitsgaders de N : zijde langh 
196 roede Zuijt zijde hondert drie en dertigh roeden, ende alsoo 
te samen met het oude landt ende al inhoudende derthien morgen 
vijff hondert negen en tachtigh en een halve roeden landts waer 
beneden voorsz : reviere smal ende crombochtigh is deurloopende, 
als bij boven staende figure No. 27 door Comp 8 . landtmeter Pieter 
Potter aff geroyt, verthoont wordt, met volcomen authoriteijt 
omme d. derthien morgen en 589| roeden lants uijt crachte deses 
voor eeuwigh ende erffelijck in vollen eijgendom te aenvaerden, 
bethuijnen, besaijen, beplanten, bepoten, met coorn, wijn, ende 
allerhande boom off aert vruchten. Mitsgaders in 't geheel offte 
deel te verhuijren, vercoopen, offte andersints met voorsz : Com- 
mandeur ende Raedts weten, in plaetse van schepenkennisse te 
veralieneren, soo als hij te rade worden sal sender daerop eenige 
belastinge voor den tijt van twaelff jaeren langh subiect te sijn, 

gereeckent van den 14 April 1657 aff, dat hem met sijn gewesen 
ompaignons voorsz : landt door d'E. Hr. Commissaris Rijokloff 
van Goens is vergunt geworden volgens d'eerste Erfbrieff daer- 
van sijnde, mits nae d'expiratie van voorschreve twaelff jaeren 
onderworpen sal wesen te betaelen soodanige imposition ende 
gerechticheden : mitsgaders oock van nu aff door voor^z : landt 
oock te gedoogen alle sulcke heeren wegtm, grachten, slooten, 



bruggen, &c*, als bij d'overicheijt alhier gestelt ende jegen- 
woordigh gemaeckt sijn offte na desen ten dienste van d'E. 
Comp* ende 't gemeene best noch sullen, offte souden mogen 
gemaeckt ende g'ordonneert worden. 

Gegeven in't Fort de Goede Hope den 5 en Januarij A. 4 . I860. 

Was getsz. : 

JAN VAN RIEBEKCK.. 



Naergesien en aooordeert met sijn verleent prinoipael desen 
28 Junij 1673. 




- P^cV) & 



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H^ tr^f^r* 5 ^"^^'*^^ 

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\<-otq&^g^'*-- " ' v - ' -*-- ^v^r^ y _ iS' '^x ^' I ' & J'- ~~ 



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REDTTCED FACSIMILE OF COPY OF ONE OF THE OLDEST GRANTS 
DEPOSITED IN THE REGISTRAR OF DEEDS OFFICE. 



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LETTERS DESPATCHED EKOM THE CAPE, 



16521662. 

To St. Helena. 

To the lion. Commander or Officers of the return fleet, which 
may in consequence of adverse winds have passed the Cape, and 3i K t Jan. 
arrived at the said Island. Sent in duplicate with the yachts 
Mary a and the Robbejachtje via the coast of Angola. 

As it ordinarily occurs every year that one or more of the 
return ships pass the Cape and we are in consequence left 
deprived of what they contain for this residency, so that the 
garrison are left in great straits through want of provisions, and 
moreover we expect with these return ships different kinds of 
merchandise for the slave trade on the coasts of Angola and 
Guinea, we have ordered this yacht Mary a and this sloop 
the Eobbfjachtje (both dispatched for the slave trade >, after having 
done their business, en passant to call at St. Helena, and to 
open the letters, invoices, &c., of the Govern or- General and 
Council of India, addressed to us in order to know what has been 
shipped in the return ships for us, and request you that the same 
may be delivered to the yacht and the sloop, especially the rice 
and other provisions, and not with a deficit, as on account of the 
failure of the bean and pea crop, we are very soberly provided 
with food, and eveiy day expect the yacht -Russell with 300 
slaves and her crew, f f>r whom we have nothing in store. Con- 
sequently we also kindly ask that an additional quantity of rice 
may be added out of your own stores, as this would render us great 
assistance in our want. 

We also beg you to send us the seins of the ships, as you can 
never require them, and they will be of great service here. 

(Signed) J. VAN RIEBEECK. 
B2 



1658. Instructions for the skipper Claes France Bordingh and other 

3lst"jan officers of the yacht Mart/a and the sloop Robbejachtje about to leave 
for the Angola coast : 

As according to the Resolution taken in your presence on the 
last, it was decided to send you once more to Angola, as 
it also falls in with the intentions of the Masters ; and as the 
yacht is provisioned for 30, and the sloop for 6 men for four 
months, the first vessel armed with twelve guns, and the sloop 
with four pedereroes, ammunition, &c., you shall leave, in the 
name of the Lord, with the first good wind, in order to reach 
Saldanha Bay as soon as possible. After that you shall pro- 
ceed slowly with shortened sail, in order to call at all the bays 
and harbours, lying to at night, in order to be able to call at 
all, as far as Cabo Negro, arid the Vliege (Fly) bay, yea, even to 
Bengala or lower down, as far as you think that the Portuguese 
have no fortified residency. 

Leaving this you shall call at Eobben Island and take on board 
the yacht, the two English iron pieces lying there, placing in their 
stead on the most favourable spot the six pounder which you 
take hence. You shall also deliver there the 200 sticks and 
the reeds shipped for that island in the sloop. After that you 
shall continue your voyage and attend to the following : 

Wherever you find any harbours or bays you shall if 
possible visit and sound them, and lay them down in perfect 
charts, in the form of a see spiegel (sea chart) in a book with 
good notes of all anchorages, roads, rocks, sands and shores, 
always using the lead along the whole coast, that our Masters 
may receive good and trustworthy information regarding every- 
thing. Everything should be in duplicate, one for home and 
the other for India. 

And as our bean and pea crops have been a failure, and 
accordingly left us soberly supplied with food, you shall every- 
where carefully inquire what rice, mealies, beans or peas, or 
anything durable may be obtainable, buying as much as you 
can obtain and stow away, also saving your preserved provi- 
sions wherever you can secure fresh meat and fish. You are 
also to observe what kinds of merchandise is obtainable at the 
places visited. 

Especially slaves, to obtain whom as well as food for ourselves, 
the voyage is purposely undertaken, for as reported by many, 
both can be obtained cheaply at many places to the north of the 
tropic, as well as tortoiseshells, hides, rhinoceros horns, and in the 
neighbourhood of the Cape also tusks, ostrich feathers, wax, honey, 
civit, gold, silver, and everything that you may consider service- 
:iMo for the Company. 

W<- feel sure that you will find a good slave trade and some 
grain between the aforesaid tropic and Angola, und should this be 



the case, it will be a most desirable thing for the Company and 

not necessary to proceed any further, 30 that you are to return 31st Jan 

without delay, bringing with you as many " ouvis," sweet potatoes, 

and other food for the slaves as you can obtain and stow away, 

besides the rice, milies, &c., which you may be able to barter for 

this residency, without forgetting the other articles mentioned 

above; for if you could find any slaves above Angola, where 

slaves, rice, &c., are obtainable, without being hindered by the 

Portuguese, something very advantageous would be secured for 

the Company to your great honour. Hence we earnestly urge 

you to pay good attention to everything, and make that your 

maxim that besides examining the coast, harbours, rivers, bays, 

&c., you are chiefly to look out for slaves and rice and other 

durable grain, and the ivory trade in this neighbourhood, as it is 

of the utmost importance to the Company. . . . 

But should, contrary to our expectation, no slave trade be 
effected, you shall cruise about as far as Loando St. Paulo to look 
out once more for a Portuguese prize, and lie to so long out of 
sight of land until you shall deem it time to enable you to be back 
in the beginning of May via St. Helena, where you shall call to 
find out what return ships may have passed the Cape and called 
there, not only for our information, but especially to take over 
from such skip or ships whatever cargo they may have on board 
for the Cape. You are accordingly authorised to open all letters, 
invoices, &c., addressed to us, to find out what you have to claim 
from them, and which by virtue of this you shall take over, and 
request the hon. commander, vice-commander and other chief 
officers to assist you, as there will surely be cargo on their boards 
for the Guinea trade, as well as some rice, cadjangh, and beans 
for the Cape, which you are to take care that they are not delivered 
to you short weight. Each last weighs 3,000 Ibs., and should you 
have obtained on the aforesaid coasts so much rice, peas and beans, 
&c., that you are unable to stow away the cargo laden for you in 
the return vessels, you shall land and store the same in a shed or 
tent made of old sails, or anything else, and leave it to the care of 
5 or 6 men on the island until your return thither, bringing with 
you the principal articles from the fleet's cargo destined for us, 
even if you have to discharge other stuff out of your vessel, that 
as the Guinea trade developes, we may be wanting in nothing (altoos 
niets g'intresseert mochten worden). Remember always to bring 
with you en passant as many orange and apple trees as possible, 
placing some of them in the hold, but above all take care that 
holes are bored in the bottoms of the tubs and cases and that the 
plants are wetted daily during dry weather. 

Should you find any palm (palmit) trees anywhere, you are to 
bring some plants with you, as they are of great convenience 
(accommodatie) and use. Also ripe cocoanuts, bamboos, or reeds 



6 



1658. 
31st -'an 



for thatching, pine apples, and such fruit trees and seeds as you 
may be able to obtain and find room for. 

Should you find any civet cats we expect you to bring some. 

You shall especially beware of bartering old, halt, lame or 
infirm slaves, and not accept more women than men, neither 
younger iior older than from 15 to 30 years at the utmost, and if 
you could establish a slave trade before the arrival of the Ha welt. 
it would be a very good thing. 

Whatever agrees with this and is contained in the previous 
instructions given you, may be of service to you for your further 
guidance. . . . 

In accordance with your opinion and that of other sea-faring 
persons, we have deemed it expedient to send the Robbejachjeii 
with you, in order thoroughly to explore all shallow harbours, 
bays, rivers, &c., and to provide her with 6 men, 4 pedereros, and 
(?) muskets. You shall therefore take care of her also, especially 
on the return voyage, or when you come back hither from Angola, 
letting her come down along the coast or over sea in your company. 
We especially deem it necessary that she shall not explore the 
coast lower than St. Helena or Saldanha Bays, but everything is 
left to your good judgment, being assured that you will display 
proper seamanship and care there. We therefore wish you a 
happy and prosperous voyage to and fro in the service and for 
the benefit of the Company and your own private honour and 
reputation. 

(Signed) J. VAN RIEBEECK. 

In the Fort, &o. 

List of papers entrusted to the skipper of the Mart/a, Claes 
France Bordingh : 



To the Seventeen. 

22nd Feb. Our last was dated the 31st August last, -via Angola and 
Guinea. . . . Before replying to your latest, we wish to 
mention that we have heard nothing here of the French or 
Portuguese, mentioned in your previous letters or extracts, so that 
we hope that they will leave us henceforth in peace, as this place, 
in consequence of the increasing number of freemen, will soon be 
in such a state of defence that we shall need fear as little from 
European enemies outside, as we now do in the case of the natives 
within this land. 

In reply to your latest of the loth and 23rd June, to which are 
annexed two rnernorauda, the one regarding the prepared water, 
and the other in conHectiou with the rearing of turkeys, we have 
to say that all your orders are properly attended to, but that the 



breeding of turkeys does not seem to promise well, as many of lc58 - 
them are suffering from ulcerating eyes, but in order to have them 22nd~Feb 
properly attended to, we have distributed them among some of the 
freemen who are the best fanciers, and married, and promised 
them f3 for every turkey reared (subject to your approbation). 

Regarding the prepared water shipped in the W'alms, we have 
tasted it with the officers (who have reported on it in the annexed 
letter to the Delft Chamber), but found the contents of two of the 
leaguers stinking excessively, but those of the third much less so. 
On the other hand, we opened a leaguer of Meuse water, which 
had a lovely smell and taste, as if it had just been taken from that 
river, so that it was found far better than the prepared water. 
But in order to make assurance doubly sure, we landed one leaguer 
of the prepared water and another with Meuse water, and stored 
them in our depot. Every month we tasted and compared them 
with each other, but we found it stinking worse each time, much 
more so than the Meuse water, which hitherto has very little smell 
about it ; and that you also may assure yourselves, we have shipped 
the two leaguers, carefully marked, in the Arnhem. Each had a 
plank nailed to its side on which the contents were described in 
large letters. What the result has been in the case of those sent 
to Batavia in the Walvis we shall know later. 

We were also pleased to read of the cancellation on both sides 
of the arrests of the vessels of the Crown of France and our 
Netnerland State, and that the trade had been thrown open with 
more certainty than previously, and further that a closer alliance 
and a trait e de marine would be concerted with the Crown, which 
has removed our anxiety here, for the news of the arrest compelled 
us to strengthen the Fort considerably, which before the receipt 
of this good news had already been accomplished. 

Arrival on the 20th and 21st Dec. last of the return ships 
Honingen and Arnhem. Heavy storms in May last prevented 
them from reaching the Cape, so that the Honingen wintered in 
the N.W. Harbour of Mauritius, and the Arnhem in the Bay 
Antongil at Madagascar. Both therefore underwent a most painful 
voyage. The Honingen had received some assistance from Het 
Hoft' van Zeelant, which had passed the Cape, and with 80 sick and 
30 dead had put into the N. W. Harbour of Mauritius, which she 
had left on the 22nd August for Batavia, leaving at the Company's 
fort on the island 28 sick, so that she arrived safely at Batavia 
with 60 men less than the number with which she left home. 
What the condition is of the Oliphant (which had also not called 
here) we shall know later on. We hope that she has had a 
speedier voyage and better luck, otherwise her passing this may 
be rather inconvenient for the Company. 

We would gladly have assisted the two return ships with what 
we had, and accordingly resolved that in order to enable them to 



8 

1658. continue their voyage without delay, to furnish them with all our 
22nd~Feb provisions, and place ourselves on short allowance until the arrival 
of ships from home (see annexed special Resolution and our letters 
to the officers of the 18th and 19th Dec. last, as well as our 
Journal), but the officers submitted that it was rather early to sail 
by the back route and approach the Fatherland coasts with such 
heavy and valuable ships, and also (in our opinion the weightiest 
reason) that all the men of the Arnhem, the most valuable vessel, 
were ill, including the skippers, who declared therefore that they 
could not go to sea, as they would not be able to manage the ship, 
so that at their suggestion it was decided to let them lie here until 
the 25th Jan., as a ship might before that time arrive from home 
and so be able to supply these two vessels much better than we 
could, especially with meat, pork, bread, oil and vinegar, which 
the Arnhem especially is in need of, as well as sails, of which we 
had but one bale, which we gave to the Honingen, which was the 
first to arrive, for a main topsail. And as the Fort was only sup- 
plied with 220 Ibs. bread, 4 lasts rice, 5 casks barley, 1 do. meat, 
a small quantity (steert) of pork, 2 half auras of oil, the remains 
of half a leaguer of vinegar, and one anker of wine, we decided 
on the 30th following to let them wait here until the arrival of 
the first Christmas ship, from which to supply them thoroughly. 
In the meanwhile we might have given the 4 lasts of rice to the 
Honingen, and permitted her to leave alone, as she had enough 
meat, &o., for the voyage, but we deemed it too dangerous to let 
such valuable vessels sail alone ; besides, not only would the Fort 
be left destitute, but there would have been nothing left 
to give to the Arnhem to keep the mouths of her men 
open until relief came. About the middle of February the 
ships were left entirely destitute of rice and bread, so that 
we supplied them with a last of rice to save them from famine 
for a month longer (see Resolution of the 12th Feb.), so that 
hardly as much was left in the depot for the garrison and the 
freemen, and we were soberly conditioned on every side. The 
ships had already consumed 40 cattle and many more sheep, so 
that whatever more they required, as well as ourselves for this 
residency, had to come out of the outward bound arrivals, as we 
could not help each other longer, and sat in great anxiety, seeing 
on the one hand the misery of the vessels which were, through 
want of stores, unable to leave, and on the other hand fearing that 
the return and some outward bound vessels might pass the Cape, 
the officers of these two vessels not daring to proceed to St. 
Helena and await the Return Fleet there, because it might easily 
happen that they might miss it and so perish from hunger. We 
therefore gazed at one another daily with sorrowful countenances 
until it pleased God the Lord to let the yacht Schelvis arrive here 
from Batavia on the 28th Feb., with 40 lasts of rice and other 
goods for the Cape and the slave trade at Guinea and Angola, so 



that we were able to supply the two vessels out of her, each with 1658 - 
8 lasts of rice and 1 last beans and cadjangh, which once more 22nd~Feb 
left us soberly provided for, but, thank God ! against this stands 
that the valuable vessels were so well provisioned that they would 
have sufficient for their voyage home. They were therefore 
despatched oa the 22nd, in order to join the first six return ships 
at St. Helena, which had left Batavia seven days before the 
Sc/telvifi, under whose protection they may safely reach home, the 
valuable Amhem having already been considered lost. 

Whilst on this subject we cannot refrain from mentioning to 
you the improper conduct of the skipper Klaas Speelman, who not 
only communicated regularly to his crew our daily conversations, 
but also the points for discussion submitted to the Broad Council. 
And these persons having but little consideration, became with the 
connivance of the skipper so bold that they one and all set them- 
selves against our orders of the 12th Feb. to deliver two casks of 
pork to the destitute ship Arnhem, as they had about 12 on board, 
and as many casks of meat, whilst the Arnhem had nothing (see 
resolution of Journal of the 13th Feb.). Moreover, when the upper 
merchant Jan Gosens was lying ill on shore, he (the skipper) landed 
all his men with his boats and brought them to the Fort, using many 
haughty words and acting very wantonly, so that they seemed as 
as if they intended to make themselves masters of the Fort and 
plunder the warehouses, saying that they had understood from 
their skipper that we were provided sufficiently, but would not help 
them and so forth, all which would not have happened if he had 
kept them on board and under proper control. Great trouble 
might have resulted, if we had not acted with prudence and kept 
our men on shore quiet, who, as well as the freemen were already 
beginning to murmur that so much provision had already been 
sent on board, that not enough was left *or three weeks for them- 
selves. Moreover 40 cattle had been supplied to the two vessels, 
which the freemen declared were more urgently required by them 
for agricultural purposes, &c. (see Journal). We would therefore 
request you to be pleased to make a slight example of him and 
issue such orders that we may' not henceforth be exposed to similar 
dangerous absurdities and commotions. We certainly would have 
replaced him with another skipper, but as we had no suitable 
person at hand, we had to pass it off with a small reprimand, and 
refer the matter to you. to act as you may deem proper. For 
further information we refer you to the merchants of the Arnhem 
and Honingen, as well as the skipper of the Arnhem, as the time 
was too short, and we were fully occupied in getting the vessels 
ready for sea and finishing off our letters to you. And as we part 
from this subject we trust that it will not be unwelcome to you 
that these two vessels, half supposed to be lost, will return home 
together in company of the return squadron. We trust in due 



10 

course to hear of their safe arrival, and also of your intentions, 
22nd Feb. now we ajce i Q future to act under similar circumstances, so that 
we may be able to please you best. 

From our letters of the 31st Aug. you will have seen in what 
manner we intended to get and keep Kerry and the Caapmen in 
the most inexpensive manner, under the control (devotie) of the 
Company, and what the expected advantages would be, viz. : That 
as many cattle would be obtained from their increase, and in the 
form of barter, as would be required for a continual and proper 
refreshment for the ships and maintenance of this residency. And 
in order to save the Fatherland meat and pork, each ship should 
have on an average at least 8 head of cattle and 8 sheep, so that 
taking the number of ships to and fro, year in, year out, at 30, 
we would require 240 oxen and 240 sheep. 

For this residency, with slaves, freemen, and all that must eat, 
200 cattle and 200 sheep ; or a total of 440 cattle and 440 sheep, 
if the ships are to be properly refreshed, for more than that 
number it will not be possible to obtain annually from Herry and 
the Caapmen in the enclosure intended for them. Whether this 
would be worth the extra garrison of 50 men, which would 
cost the Company at least 8 or 10 guilders annually (?) we 
have considered in our previous communication. Having with 
great trouble further investigated the matter we found that fifty 
men and five redoubts will not be sufficient, but that a much 
greater expense will be unavoidable, as well as much more work, 
in consequence of the many passes through and over the mountains 
and valleys, which, after the departure of the Hon. van Goens we 
at different times ascended and crossed. At least 10 redoubts 
would be necessary, some of them with long entrenchments, in 
order to prevent all passage through the wide openings, the wings 
of which should be, some of them, from 4 to 500 roods long and at 
least 8 feet high, which on account of the stony nature of the 
ground, would in many cases be a costly affair and a very difficult 
work. Moreover it will have to be made from the highest top of 
the Steenbergen, as will be seen from the annexed chart marked 
F, in which it is roughly sketched. 

But when all this heavy expenditure has been incurred, the whole 
work may be jeopardized uy one or other clumsy fellow only once 
not attending to his watch in one or other of the garrisons, for the 
Hottentoos finding themselves thus enclosed and consequently 
compelled to part with as much of their cattle as we require (in 
the form of barter) will employ thousands of artifices to escape 
with their cuttle, when everything shall be as oil in the fire, and we 
shall never more be trusted by them as at present, when they 
imagine nothing but what is good on our part. All this and much 
more have decided uc not to commence the work and incur the 
expense on our own responsibility and without your special 



11 

instructions, as they do not possess more cattle than already men- 1658 - 
tioned. The freemen however would live more securely and be '22nd~Feb. 
able to cultivate their lands without hindrance, whilst the real 
Saldanhars would visit us with a greater sense of security, in order 
to trade with us and we might thus realize your object, viz. : to 
salt down meat for India, a well preserved sample of which we 
have in our stores, salted down so far back as July, 1656, and tasted 
last year by Commissioner van Goens. But it is drier and not as 
good as the Fatherland meat. 

But a mighty number of cattle would be required for salting 
down for India, viz. : according to our calculation at least 2 or 3 
hundred, which, as we daily foresee more and more, will not be 
obtainable from the barter with the Saldanhars, notwithstanding 
their loud boasting that we would not have copper enough for the 
abundance of their cattle, unless in time more tribes visit us from 
the further interior, after hearing that Herry and Caapmen had 
been enclosed in the manner proposed and brought under the 
Company's devotion. 

But as all this is uncertain, and the expenses for tr.i.e proposed 
garrisons will be very heavy, we did not dare to undertake the 
work at our own risk, before we had been specially authorised 
by you, for it would merely secure the following end, viz. : That 
we would scarcely obtain as much cattle as would suffice for a 
sufficient refreshment for your ships, and the feeding of this Cape 
.Residency, in order to save the Dutch salt meat and pork, which 
are certainly worth something. 

And should it (this enclosure) assist the freemen in their agri- 
cultural pursuits and enable them to cultivate with more security, 
it is to be hoped that in time they will be able to supply the ships, 
during their stay here, not only with cattle and garden produce, 
but also with fresh bread; and further supply them for the 
voyage home with fresh peas, barley, biscuits, &c., to say nothing 
of the grain which en passant the outward bound may take 
away from this for Batavia, keeping enough for ourselves for 
fattening pigs, which are easily salted in the cold season, according 
to trials made. 

And should the Company decide to establish the garrisons men- 
tioned, fewer redoubts would be required for the security of the 
freemen, as there is alreidy one of brick (steenen) in the middle 
of the corn lands, marked as II in the chart. Another should be 
erected at the Salt River before the fishery, but both can be 
garrisoned by the freemen themselves, as well as all the others 
which it will be necessary to build for their protection, if this 
enclosing of Herry does not go through. The la'ter redoubts 
must be garrisoned by Company's men, as they would be too far 
out of the way of the freemen. For this reason we dare not press 
this proposal, before we know whether you consider the former of 



1658. more importance, as it may be maintained, as already mentioned, 
22nd~Fh fchat ^ ae Hottentoos, finding themselves locked in, will avail them- 
selves of thousands of stratagems in order to escape from the drum 
net with their cattle, so that it would be necessary to watch them 
narrowly, which however brings its expense and cannot be done 
without 100 men, independent of the present garrison, to say 
nothing of the heavy labour of conveying cannon to the tops of 
the mountains, &c. 

To advise the Company to incur such heavy expenditure, we 
dare not do, without foreseeing certain advantages. And you 
will be pleased not to be disappointed because we lay the matter 
before you in not too sweet a manner, as if we are afraid of the work, 
for if you deem it to your advantage and order us, we have done 
so much work here already that it will not matter at all to us, 
so that you will find that we remain inclined to carry out with 
good zeal and zest everything that you may be pleased to impose 
on us in your service, as it is our object to give satisfaction to you 
and raise as few objections as practicable. Hence we did not dare 
to advise the cutting through of the isthmus from one bay to the 
other, as such a work would require thousands annually for repairs, 
after having been completed at extraordinary cost, besides the 
excessive burden of garrisoning such a long distance of 7,000 
Bhineland roods with so many redoubts, ravelins, or ' traversen,' 
cannons and soldiers, as the freemen can dwell in sufficient security 
and cultivate their lands with here and there an additional redoubt 
among them as their numbers increase, which according to agree- 
ment they are to garrison themselves, as is the case at present with 
the redoubts " Duynhoop " and " Coornhoop," so that we do not 
deem it expedient to advise you to incur further expense, as the 
cost of enclosing Herry and the Caapmen, incurred for erecting 
the many redoubts and keeping a separate garrison of 100 men 
for them, would not by half equal, according to our calculation, 
the advantages and service which the Company would derive from 
the aforesaid cattle which would only consist of the number above 
mentioned. 

It is true that in our previous letters we mentioned that the 
oxen here are very heavy and easily salted down; but the meat 
becomes so dry (evidently because of the destruction of the fat 
which is not so hard here as in the Fatherland), that we are afraid 
to give it to the ships for the voyage, as it might cause dissatis- 
faction, &c. 

In the case of pigs, however, success seems more certain, 
whilst we more and more observe that the natives never sell us 
their best oxen or cows, but only old and worn out animals, so 
that all heavy oxen must be obtained from the stock of the free 
men who, however, for the present require them for themselves 
for their ploughs and wagons, so that salting down meat for India 



13 

(even if judged fit) will have to be postponed to a future time, and 165S - 

the work to which all our attention should be devoted should be to 22ud~Fe"b 

get into an abundance of grain, so that we may have enough to 

fatten pigs for salting down, and bake our own barley bread 

(grutten broot backen), brew our own beer, have our own malt and 

distil our own brandy, for feeding the garrison and supplying the 

ships, besides in course of time rearing so much grain that the 

outward bound vessels, without having an express ship to Batavia 

for the purpose, may take thither as much as they can. It 

will in our opinion not be necessary to set ourselves to provide 

a larger abundance of wheat to be conveyed hence by a special 

vessel from Batavia, purposely sent, as that would be too costly. 

The prospects are encouraging. Regarding the rest of the cattle 

we shall, in our opinion, have to await the result, and see what in 

course of time we may hope for in this respect. 

We therefore arranged matters in such a way that on behalf of 
the Company its men cultivated as much ground as might without 
extra expense produce sufficient for the 80 wage earners of this 
garrison, the slaves and the sick (left here for some time at a great 
expense by the ships). For this purpose we thought that we 
would have enough in 60 morgen of: land for proper cultivation, 
besides the Company's gardens, about 15 morgen in extent, for 
the continual refreshment of the ships, and in such cattle as we might 
obtain from barter with kindness and friendship. For the latter 
object we have also sometimes sent men with merchandise into the 
interior, but we always found that, especially the natives residing on 
this side of the Bergh River (fully 8 hours march mostly towards 
the North-East), were doing their best to surprise our people for the 
sake of the copper which they have, and to murder them. They 
are also known as more or less connected with the Caapmen, and 
will be specifically described below as the result of a full investi- 
gation. Those who have been ere this known as " Saldanha men," 
or real Saldanhars, are located on the other side of the Bergh 
lliver and never come down to it more than once every two or three 
years, according to the testimony of a certain horde called by them 
Chaijnouquas, whose chief, named Chaijnouqua, bartered to us this 
season, through one of his principal headmen, more than onu 
hundred head of cattle, and is at present supposed to have gone 
further into the interior with the copper obtained from us, in order 
with it to barter other cattle. Ke accordingly requested us not to 
send any of our men inland, as the other tribes, though beginning 
to hear of the good nature of the Hollanders, are nevertheless 
easily frightened, and fearing that we may rob them, would nee, 
and thus drive their cattle to death, so that he advised us to keep 
quiet, until in time they were more assured of our good faith and 
honest purpose, lie would therefore bring us so much cattle that 
we would thunk him. Our opinion, however, is that they do not 



14 

very much like to have us there, that we may not see their best 
22ndFeb. beasts, as they, perhaps, fear that we may be induced to rob them, 
thus keeping the best for themselves, and as a rule bartering to us 
the worst. 

How thee tribes are named and distinguished, we have already 
mentioned in our journal. (See 31st October, 15th November, 
and December). 

The latter six generally live with each other in good harmony, 
but when they arrive in this neighbourhood they have disputes 
with the Caapmen, evidently on account of the Cape pastures, 
which they (the Caapmen) endeavour to keep for themselves, 
always retiring to us when the real Saldanhars come down, especially 
this season, when Kerry, Gogosoa, the Caapmeus' fat chief, and 
Cborachouqua, the tobacco thieves, took refuge about Saldanha 
Bay, and probably suffered some damage from the real Saldanhars. 

Now there is still another great Monarch dwelling towards the 
south-east side of the coast deep inland towards Monomotapa, 
whom the aforesaid Chainouqua described to us as Chobona, 
a different kind of people from these tribes of the Cape, quite 
black, and rich in gold, in whose house this Chaiuouqua's wife had 
been reared and given to him in marriage. He also claimed 
dominion over the Namanas or Namaquas as well as the rest of 
the Hottentoos, but when we asked Herry about it he spoke of 
him contemptuously and spat at the name, holding it with the 
Namaquas who live in the direction of the Angola Coast, as will 
be fully seen in our Journals of the 31st October and 15th 
November, 1657. 

We now proceed to treat of the case of the freemen here, to 
whom we have already granted 275^ morgen of land, viz. : 

To Steven's Company, to the two as owners . . 27|- 
Vreeden's 



Harman's 

Brinckman's 
Jan. Keyniersz 
Hendrik Boom, for him alone 



271 

40* 



3 



40' 



Jacob Cloeten, ,, having joined 

Harmau's Company . . . . 20 

Visagie's Company, for the four of them . . 60 

Total . . 275-J Morgen 

Add to this the Company's lauds, already men- 
tioned . . . . . . . . . . 60 

So that the grand total, exclusive of the Com- 
pany's gardens, amounts to . . . . 335|- 



15 

The aforesaid gardens in the neighbourhood of 1658 - 

the Fort, out of which the ships are provided 22nd~Feb 

with refreshments, are in extent . . 15 Morgen. 

So that at present thero have been taken in hand 

for cultivation . . . . . . . . 350 

on which we hope that next season a large quantity of corn and 
other produce will be raised, as we intend to sow on it all the seed 
that we have wo a this year, consisting mostly of wheat, rye, oats 
and barley. Peas and beans do not appear as yet to thrive, 
judging from the trials made last year at great loss, for we 
exchanged our barley for all the beans of the Hasselt and rice for 
the peas on board the ships, in order to sow them and thus obtain 
great abundance, but we were disappointed as we did not recover 
a twentieth part of the beans and peas sown on the lands of the 
Company and of the freemen, so that instead of profit we suffered 
great loss, which has placed us at present in a very sober state, and 
we would have come to complete want if we had not been relieved 
by a consignment of rice from Batavia, as we had given the ships 
Anthem and Honinycn the last remains of our rice in order to 
enable them to continue their voyage home. We therefore placed 
ourselves in a state of great need rather than allow these valuable 
vessels to suffer want. You may therefore imagine what a hard 
time it would have again been this year for the freemen and 
especially the Company's servants, in the matter of food, especially 
if a number of slaves be added, and we had to provision the yachts 
Hawelt and Mari/a afresh, which will have to come out of the out- 
ward bound, for these vessels will never be able to spare us any 
considerable quantity of barley and peas out of their stores. 
Moreover we supplied the Arnhem and Honing en with 18 lasts of 
rice, beans, and cadjangh. 

We hope, however, that the yacht Marya, which returned hither 
from the Angola Coast on the 22nd January last, without the 
Hassclt, and had found nothing there, and was accordingly again 
despatched thither on I he 5th February following, accompanied 
by the Robbrjachljen, may find some more food for us somewhere, 
as well as a few slaves. We resolved to despatch her once more 
with greater confidence, as in your despatch of llth April, 1657, 
you stated that you would not consider it strange should the 
yachts return before your autumn letters had reached us, if we 
once more despatched them on the same voyage ; so that when the 
smallest one returned in such good time we did not wish her to lie 
idle, but once more despatched her, accompanied by the Robbe- 
jaclttjen (made here), in order to explore all shallow openings and 
assist the Mart/a in everything. The latter was also to discover 
whether along those coasts above the Portuguese possessions and 
nearer than Guinea no slaves or food could be obtained for us, as 



16 

1658. we were mightily in want of them, so that we hope that this little 
22nd~Feb vo j a g e Wl ^- De accomplished before the return of the Hassc/t from 
Guinea, for which may the Almighty grant his blessing. 

Agriculture promises excellently, but we cannot as yet state how 
much grain we have won this season, as the corn has not yet been 
threshed and is still stacked, but we roughly guess that the 
harvest of the freemen and of the Company will oome to about 
6 or 7 lasts of wheat, 2 lasts of barley, 2 or 2 5 lasts of oats, and 
about 5 bushels rye on 30 roods of land from a basin full of seed 
won here. What was sent us last year did not come up ; neither 
did the hemp or linseed. 

Beans and peas caused great loss to ourselves and the freemen, 
as already mentioned. The latter had sown large quantities, but 
as the lands had only been ploughed for the first time, only one- 
twentieth of the seed sown was reaped ; but oats, barley, wheat 
and rye promise success. 

And as the number of freemen has increased, we shall sow this 
season all the seed that we have won, that in future we may enjoy 
the fruit thereof. 

We tried rice in several places but hitherto have won nothing, 
but a considerable quantity sown in the water is growing finely ; 
time will show the result. The freemen, however, do not seem to 
care about its cultivation, as they have no knowledge of it. 

They are also very indifferent about planting vineyards, 
primarily because of the expense and trouble. But as at present 
the vines are thriving excellently and we had already in January 
last tasted some of their new fruit, and so many have grown that in 
September next (the best planting and pruning time), thousands 
of slips may be planted on favourable spots, it is a pity that no 
more fanciers can be found here, as the cultivation can in a short 
time be developed in an extraordinary manner. We accordingly 
request you to furnish us with some information regarding 
pressing, c., as well as some tools necessary for the same, and if 
possible, two or three persons understanding the business, for the 
prospects of an abundant growth of vineyards appear to be 
exceptionally good, so that it will be better to send us men from 
home, rather than from India, as the latter would be unaccustomed 
to I he work and either disinclined or averse to Cape farm work, 
preferring like Sinjeurs to spank about (spanceren), with the cane 
in the hand, and leave everything to their slaves (whom we have 
not yet), rather than put their own hands in any way to the 
plough. 

What we may have forgotten or skipped in this through hurry, 
we hope to mention in our next with the last squadron from Batavia, 
as the Arn/ta/i and Jfoniiif/fn are ready to leave. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



17 



As they were 
not sent by 
last year's 
autumn ships. 



Petition from the Fatherland for the Cape. 

200 hand grenades for the fort and redoubts. 
6 lasts of barley which does not break, as our barley is " break 
barley," which, as soon as it ripens breaks off below the 
ears and drops them on the ground. 
Some tarragon plants separate in a small bale. 

strawberries ,, 

raspberries 

rose trees , 

elder trees 

chives 

6 screwjacks for the use of the free sawyers and carpenters. 
25 sheep shears. 
200 hatchets. 
200 shovels and spades. 
Some buck rabbits and more rabbits for Robben Island. 

Carpenters' Tools. 

20 or 30 hand and carpenters' hatchete. 

12 pit saws. 

12 hand saws. 

12 cleave saws. 

6 pit (craen) saws. 

6 stone saws. 

12 twibills. 

6 broad chisels. 

12 adzes. 

6 grindstones. 



1658. 
22nd Feb. 



Very necessary for a free 
smith, as the Company's 
smith cannot perform the 
work for all the freeman. 



1 large double pair of bellows 
1 anvil of 4 or 500 Ibs. 

1 bickern, largest size 

2 bench vices 

2 " oogh yssers " 
100 flat staves, broad iron. 
50 other flat staves. 

200 square staves of 1J, 11 to 2 inches. 

6 bunches and 8 kegs " vat " steel, not sent us by the former 
vessels, as above. 

Nails to be sold to the freemen, as much required for build- 
ing their homesteads, viz. : 

2 casks single and 2 casks double. 

2 casks 2 inch nails ; 2 casks 5 inch nails. 

2 6 ; 2 7 

2 8 ; 2 9 ; 2 casks 10 inch. 

2 cask s tacks; 2 casks flat heads; 2 casks pipe nails (pomp 
spykers) . 

C 



10 rolls sheet lead, for gutters, pipes, &c. 
2'>ud~Fei>. ^ seins with very close narrow meshes. 

Some flints for muskets, those sent us were mostly intended 

for firelocks and were sent to Batavia, as we have only 

muskets here. 

For the Trade. 
2 hundredweight of Martinique tobacco in canisters like those 

previously sent. It will be liked better than what we 

may grow here ourselves, according also to the opinion 

of Mr. van Goens. 

200 thick wires (vasen), yellow copper \ Like those sent 
200 rings thin copper wire ) last. 

200 thick for those who may sometimes ask 

for them. 

For Clothing. 

12 pieces serge, 12 pieces English " ingesprenckt " cloth. 

100 pairs woollen stockings. 

1,000 pairs shoes, among them 50 pairs of Spanish leather. 

For the Office. 

1 case large and small size paper. Ink powder, quills, sealing 
wax and twine ; with medicines as in former years. 

For the Yachts. 

Bales of sailcloth ; quarters (quartelen) tar ; quarters pitch ; 
casks of sulphur ; casks of rosin ; casks of soot ; 600 Ibs. 
whole and half wax candles. 



St. Helena. 

To the Hon. Joan Cunseus, ordinary Councillor of India, and 
Commander of the return fleet, per the ships Arnhem and 
Honing en. 

20th Feb. Mentions the arrival of the Schcluis from Batavia with supplies 
for the Cape, which enabled the above two vessels to leave, hoping 
to join the squadron at St. Helena, which is supposed to have 
passed the Cape. From the letters to the Directors, which we 
have left open for your perusal, as well as from Messrs. Catersvelt 
and Johan Orosens, you will gather that we longed for you very 
much, as we knew that you had been appointed Commissioner for 
examining affairs here, and we had accordingly decided to afford 
you every information regarding the state of the Company, and 
request you to investigate everything, that you might be able to 
render such a report to the Masters regarding our doings, as you 
yourself had found them. And I am sure that it would have been 
of such a nature that it would have commended ourselves to the 



19 

Maeters and given them pleasure. But as we believe that you 1658 - 
have passed the Cape, we shall remain patient until next year. 
And this we shall do annually, although their Honours at Batavia 
may not grant a commission for the purpose to anyone of the 
gentlemen (of the fleet), as the true reports of such qualified 
persons cannot but be to our advantage, and secure us favour, as 
we are always doing our best to give satisfaction to our Masters 
and their Honours at Batavia, though it sometimes comes to our 
ears that there are gossipings to the contrary now and then among 
some envious persons ; but we assure ourselves that there can be 
no doubt that their Honours aforesaid can from all our doings see 
the contrary. Nor can we expect anything else from yourself, 
and therefore hope that, having read the despatches during the 
voyage, you will submit a favourable report regarding our 
diligence in the affairs of the Company. On this we therefore 
depend, as well as on your usual discretion. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

List of annexures to the above, for the Amsterdam Chamber. 

No. 19. List of deceased persons. 
20. Charts of the Cape. 
21. Muster roll of all the Company's servants, freemen, 

women, children, and slaves at the Cape, as well as 

those on the yachts Hasselt, Marya, and Robbejac/itje. 
23. Title deeds. 

24. Freemen's letters (Vrybrieven). 
26. Journal of the yacht Marya during her first voyage 

with the Hasselt to Angola and her return via St. 

Helena. 
27. Further marks to guide vessels entering the bay. 

N.B. A similar list of annexures sent to Zealand. 

Lists of annexures sent to Rotterdam, Delft, Hoorn, and 
Enckhuysen. 



To Batavia. 

Arrival of the Arhem and Honingen on the 20th and 21st 16th March. 
December last, which left for St. Helena on the 23rd February 
last. (See preceding despatches). Though we believed that the 
Hon. Cuneus had passed the Cape, he arrived here on the 3rd, 
5th, and 6th instant with his six return ships Set Wapen tan 
Holland, which takes this, having also arrived on the 5th. Mr. 
Cuneus and the Broad Council at once decided to despatch the 
Achilles, to follow the Arnhem and Honingen to St. Helena, with 

c2 



20 



1658. 
IGth March. 



orders to await his arrival there. The Achilles accordingly left 

on the 8th March 

The yacht Hasselt we expect back from Guinea about the month 
of May. (Regarding the Mart/a see preceding despatches). When 
they are both back here about May, they will be employed as 
ordered by the Masteis in October, 1657 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RJEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DR MAN. 

List of annexures to the preceding despatch. 

No. 8. Amended chart of the Cape country, mountains, &c 



To the Seventeen. 

Arrival of the return squadron, under the Hon. Cuneus, on the 
4th of March. Hct Wapen van Holland also arrived. She had 
lain 10 days in Saldauha Bay and had lost 9 men by death, 
bringing between 20 and 30 sick here, who all recovered excepting 
2 or 3. She left on the 19th March for Batavia, She brought 
us letters from the Amsterdam Chamber of the 27th September 
last 

In reply to these letters, which principally urged us to use all 
diligence to advance agriculture and the breeding of cattle, we 
beg you to be pleased to believe that no trouble or labour is spared 
in these matters and whatever else you have further ordered, as 
we hope the Hon. Cuneus has no doubt reported to you, for 
according to his commission we have laid everything open before 
him and received him with the respect due to him, so that he was 
able to make a thorough investigation. In the meanwhile we 
expect your further orders regarding the employment of the 
yachts Haswlt and Mnria, expected here from Guinea in May 
next 

Some of the hop plants received by the Wapen van Holland were 
still alive, and are being treated according to the instructions that 
accompanied them. The success we hope to communicate after 
this. The beehives and whatever else you have been pleased to 
enjoin on us, we shall carefully attend to. 

From the annexed copies you will be able to see how their 
Honours at Batavia have decided (with which we agree) that for 
the present not too much work should be taken in hand, but that 
the Cape establishment should be kept as confined and within as 
small an area as possible. We have accordingly arranged affairs 
on those lines. Mr. Cuneus will give you a pertinent report on 
the whole establishment here. 



21 



We trust that the Lords Seventeen will furnish us with 
permanent instructions regarding the freemen, and whether, if, as 
is probable, they may raise more corn than they incur debt, 
they are to be paid out in money, of which much might be 
required and they are very anxious to obtain ; we would like to 
know whether in such cases we shall draw on you by assignment 
or otherwise. 

After the departure of the Arnhem and Honinnen the following 
two English ships arrived, viz. : the bantam, Captain Isaac Teerel 
and merchant Mr. Thomas Nieumau, from Batavia, iu company 
with the squadron under the lion. Cuneus, destined to Leghorn ; 
And the little vessel Thomas, Captain lliehard Aliioth, which left 
Plymouth on the I2th September last, of 50 lasts burden, destined 
to Coromandel. By her we have again mentioned to the 
governors and commanders of the Company's forts, officers, and 
ships, on those coasts and Ceylon, c., the bad state of the 
Portuguese, that it may be of service to the Company some- 
where 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

ROFLOFF DE MAN. 

List of annexure to the Seventeen in custody of the Hon. 
Cuneus. 

No. 8. Land chart of the Cape with its scale, forgotten in the 
small charts previously sent, through the negligence of the land 
surveyor. 

N. B. A copy of the above was also sent to Zealand Chamber. 



1658. 
18th March. 



To Coromandel, Ceylon, and further coasts of India. 

To the governors and commanders of the Company's forts, ieth March 
officers, and ships in or outside fleets in the said (territories) per 
the English ship, The Thomas, wherever the latter may first 
arrive. Copy of this letter also sent per the Schelcis da Mauritius. 

As the Thomas, which left Plymouth on the 12th November 
last, destined for the coast of Coromandel, arrived here, we deemed 
it a favourable opportunity, and in the interests of the Company, 
to send you the following extracts from the despatch of the 
Directors, received per Net Wapen van HoUandt : 

" The differences and unpleasantnesses that had arisen between 
the Crown of France and this State, mentioned in our previous 
letters, have since been settled, as is more fully shown in the 
Placcaat published by their Honours . In Portugal the affairs of 
that Crown do not seem to stand very well. The Spaniards have 
entered that kingdom with a large force and captured some towns, 
not without the probability that the whole kingdom (as is asserted) 



22 



1658. 
1 6th March 



i^ ag a result of the jealousy, distrust, and discord existing in it, in 
the en( ^ a g ft i n f &U under Spain. Add to this that the fleet of our State 
has also departed thither to demand satisfaction and compensation 
for the losses, insults, and injuries inflicted on us by that nation, 
and failing this to endeavour to obtain the same by force of arms. 
The result will be communicated to you in due course. Possibly 
these internal dissensions will give them so much to do, that 
they will forget the East Indies, or find themselves incapable 
of succouring them properly ; this would be a very desirable thing 
for the Company." 

(The above is a literal copy of the original) ....... 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 

EOELOFF DE MAN. 



Instructions for the officers of the yacht Schelvis, about to leave 
for Mauritius, in accordance with the orders of the Governor- 
General and Councillors of India. 

2iith March. Whereas their Honours, for reasons which have moved them, as 
mentioned in their letters, have decided to abandon the settlement 
at Mauritius and demolish the Company's fort there, we have 
accordingly despatched this yacht, the tichelvis, for that purpose 
without any delay. 

And as the Malacca has been delayed longer than was our 
intention, you shall, having been properly provisioned, and being now 
ready for departure, make use of the first favourable breeze for 
Mauritius, and having arrived there deliver the letters to the 
commander, that he may carry out the orders which they contain . . 

And whereas, according to instructions of the Hon. Cuncus, we 
have been ordered to send one of our yachts to Madagascar, in order 
to obtain slaves, rice, as well as to take off our men of the Tnlp and 
Arnhcm, who are still residing there among the French and the 
natives (should the Directors not send out contrary orders) ; and 
whereas a good vessel is required to enter the river of Calamboelo, 
at Madagascar, situated opposite the island St. Maria, in order to 
explore all the openings there, and transfer all the cargo of the 
yacht to the said island St. Maria, we would recommend you, as it 
would be evidently hazardous, when at Mauritius with the vessels, 
to proceed to Batavia, instead of burning them, to leave the 
best and the largest with all its belongings there, for should we 
decide on the aforesaid voyage to Madagascar, we might take 
these vessels with us on the return voyage from Mauritius and 
bring them hither. 

We also deliver to you a small note to the Governors of 
Coromandel, Ceylon, and other places, as addressed, as we have 



23 

understood from you that you have been ordered to proceed thither, 

should you find the voyage to Batavia too difficult. In our 2 5th March 

opinion our note to the Governor of Ceylon will be very welcome, 

as regards the Portuguese, whose bad condition that note mentions. 

You are therefore at once to deliver our letters to the Governor, 

or his substitute, and should you meet any of the Company's 

vessels, acquaint them with the contents of the note, given open to 

you, regarding the bad state of the Portuguese, that it may serve 

the best interests of the Company 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN E.IEBEECK. 
Annexures to preceding instructions. 



To St. Helena. 

To the Hon. Cuneus, &c., Commander of the return fleet, &c. 

Enclosed you will find a missive from the Directors, which we 3 1st Marrh. 
had nearly opened by mistake, but a copy of which was sent open 
to us, we found from it that their Honours ordered that the first 
fleet was not, as in former years, to await the last 
there, for reasons given. We accordingly despatched the 
Ulysses, which had arrived here on the 30th March, on the 
evening of the day following with this letter, after having been 
properly provided with water, that you might as soon as possible 
be made acquainted with the order and decide as the best interests 
of the Company might require. We have despatched the Ulysses 
thus hurriedly (in order to fulfil our bounden duty) for the 
reasons mentioned. 

Should the yacht Maria have arrived there, and you have found 
from the report of the officers that the Angola trade is so con- 
siderable, that it may be prosecuted hence with advantage to the 
Company, and that accordingly the cowries are in demand there, 
it would be our wish, if it could be done without neglect, that, in 
that case, the yacht be set aside somewhat for that trade. 

What poor success the land expedition under the Sergeant has 
had, you will be able to gather from the annexed notes. 

As you have ordered us by instruction, we have given him the 
rank and pay of ensign, provided that he relinquished his tap 
business, and permitted himself to be employed on all occasions 
when ordered to. This he has accepted with an agreement for 
three years, besides his two years which will only expire in 1661, 
therefore to 1664. Should you approve of this, we shall expect 
his appointment and confirmation of rank and pay with the yacht 
Maria. 



24 

He is named Jan van Herwaerden of Seventer ; he arrived here 

3 1st March, in the Salamander on the 10th August, 1653, as corporal at f!4 

per month. At present he is a sergeant at f 32, granted him last 

year by Commissioner van Goens, with a new three years' contract, 

as said above. 

Whether it will not be good that the Maria shall remain there 
until the departure of the last return ships, in order to bring us 
tidings of the fact for transmission to Batavia, we leave to your 
decision. . . . 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEJIEECK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN. 



To the Seventeen. 

Our last were dated 22nd Feb. and 18th March. . . . Ships 
arrivals. . . . Received yours of the 12th October, 1657. In 
reply we beg to say that on our part we intend to the best of our 
ability to display the proper diligence. With that object we have 
already obtained 166 slaves per the ship Am-ersfoort, whom the 
latter had taken out of a Portuguese prize between 12 and 13 
S. latitude, near the coast of Brazil coming from Angola and 
proceeding to the Bay de toto las Sanctos, more fully described 
in our annexed despatch to the Governor-General and Council. 
We hope soon to know what the Hasselt will bring us from Arder 
and the Maria from Angola, but the Amersfoort has provided us so 
well that what more we may receive we shall be able to forward to 
Batavia. And as soon as the slaves have been properly trained to 
their work, we intend to reduce the number of Company's 
servants here to 80, especially if everything, excepting the 
Company's gardens, is left to the freemen and private individuals. 
For reasons already previously communicated, we have deemed it 
best this year to continue agriculture for the Company, in order as 
soon as possible to advance so far in grain, that we may be able to 
subsist on our own produce, for which there is a chance next 
season, if with God's help we have a good harvest, so that we shall 
have to put up our brandy stills this season, as well as erect a 
building for them, and a bakery with good corn lofts, which will 
be urgently required for the crops expected this year, and if we 
only receive horses and asses everything will certainly be on a good 
footing before the end of our second term of engagement, so that 
as it will not be so difficult as to create it out of nothing, the work 
can be prosecuted by another. 

We shall also do our best to increase the number of our cattle 
that your object may also on this head be realized (see our 
previous letter). 



25 

The opinion of their Honours at Batavia regarding the slave 
trade at Arder, you have no doubt gathered from copies of their 31st March, 
despatches to us. And as we agree with them, we consider it 
best to despatch the Hasselt to Batavia immediately after her 
return hither, as the slave trade alone at Arder would be too 
expensive for the Company, but should you be able to obtain 
ivory and gold on the Guinea and Angola coasts, we may expect 
some profit from it for your Honours, as the gold would not be out 
of place at Coromandel, whither it could be sent direct from this ; 
bringing back thence the merchandise for Guinea. 

We trust the Maria, sent a second time to Angola to investigate 
further what slaves may be obtained on those coasts (whilst we 
were still waiting for the Hasselt and your further orders) will 
find something of importance. Her keep will only cost a quarter 
of the expense necessary for the Hasselt, but should the result 
of the voyage not be satisfactory, we shall send her also, accord- 
ing to your orders to Batavia to economize our expenditure 
here. The result of her voyage you will gather from the return 
fleet, as she has been ordered on her return to call at St. Helena, 
to bring us news of the squadron, and at the same time as many 
orange and apple trees, as well as horses and young pigs as she 
can catch and convey to us. 

Why tobacco planting has hitherto been delayed you will 
gather from the advices of Mr. van Goens, with which we fully 
agree. As it is necessary to keep the tobacco in reputation among 
the Hottentoos, the assortment will not cause such great obstruc- 
tion, as the planting of it here will be much more injurious to the 
Company, for in the beginning already it became evident that 
they (the Hottentoos) as a rule endeavoured to steal it from the 
fields, so that the less opportunity is afforded them to injure us, 
the more confidently we shall be able to live with them, which 
for the present is for many reasons most necessary. 

We also believe that agriculture will be more conveniently 
carried on by private individuals than the Company, but we have 
already mentioned why as yet we have not left it exclusively in 
the hands of the freemen. 

In order to be able to fix a well regulated measure and price for 
the grain, we have requested your orders, and now are awaiting 
your reply, that everything may be done as you wish it and 
without the least motive for fraud. Accordingly we also agree 
with you not to permit the freemen to barter cattle from the 
natives, as great frauds might be the result on the part of the 
skippers, who might bring up everything into their accounts, as if 
it had been bought from the freemen at double the price, and not 
from the natives. But as the Hon. van Goens has left the cattle 
and other trade with the natives free and open to the freemen, we 
have left things as they arc, until we receive your 



26 

1658. instructions in reply to our advices, or whether for the reasons 
3l8t March, advanced by his Honour, that trade should not be interfered with 
as yet. 

From the proofs already given us we do not doubt that you are 
convinced that we are endeavouring to carry on the establishment 
in the most economical manner possible and take care that nothing 
is palmed off on you at too dear a rate. This we hope to let 
appear more and more in course of time, as our chief object is 
the least expense and the greatest amount of profit to the Company, 
which latter has as yet not fallen to it, but on the contrary the 
expenditure has taken excessive dimensions, which often makes us 
sad, because we have the misfortune to serve you in a place which is 
at present such a great burden to you, so that a long time must 
elapse before any advantages can be secured. The latter have 
been our aim and we have laid the foundations for them, but only 
later on we shall be able to hit the mark through our successors 
(door ons navolgers eerst sal geschooten mogen werden). But as 
you appear, as we have often more and more observed, that you 
are prepared to suffer the expense without regret, we shall not 
refrain from continuing the work for your Honours in the same 
spirit, and, as already said, endeavour to execute everything with 
pleasure and zeal, according to your orders. 

And as we remain expecting your further orders in many matters, 
as well as those in the case of Herry, we have not begun the 
entrenchments, but have only built in the midst of the lands of 
the freemen for their protection a stone redoubt, named the 
" Coornhoop," 16 feet square, with its projecting breastwork flat at 
the top, which is garrisoned by the freemen. No more such need 
be made for the present, especially if we obtain the horses from 
you. Some of the latter might then be used for cavalry purposes 
by the same persons who have to protect the Company's cattle, so 
that the whole establishment here would be well protected for the 
next ten years, and others employed for the expeditions into the 
interior, exclusive of those required for agricultural purposes. Of 
all this, no doubt, the Hon. Cuneus on his arrival will give you 
further information. 

Herry, as well as the Hottentoo Doman, now called Antony 
(who had been to Batavia with the Hon. van Goens and returned 
hither under the care of the Hon. Cuneus) often proposes to us to 
seize, in conjunction with them and the Caapmen, the cattle of the 
Chariugurinars or Chariguriquas, the arcli (olijcke) rogues and the 
principal tribe of the black captain, who in 1656 surprised the 
Robbejacht'* boat in Saldanha Bay and intended to kill the men, 
after they had taken from it all the copper and tobacco it 
contained. 

Also the Chorachouquas who last year had stolen the freemen's 
tobacco from the barrels, and as a rule cause our people no end of 



trouble. Both tribes are very rich in cattle, but refuse to sell any 

to the Company, except the lean, old, or sickly. 31gt March. 

The chances are all in our favour, as Herry and the Caapmen 
seem to assure us that the real Saldanhars will not care about 
it, or be frightened from us. This we are the more inclined 
to believe, because the aforesaid hordes are always at war with 
with the real Saldanhars, and keep the latter away from this side 
of the Great Berg Eiver. The course of the latter between the 
high mountain ranges of the Continent of Africa has been dis- 
covered by and revealed to our men, so that we might travel much 
beyond, if we only had asses to carry provisions and merchandise. 
But this we had to leave in abeyance as during the last trip we 
lost two men, who died from sickness and discomfort, whilst 
another was so badly bitten in the arm, that all the days of his 
life he will never recover the use of it. 

From the statements of our people, the latter had been informed 
by the natives that because of the number of these wild animals 
the real Saldanhars did not dare to come down to us, as they had 
to keep watch for ten or twelve night, in order not to be injured 
by these beasts of prey. To come hither with all their cattle, the 
pasturage here would be too little and small, so that they believed 
that a trading station should be established at the discovered 
passage which all had to pass. This we considered very good and 
most expedient in order to obtain an abundance of cattle. But 
in this case we would require night rests, at least six, as well as 
cattle kraals, where our people and the cattle might be safe during 
the night from wild animals. For travelling to and fro 30 good 
horsemen and soldiers would be required, half on the trade station 
and the other half to take charge of the bartered cattle, to bring 
the latter from time to time to the Fort. This in our opinion 
would be better than redoubts or entrenchments, whilst everything 
would be (sufficiently protected. But we shall not take any steps 
in this direction before receipt of your further orders, as in that 
case the garrison could not be reduced to less than 100 men. 

We have had a long conversation with the Hon. Cuneus 
regarding the cavalry, and he will be able to inform you verbally 
of everything, that you may be able to send us such instructions 
as you may deem fit. 

This goes with the Ulyxscs arrived yesterday and despatched 
to-day to St. Helena to find the return squadron, with your orders 
received per the Sprcemr from Zealand 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEBEECK. 
EOELOFF DE MAN. 

P.S. Ships' arrivals. With the Amsterdam and Zealand ships loth April, 
which have arrved since closing the above (per Wapen van Amsterdam, 



28 

1658. c)., we have sent to Batavia 40 slaves (see our despatch to 
th "April Batavia). 

The Sergeant Jan van Har warden here, will through his friends 
in the Fatherland approach you through the Chamber Amsterdam, 
with some persons who are thoroughly versed in agriculture and 
its dependencies. Should they come he pleased to accept them in 
the quality of soldier or adelborst, because they would have to 
bind themselves as such for five years, and not as the sailors for 
three. It is very necessary that the contract here should be for a 
long term, as we have arranged matters in such a way that should 
they come here they may be encouraged to become freemen. 

He also requests you to send out to him his son, and his wife 
(who is here) her daughter still at home, as she has been half 
promised to an industrious free farmer (Vryenboer) and brick- 
maker. Regarding the son, however, be pleased to act as you 
deem proper, as well as the rest, as we submit to your ruling in the 
matter. 

Whereas the commanders of the return fleets arriving home 
annually are generally ordinary or extraordinary Councillors of 
India, it was very welcome to us that you decided to have them 
furnished at Batavia with commissions for properly inspecting 
affairs here, for their just reports will not only tend to your 
greater peace of mind, but also to our own by removing from us 
much blame which has been cast on us in every direction by 
malicious tongues. Hence even before the arrival of this year's 
return fleet, we intended to make known the state of affairs 
here to the Commander, should he be a Councillor of India and 
request him to inspect everything, as those of the Arnhem and 
Honingen will be able to tell you. It was therefore much more 
welcome to us that the Hon. Cuneus did so, by virtue of his 
commission, and that this will be continued annually, so that 
you may be set at ease on many matters, and be thoroughly 
informed of all our doings, as many are dissatisfied because 
everything is not dished up before them as their own whims 
dictate, without considering whether it costs the Company any 
money, not at all studying the Company's interests, but only 
their own private convenience and advantage, merely thinking 
having is having, without asking where it is to come from, or 
how it inconveniences the Company, whether highly or not 
highly necessary, &c. 

It has also appeared to us that you as well as the Governor- 
Greneral and Council at Batavia have generally been told that 
ships leaving Batavia later than the first or middle of December 
can only with difficulty enter Table Bay. 

To this we reply in virtue of our six years' experience : 
If it be not the Company's object to have their first return 
ships early at home, but that they shall, according to previous 



29 

orders lie here waiting for the second squadron, and that it is of l658 - 
the greatest importance that both shall call at the (Jape ioth~Aprii 

That their departure from Batavia earlier than the end of 
December or the first of January, in spite of the aforesaid 
reports and remonstrations are the real impediments to reach 
this Bay, for during the summer months December to February 
the south-easter blows so strongly out of the Bay, that it is 
hardly possible during that period to find two or three days in 
which to reach the harbour. About the commencement of March 
this south-easter gradually subsides and the finest weather in the 
world is enjoyed, so that it is incontrovertible that from the 
middle of March to November inclusive the Bay can be easily 
entered, so that the return ships arriving here in March or 
April will encounter the best weather and season, but arriving in 
February they would fare as above mentioned. And supposing 
that the first return ships arrived here in such good time that they 
could leave on the last day of March or first of April they would 
have fully four months for the voyage home via St. Helena 
and arrive about the end of July or first August, the best period 
of summer. 

But should it be the object of the Company to have the first 
ships sooner at home, without considering whether they shall 
refresh at the Cape or not ; and it is feared that by leaving later they 
will not be able to get out of the Straits of Sunda, an earlier 
departure -would consequently be necessary ; but otherwise, in 
order not to run past the Cape, the end of December or the first 
of January would be rather too early than too late, for whatever 
arrives here between the middle of March and the end of April 
meets with the finest weather of the whole year, but when arriving 
from Batavia in May on these east coasts, the north-west winds 
will be blowing rather hard, but having weathered the point and 
reached west and north of the Cape, they will be able to sail into 
the Bay before the wind. 

We annex two small charts, one for Amsterdam and one for 
Zealand, hurriedly drawn, showing the last journey made inland, 
and the spots marked with letters where it is proposed to establish 

trading stations 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BJKBEECK. 

EOELOFF DE MAN. 



To Amsterdam. 

As the Sergeant Jan van Harwarden, who is Superintendent of 9th April. 
Agriculture and other works here, besides performing his military 
duties, thus doing good service to the Company, wishes his wife's 
daughter, Petronelle Does, and his son, Hondrik van Harwarden, 
to be sent out, and has also requested his father to send out to him. 



30 



1658. 
9th April. 



some farmers who have a good knowledge of agriculture in order 
to he employed here to the best advantage of the Company, he has 
requested us to write, in his favour, and ask your assistance in the 
matter. This we have promised to do, but the agriculturists 

should be engaged as soldiers or adelborsten He has also 

drawn on you for flOO, which will be debited against him here. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 



To the Seventeen. 

nth April. The Establishment at the Cape shall henceforth be conducted as 
follows, viz : with 



Netherland wage earners and Company's Servants. 


Convicts. 


Slaves. 


I'Vinulf 
Do. 


3, One Commander, his servant and 








cook 




1 


1 


1 junior merchant 








1 sick comforter 






1 


1 Fiscal and Sheriff . . 








2 Assistants . . 








2, a butler and cooper 








1 Landsurveyor and Cartographer . . 








1 Provost 








1 Trumpeter 








2 millers and grooms 




1 


1 


1 gunner and quartermaster for the 








vessels, and to superintend the 








equipage 








3 wagon and plough makers (for the 








present) 








3 smiths (for the present) 




1 




5 carpenters 








5 masons and hodmen 




3 


3 


2 senior and junior barbers (surgeons) 








1 cook for the common persons, &c. . . 




1 


1 


7, Master gardener and garden ser- 




12 


12 


vants with 3 wood wagons 


4 


2 




2 at the Company's orchard 








2 on Robben Island 


1 






4 in the forest for gardening and 








cooking 




1 




2 at the Company's corn fields with ] 




1 




ono slave to act as attendant on > 




JL 




the sick and mind the poultry ) 









Netherlands wage earners and Company's Servants. Convicts 



Military. 

1 sergeant, being at the same time 

superintendent of agriculture and 
all other works . . 

2 corporals 
1 drummer 

26 soldiers for the guard and pro- 
tection of the forts, redoubts and 
Company's castle 

For fishing, and for all dirty, use- 
less and scullery work (morswerk) 

Threshing, picking, digging, and 
gathering of ears, and other work 
in corn cultivation, &c. 



82 
5 

38 
37 



162 all told. 



Slaves. 



38 



1658. 
Female 

Do - llth April. 



37 



With this number the Establishment here can be carried on 
whilst at all times every effort is made to reduce expenditure, and 
we intend to sell to the freemen the rest of the slaves, about 40 
in number including the sick. 

In the Fort Good Hope, the llth April, 1658. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annexures addressed to the Seventeen enclosed in letters 
to the Hon. Cuneus and sent to him at St. Helena. 

No. 3 of List sent by the Princess Royael Chart of the Land 
Journey. 

No. 5 of List sent by the Het Hoff van Zeelant Chart of the 
Land Journey. 



To Batavia. 

Our last was dated 16th March last . . . The Hon. Johan 
Cuneus having inspected this residency, left in the night of 18th 1 9th 



6th April. 



32 

1658. March in Hct Wapcn van Hollant. . . . According to your orders 
fith April. * ne y acn t Schelvis sailed for Mauritius on the 26th following in 
order to carry out your instructions there. She might have left 
sooner, had she not to await the arrival of a ship from home, from 
which to obtain supplies, as all her provisions had been transferred 
to the Arnhcm and Honingen, leaving her thus without any. She 
therefore could not leave before the arrival of the Het Wapen van 
Hollant on the 4th March. 

. . . Ships arrivals. The Amersfoort captured near the coast of 
Brazil between 12 and 13 degrees S. Lat. a Portuguese slave 
vessel (neger prys) coming from Angola and bound to the bay 
Toto los Sanotos, with over 500 slaves, 250 of whom she took on 
her own board, of which number she brought 175 alive to the Cape. 
The best had died. Of the survivors (many of whom are still 
dying daily) most are girls and boys, from whom just yet very 
little service will be obtainable, but in 3 or 4 years time they will 
be very fit. In May we hope to know what kind we shall obtain 
from Guinea and Angola by the yachts Hassc-lt and Maria. 

We would not have requisitioned this year for more rice from 
India, if we had not been compelled to supply the Arnhem and 
Honingen with 8 lasts each from what we had received in the 
Schelvis, as well as with a last each of beans and cadjangh. We 
also supplied the return ship Pat-el with a last of rice, so that 
altogether we parted with 19 lasts, independent of other provisions. 
We are accordingly very scantily supplied, which was not im- 
proved by the arrival of the Amersfoort with her number of slaves 
independent of what we may still expect with the Hanselt and Maria 
from Guinea and Angola, besides the provisions which these two 
vessels will require for their further voyages to the Coast or 
Batavia, being manned with at least 90 persons. You will there- 
fore comprehend that we require at least an additional quantity of 
40 or 50 lasts of rice, after which we hope, with God in the van, 
to be able to leave off requisitioning and instead export corn from 
the Cape to Batavia, on which may God be pleased to grant his 
blessings. Everything depends on that. 

. . . From the skippers of Het Wapen van Amsterdam, &c., you 
will have heard how the first squadron under Commander Crab 
had been well refreshed at St. Helena where more than 600 pigs 
had been obtained, but the ship Lowjse of the last fleet, when she 
called there, found all caught, so that she fared badly, and could 
secure nothing. Arrangements should therefore be made that the 
late squadrons obtain their refreshments here, as we always have 
enough on hand. 

Henceforth we shall require no more convicts from Batavia, as 
we are now sufficiently provided with slaves, and. after all, the 
convicts find means to stow themselves away on board the return 
ships, however narrowly they are watched. This was evident this 



33 

year especially, when mostly all disappeared. We shall for the 16 - 5S 
present keep back our requisition for rice until we know what gth Apri 1 . 
success the Hassett and Maria have had on the Guinea Coast and 
at Angola, as we do not wish to ask what is unnecessary 

With Het Wapen van Amsterdam, &c., we have despatched to 
Batavia 40 healthy and well refreshed Angola slaves, male and 
female ; so that 25 remain here, many of whom are sick and dying 
off daily. 

We also annex copy of our last, which is lying ready to be 

despatched to the Masters with the Hon. Quaelbergen, 

who with his three vessels The Princess Royael, Hoff van Zeelant 
and Enckhmjsen is ready for departure home via St. Helena. 
May the Almighty guide him, as well as the return ships. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annex ures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

Our last was dated the 6th instant Ships' arrivals 22ud April. 

In your letter of the 17th December last we read your further 
orders to despatch a small outward bound vessel arriving here, 
to the South Land, in order once more to search for the miserable 
survivors of the wrecked ship Draeck, as well as the money chests. 
We also noticed your warning that the best time for the purpose 
would be during the months January to March, as it has been 
found that at any other time, on account of the strong winds, 
that coast cannot be approached. 

In reply to this we have to submit that we shall bear it in 
mind, in order if possible, to carry out your order, but from the 
letters of the Directors it appears that the spring vessels will be 
too heavy for the purpose. What vessels may be despatched 
during autumn we shall very likely know from the spring vessels. 
A small vessel may arrive with the autumn ships about the end 
of November or beginning of December. She might then be 
engaged for the purpose, otherwise there will be no opportunity 
hence to reach those shores in the months mentioned, unless the 
Maria expected here in May from Angola may be detained for 
the purpose, when we shall be able to decide whether she shall 
be sent on at once to Batavia. But the result of her voyage 
will enable us to decide. She will also be able to inform us 
when the first and last return ships have left St. Helena, as 
she has been ordered on her return from Angola to call at that 
island en passant, that you may be informed by first opportunity. 

D 



34 

1658. With the flute Elburgh we send you, according to orders 

ril received, two young ostriches. We had more, but they died. 
We shall do our best to supply you with others as we find the 
opportunity. We also send you, as we have done often previously, 
as many garden seeds as we have over. In order to keep India 
in abundance we shall do our best to rear seed, as it has now 
been found that the (Jape seeds thrive better in India than the 
Dutch. 

The tent shipped in the EUmryh for the Cape could not be found 
in her. We therefore request that if it be found in any of the 

other vessels, it may be sent back to us In our 

previous letter we mentioned that we required no more convicts 
from Batavia, as we were sufficiently provided with slaves, but it 
was to be understood (that we meant) those of Netherland or 
European race, because the latter manage to stow themselves away 
in the return ships, in which they always find some acquaintances 
who are sufficiently able to keep them in the background. 

Your Honours may ask why we do not confine them on Robben 
Island according to their sentences. But by doing so we would 
do no service but a disservice to the Company as regards the 
sheep, which have to be cared for by trusted servants, that the 
increase be not hindered, but as much as possible advanced. And 
as, as already mentioned, we are well provided with slaves, and 
the convicts ('t gebannen volckjen) can only be governed with 
strictness and kept to work by force, we have, profornid, released 
(gerelegeert) the black or Indian convicts sent us by you, and 
permitted them to earn a living by Indian cultivation of sweet 
potatoes and other necessary fruits for their food, as well as by 
fishing, with this restriction, that whatever they may plant beyond 
what they may require, and whatever fish they may catch, they 
shall sell to the Company at a fair (civiele) price, without being 
permitted to sell anything to any private individual, that they 
may be no burden to the Company, and at the same time afford 
as much profit to the latter as possible (om haer alsoo uijt Comp" 
cost op uijt te sien, ende noch soo veel vruchte van te trecquen als 
moge 1 zyn), according to their sentences banishing them here for 
life. Should you agree to this, and many more of the black 
nation be sent to us in this manner, the more they will have a 
knowledge of Indian culture and fisheries the better. 

We also beg to be supplied with a model of a " sery " (as they 
are in Amboina), as we understand that many fish are caught 
by it, and according to the statements of some people there is a 
fine opening for it. 

The yacht Schelvis we provided, when she left on the 26th 
March, with last of Cape salt, for salting down the cattle at 
Mauritius about 100 in number. We thought we would 



35 

mention it, that on her arrival at Batavia this may be borne in 

mind, as many casks of meat may be saved in consequence. 22nd~April 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

Annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

With our letter of the 22nd last we also sent you a good I2tl> 
quantity of garden seeds. With the Dordrecht, which arrived 
here on the 28th following, we now send you eight tubs, in each 
of which are two carnation plants (named "Morljoens") and two 
rosemary bushes, sixteen of each as an ornament for your garden. 
Whatever Fatherland delicacies and other pretty things may grow 
here from time to time we shall not neglect to send you. 

We would like to know whether the seeds or plants of the 
artichokes thrive best in India, that we may regulate ourselves 
accordingly. 

We hope to send you now, as we did to the Masters, according 
to the orders of the Hon. van Goens, further and improved charts 
of this Cape, as since we have sent expeditions further inland we 
have been enabled to mark all mountains, hills, valleys, &c., 
discovered by our people. A copy of this small chart sent to the 
Masters we now send you, so that we are not aware that we have 
omitted to send you anything for your complete information. 

We send you by this vessel, the Dordrecht, 30 Angola slaves, so 
that altogether we have sent you 70 young and healthy folk. 
The rest are mostly old and sickly, some of them daily dying off . 
The yacht Hassclt arrived here on the 6th instant with 228 strong 
healthy Guinea slaves, bought at Popo. As there were 3 or 4 
ships at Arder buying slaves, she did not go there, so that in 10 
weeks' time she obtained 271 slaves at Popo, 43 of whom had 
died before her arrival here. The average cost per head, according 
to the account submitted by the junior merchant, Van de Venne, 
was between 53 and 54 guilders. To this should be added the 
calculation that in case the " bougys " or " couries," and other 
Indian clothing given the vessel, had been invoiced at the Indian 
valuation, or had coine from India, each slave would not have cost 
more than five reals, for the Guinea linen had according to the 
Fatherland price been invoiced at 27 guilders per piece, which on 
the Coast does not cost more than 6 guilders. The same may be 
said of the " bougy " and other most important merchandize, . . . 

We could not refrain from mentioning this, that you might 
consider whether the slave trade (as slaves are much needed in 
India) was worthy of being continued. Were you to see them, 
you would be convinced that they would not be unsaleable, as they 

D 2 * 



36 

are strong, big, and smart persons, best obtainable for " bougys," 
i2th~Mav. Guinea and other coarse white cloth ; but according to the officers 
of the Haxxdt it wouLl be difficult to obtain a single slave without 
" bougys," even if we had all other kinds of merchandize, as the 
latter have to be value-marked by the former, which "bougys" 
(being Cauris de Maldiva or others) are cheap in India, so that 
with them we would have the advantage above all slave traders in 
Guinea. It is therefore our opinion that the slave trade should 
(not) be abandoned, for the cost of provisioning a vessel for eight 
months, and wages of the crew during that period might some- 
times be covered with a prize captured before Angola, as now 
happened in the case of two small Portuguese vessels captured near 
Cabo Loop, which were sent up from the said Cape, but never 
appeared here, the men most likely having been tempted to cany 
them off, we do not know whither. We are therefore of opinion 
that the slave trade carried on with a well assorted cargo according 
to Indian valuation (cost price), and not that of the Batavia 
market, as in the case of what we received in the Schrfcix, would 
be conducted very cheaply, and all slave traders be outwitted, if 
the equipage be not too heavy or the voyage too long ; or the 
venture might also be made good (generally probable) with u 
prize. All this and more having been considered by us, especially 
the fact that the cargo received by the Schelvis had been calculated 
at Batavia market rates, and would accordingly double the price to be 
paid for each slave, and also because we were not provided with 
"bougys" (the principal bride round whom they dance yonder), 
we decided for the present to discontinue the trade and have the 
yacht Ilawdt prepared for her voyage to Batavia and send you 
with her about 150 strong Guinea and Angola slaves. For that 
purpose they arc provided daily with refreshments only, so that 
being healthy and without scurvy, they may arrive in good 
condition, which God grant ! 

We shall within a few days be able to know what success the 
Maria and Roblcjachtjcn have had on the Angola coast. Should 
the trade be successful, it might be carried on more cheaply, as the 
place is near us, and two voyages could be made thither against 
one to Guinea. 

We intended to send you by this vessel, the Dordrecht, about 
twenty of the sick left, here by the last vessels (who have been 
restored to health) , but as the officers complained that they had too 
many men already and would, moreover, be greatly incommoded 
by the aforesaid thirty slaves, we did not press the subject, but 
intend to send them by the Hassctt with all the sick left here by 
the Dordrecht who may have recovered. The Jlcttsetf will accord- 
ingly be finely helped, as her men, put on board the prizes at 
" Cabo Loop," are all gone. After the departure of the If a we If, 
we hope with the remaining sick and the rest to retain no more 



than ninety wage earners here, and henceforth get along with 165S - 
eighty healthy men (as ordered) and the slaves. But it should be i2th~Mav 
remembered that as a rule we are generally burdened with ten or 
twenty sick, and that, especially this year, we are very soberly 
provided with provisions in consequence of the arrival of all these 
slaves, especially those in the Angola prizes brought hither 
unexpectedly by the Amerafoort, whom we intend to employ in 
planting, the freemen having hitherto not brought in a single 
grain of wheat, as many of them through want of rice, &c., had to 
eat it unground and boiled. The rest they had to sow, but in this 
many of them also fall short, so that they as well as other newly 
freed agriculturists will have to be provided with seed by the 
Company, of which there is sufficient in the depot. Of the wheat 
sent from home the most was spoilt, and not so much was left to 
enable us with our other stores to carry on for more than five 
months longer. We therefore again ask you for fifty or sixty lasts 
of rice ; but will not ask for any clothing, until the arrival of the 
Maria from Angola, that we may know what may further be 
required for that trade and what not, so that we may embody the 
whole in one general requisition. The rice, however, we urgently 
need, and should be sent some months before, rather than after the 
departure of the return fleet. 

Annexed, as usual, is the continuation of our journal, in which 
we have inserted all our Resolutions. In that adopted on the 8th 
instant, you will see our decision regarding the discontinuance of 
the (slave) trade and the departure of the Hasselt to Batavia. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN KIEBHECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

Annexures to preceding despatch. 

No. 5. Chart showing the last journey's route inland. 



To Batavia. 

According to our letter of the 12th instant, we now send you in 22nd May 
this yacht, the Hasselt, 102 slaves. ... as well as the accounts of 
the slave trade submitted by the junior merchant, Adriaen van de 
Venne, and of some prize goods landed here, and kept until the 
return of the Maria, that her officers may inform us, which of the 
same (goods) finds a ready market on the coast of Angola, and we 
may consult with them about the continuance or discontinuance 
of the trade. 

According to present appearances, a trade in cattle might be 
opened there, of which we may know more in time. Its probability 



38 

1658. y 0n w iU rea) j i n the continuation of our annexed Journals, which 
22ncTMay we i n tend to send you henceforth in small portions to make the 
reading easier for you, we having hitherto always sent you 
annually the Journals for one whole year together. 

The ship's money given by the Directors to the Hasselt on her 
departure, to be used in case refreshments had to be bought, was 
paid into the Treasury here on her arrival, but restored to her on 
her departure for Guinea. She will retain it for her voyage to 
Batavia, as she may require it in the Straits of Sunda. 

We intended to send you 140 or 150 slaves by this yacht 
(Hasxelt), but as many have since died and the freemen and others 
have bought more than 80 for their service, only 102 were left, 
who, we hope, will arrive in good health, as the skipper has ere 
this conveyed slaves, and taken good care of them. About 107 
have remained here for the Company, among them about 60 
sick, as well as all the old, crippled, lame and lying-in women 
(kraam vrouwen), of whom some are still dying daily, so that we 
fear that not more than 50 or 60 will remain alive for the 
Company besides a good number which may probably still 
recover, and, if sufficiently strong, will be sent on by the next 
ships. 

As regards the nature of the slaves, it seems that the Guinea 
ones are certainly the biggest and strongest, but those from 
Angola stand this cold climate better, as the Gruinea ones are more 
and more falling in, whilst those from Angola on the other hand 
are coming on well and have, excepting 27, all been discharged 
(? from the hospital). The rest are all of the Guinea nations, of 
whom about two-thirds are ill, for at this time of the year, 
arriving here at the change of the warm season into the cold one, 
and in wet weather, which to our own people is very unhealthy, 
most of whom have annually to suffer in consequence (een stoot 
moeten afstaen), during the months of May and June, the one 
year more severely than another, though never any of them died 
it is no wonder that the slaves are attacked in the same way, who 
are only accustomed to great heat. We shall accordingly do our 
best to restore them to good health, and send to Batavia all above 
the number not required by us. 

.Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

13th June. The yacht Maria returned on the 29th May last from the 
Angola coast via St. Helena with the enclosed letters from the 
Hon. Cuneus, who with his six return ships and the Anthem 



39 

had left that Island on the 1st of the same month. The Honingen, 16<58 - 
however, parted from the Arnhem three days after leaving this i3th~Jun 
bay, and intended to sail direct for home without calling at St. 
Helena. 

The Angola voyage has been so barren of results, that we did 
not deem it worth while resuming, so that we decided to send the 
said yacht to Batavia after she had made a trip to Saldanha Bay 
and the neighbouring islands for a large quantity of seals' meat, 
fish, and birds for the slaves who are very fond of this food, 
which will naturally enable us to economize our supplies. We 
used to employ the Robbejachtje for the purpose, but, Grod better 
it ! she parted from the Maria off the Angola coast, and as the 
skipper thinks, must have been lost with her crew of six men on a 
certain reef under the tropic, extending about six or eight miles 
into the sea, with a breadth of from ten to twelve miles. Her loss 
made us consider whether we should not keep the Maria here 
instead, at least until December, when according to your orders we 
would despatch her to the South-land to search for the crew of the 
Draak, but we finally decided that as she could in two or three 
weeks time at the furthest, fetch us as much seals' flesh, fish and 
birds as would serve the slaves for four or five months, and after that 
we might get along with what the boats of the Company and the 
freemen might be able to bring on ; which boats might also be 
employed to sail to and fro between this and Kobben Island with 
sheep that it would not be necessary to keep her here until 
December, as her expenses would not warrant this step. 

Nor would it be necessary to send her to Madagascar (the 
masters not deeming it so, which might otherwise be done), for 
merely 50 or 60 lasts of rice, as we are well provided with slaves 
and we are expecting a good supply of rice from you either in this 
yacht or another selected by you for the purpose, which might 
arrive here in good time in December, in order, during that favour- 
able time of the year to visit the South-land. Moreover, you will 
now already know from the result of the mission thither of the 
galiots Wakende Boei and Ginloort, despatched by you on the 1st 
January last, whether another will be necessary, so that it might 
be useless to detain the Maria here for the purpose, whilst on the 
other hand, the Maria being sent to Batavia might return to us in 
time with a cargo of rice, as we had to denude ourselves almost 
completely of it in order to supply the Arnhem and Honingen, as 
well as the slaves captured by the Amersfoort and brought hither, 
so that the freemen for want of it, were obliged to fall back on 
their own grain, and we were obliged once more to supply them with 
seed corn. 

We also thought of sending the Maria to " Patria " with the 
merchandise sent us by you in the Scheims for Angola and Guinea, 
and now left on our hands in consequence of the discontinuance of 



40 

1658. the slave trade there. Your orders were that it was to be 
1 sthTune. distributed among the return ships, but as both the Ilawclt and Maria 
only arrived after the departure of the fleet, we could not do so ; 
nor did we think it desirable once more to despatch these vessels 
to Angola and Guinea, considering the heavy expense of the 
voyage, for slaves alone, besides the fact that the chief articles of 
trade were wanting, viz. : " Bougys " or otherwise named 
" Caurys " see Resolutions on this subject. 

Should you, however, consider it worth while to send for another 
yachtful of slaves from Guinea, we shall require from Batavia 
only Oaurijs or Bougys. But if not, we expect you to inform us 
what we are to do with the beads and other Fatherland wares, 
as they cannot be used here, except some of the clothing received 
with the Schelvis, so that besides the rice \ve only require from 
you some negros cloth for the slaves, as well as some plants 
mentioned in a separate petition hereunto annexed. For the 
rest we shall be able to get along this year. The articles 
brought back by the Hassdt from Guinea you will find in 
the annexed statement of the junior merchant van de Venne. 
A portion of it we did not consider advisable to send you before 
having received your instructions, whether to send it home or to 
you ; and should you decide that another yachtful of slaves should 
be obtained you must send us a large quantity of Caurijs or Bougy?, 
that the yacht need not make two voyages. We therefore 
expect your further orders, which will be promptly obeyed. . . 

This leaves with the flute Geelmuyen, which left the Vlie on the 
14th December last, with 79 men, one of whom died. The rest 
arrived in excellent health. She had spent a full month at 
Teneriffe repairing her mast which had been broken in the 

Spanish Sea 

(Signed 1 ! JOHA.N VAN RIEBEECK. 

RoELOFF DE MAN. 

Requisition from India for the Cape : 

Fifty or sixty lasts of rice, and some Japan paddy that we 
may find out whether it will thrive better in this cold 
climate, than that hitherto obtained, which we got to 
grow well, though it never produced anything more than 
empty husks containing not a single grain, as will be 
seen from the annexed sample cut this week. 

400 pieces negros cloth, or Bengal Fotas for the slaves. 

400 Japanned striped woolly cloth, made and obtained 
there at a trifling price, especially for clothing the slaves 
as well in this cold climate, as the masters have ordered 
us to obtain this clothing from Batavia for the slaves. 



41 

Plants and Seeds. 

Cattappa Tree bamboo. To be brought over in tubs or cases, 13th June - 
and kept away from the air. This has been found the 
best method. 

Sugar cane and indigo, in eases with earth, and also to bo 
kept from the air, as the Directors have ordered us to 
make a trial of them. 

Your Honours may be pleased to send us some young sweet 
and sour orange, apple and pumplemous trees in cases, 
to be kept free from the air. They will thrive here very 
well, as the orange trees from St. Helena are thriving 
here in fair abundance. Some planted from pips arc 
also thriving, but of a thousand planted hardly one 
grows, so . that the small trees brought hither will be 
better as they grow. 

Also some annas (? ananas) and whatever else you may deem 
possible to grow here. 

20 picols sugar in cases or casks, otherwise two-thirds melt 

away from the canassers. 
List of annextures to above despatch to India : 



To Batavia. 

Ships affairs. Arrival of the Prints Willem on the 17th with 28th June, 
the Chief Merchant Willem Bastincq, his wife and skipper Jacob 
van Enten ; had left on the 27th January with 472 men, of 
whom only 16 had died 

In our letter of the 24th May we mentioned that some trade 
in cattle might take place, as a certain great chief of the Ghainou- 
quas (real Saldanhars), named Chaihantim, had appeared at the 
Fort and boasted that we would not have copper enough for 
buying their cattle. The result, however, was that we only 
obtained four, so that little dependence can be placed on their 
loud talk. Generally they only visit us for presents, as will be 
gathered from our annexed journals. 

But it is possible that our object in this may be realised in 
another way, as will appear from the following brief narrative : 

On the 3rd June, for the first time, seven Angola male and 
female slaves of the Company absconded. Afterwards on the 
18th and 27th June, nine Guinea slaves belonging to the freemen 
cleared. Every effort to recapture them failed. The Hottentoos 
living in our neighbourhood (viz. : Herry, Caapmen, and 
Gorachouquas (tabacco thieves) refused to go out in search of them, 
notwithstanding all our promises of reward, though they knew 
how to bring to us at once our own or English deserters. 



42 

Moreover it has been observed by our people that the Hotten- 
28th June. too women have given the slaves roasted tortoises, roots, and rock- 
mussels, at the same time beckoning with their hands and pointing 
inland towards the Leopard Mountains, &c. All these indications 
make us suspect that they may possibly harbour them, and know 
some way with them. We accordingly carefully kept our eyes 
open, especially on Doman, who had been at Batavia, and the 
interpretess Eva, Kerry's niece or sister's daughter, about 17 or 18 
years old, and found that Doman Avas not faithml, but had always 
dissembled before us ; accordingly observing that there might be 
something behind, though on the one hand we did not profess to 
know anything, and at the same time did not wish to discard our 
suspicions, we finally took in hand Eva alone (she speaking 
Dutch well) and obtained so much from her, though she did not 
quite speak out, that she stated that she believed that it was so, and 
that the slaves were harboured by the Caapmen and Gorachouquas, and 
conveyed to Cochoqua, a certain other lordship named Hamanqua, 
living very far away, whom they rendered great service, being 
employed in cultivating a certain plant, called by them dacha, of 
which they become drunk or sleepy, and which is esteemed among 
them as more precious than gold among the Europeans. 

From all these circumstances, more fully detailed in our 
journals, it will appear that there is a screw loose somewhere, and 
the detention of the slaves among the Hottentoos may be true, 
and the more so, as Eva thought that if we were to arrest some of 
the principal Caapmen and Gorachouquas, they would soon enough 
let us have the slaves back again. 

Accordingly, with the advice of the Hon. Willem Bastincq 
(who was mostly present at these occurrences), we decided to 
seize for the present three of the principal Caapmeu and keep them 
as hostages until the slaves were restored ; viz., the two eldest 
and principal sons of the old Caapmen Chief, named Gogosoa, as 
well as another, their most respected (chief), named Oedasoa, an 
old sly customer. This was done on the 22nd June, when they 
were in the Fort with Herry and others, and without much com- 
motion. At the same time Doman pointed out one of Kerry's 
people, who should also be detained, which we did for good 
reasons. When they had been told why they were detained, they 
certainly did not wish to acknowledge that they were harbouring 
the slaves, but said that they would let their people do their best 
to recover the slaves. Accordingly, the next day, the three 
Guinea slaves returned home, plausibly (quansuys) of their 
own accord, and the Hottentoo prisoners even went so far as to 
offer cattle for their release, wishing us to state how much we 
required. They were, however, given to understand that we did 
not wish to have them or their cattle, but our slaves, who, if brought 
back, we were of opinion that the right time would soon come for 



43 

getting the Hottentoos under proper subjection with less cost 
than would be required for entrenchments and redoubts, and at 2 th 
the same time bringing them into such a condition for trade that 
we shall be able to provide ourselves with cattle from their increase, 
as we mentioned in our letters of the 22nd February last, addressed 
to the Directors ; for when the slaves have been returned, some 
of the principal men may be kept in detention until the 43 
head of cattle stolen by them five years ago have been restored, 
as well as payment made for the copper and tobacco annexed by 
Kerry. After that we shall be able in a gradual manner to dis- 
cover the murderer of the Dutch boy, whom we believe to be one 
of the prisoners and of Kerry's people. And should we be 
induced to pardon the guilty party, we expect we shall be able to 
arrange matters in such a way that some good will result, and be 
maintained by continually holding some of them in detention as 
hostages. On which may the Almighty grant his blessing and 
enable us so to deliberate as will promote the best interests of the 
Company and the public. Appearances give us reasonable hopes 
of success as they seem to be quite dazed by these procedures, and 
are prepared to grant us whatever we desire, so long as they may 
reside here in friendship, whilst Kerry and others, so to say, are 
walking their boots to pieces in order to inquire how we are dis- 
posed towards them. Of all this the Hon. Bastincq will be able 

to give you fuller information 

P.S. The above having been closed, two more slaves were 
brought to us by the Kottentoos from Caapmans' kraal?, for which 
they were abundantly entertained with copper, tobacco, brandy, 
bread, &c., to encourage them and keep them free from suspicion. 
Of this also the Hon. Bastincq has knowledge. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN R.IEBEECK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN. 



To Batavia. 

In our last (of the 28th July sent by the Prim Willem, and 4th July, 
entrusted to the Hon. Willem Bastincq) we mentioned the deser- 
tion of some slaves and the seizure of some of the principal Caap- 
men and other Hottentoos on presumption that they harboured 
the fugitives or sent them further inland, but as this vessel (Prins 
Willem) has been detained hitherto by adverse winds, the 
Hon. Bastincq was accordingly present at subsequent events, and 
assisted us in our deliberations, so that finally Kerry was also 
seized with all his cattle, which caused little or no commotion, 
though a Hottentoo was killed. But as this latter occurrence will 
be communicated to the natives far and wide over the country, 



44 

1658. an( j the resu lt may be a conspiracy among them against us, we 
4th July, decided under these extraordinary circumstances to strengthen 
ourselves here with 20 soldiers from this vessel, which, as she is 
ready to leave, prevents us from entering into further particulars. 
Mr. Bastincq, however, as well as our Journals, &c., will inform 
you of everything. . . . 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEKCK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

13th July. From our preceding despatches, journals, &c., especially from 
the Hon. Bastincq himself, you will have gathered the condition 
of this place, whilst the evening before Mr. Bastincq's departure 
we added a postscript mentioning that the principal chief and 
leaders of the Caapmen were expected the next day at the fort, in 
order to conclude a permanent alliance or peace with us, and end 
all previous misunderstandings. 

Appearing accordingly on the following morning, peace was 
concluded on the conditions mentioned in the Journal of the 8th 
July. Herry, however, and two other llottentoos, were kept in 
detention and placed for the present on Robben Island. The 
Caapmen and other Hottentoos would very much have liked it 
if we had killed him, though they could not be persuaded to do it 
themselves, saying that he had wronged us principally, and that 
therefore we might do with him as we thought proper and rather 
kill him than leave him alive, so that as all have a grudge against 
him, it seems that our action has pleased them wonderfully well, 
as they always show. 

Time will tell how they will fulfil the conditions regarding 
the supply of cattle, as if they carry them out it will be a most 
desirable thing, whilst we shall not neglect any available means 
to encourage them to do so, and now that Herry is away, offer 
peace to his people also, provided that they join the Caapmen, 
that we may only have to do with one people. This seems to 
please them well, for Q-ogosoa, the fat captain, chief of the Caap- 
men, and his son Osingh Kumma alias Schaeher (who is to succeed 
Gogosoa), believes that, now that [Jerry is away, they will be the 
most favoured of all the Hottentoos among the Hollanders. From 
this we hope that in time good results will follow, as we bear in 
mind that peace among them is more serviceable to us than war, 
whilst they, on their part, do not appear to be fond of hostilities, 
not being at ease, or desirous of departing from the fort before 
peace had ^esn established. This adds to our hope that they will 



45 

adhere to the terms of the agreement. For that purpose we 
would, according to our previous intentions, have detained 1 3th July, 
some of them as hostages, hut as they were so desirous of peace, 
and granted whatever we demanded, we deemed it best not to 
mention this, but to wait until by their non-compliance with the 
conditions they gave us cause and a fair right, &c. In the mean- 
while we are awaiting instructions from the Directors regarding 
the affair of Herry for our further guidance, as he has now been 
placed in the same position of richess as when we arrived here, 
and the Company is at present fairly provided with cattle for the 
Company's wagons and ploughs, &c., and for supplying the wants of 
the freemen to enable them to carry on their agricultural pursuits. 
The want of oxen often hampered them in their work. With the 
May ships we hope to inform you how matters have further pro- 
gressed, as we did not deem it expedient to delay the yacht (Maria) 
for the purpose, but to send her to you at once, that she, or another 
vessel, may be back here in time with a cargo of rice for the return 
fleet, and in accordance with your orders visit the South land in 
the proper season to search for the crew of the Dmack. . . . 

And whereas the orders of the Hon. Ryekloff van Groens could 
not be carried out through want of a suitable vessel, viz., to examine 
and explore more fully the coasts between this point and Cape 
Agulhas, with all their shallows, rocks, reefs, sands, depths, 
breadths and directions, and, in order to prevent mistakes, to let 
the mates check each other's work, we did not deem it necessar}' 
to keep the yacht here for the purpose, but by instructions have 
ordered the officers to carry out the Commissioner's intentions on 
their voyage to Batavia, and submit to you the result as well as 
the charts, which may be sent us by the return fleet, and attached 
to the Cape charts. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEBEECK. 

ROKLOFF DE MAN. 



Instructions for the Skipper Claes Francois Bordingh and other 
officers of the yacht Maria lying ready to leave for Batavia with 
the first favourable wind. 

As you are ready to leave, you shall seize the first opportunity 
for doing so ; and as in accordance with the Resolution of the 8th 
instant, adopted in your presence, it was decided that you should 
do your best to explore the coast from False Bay to Agulhas, in- 
cluding Rio dolce ; and as with your advice it was agreed that 
this might be done en passant, without the necessity of retaining a 
yacht specially for the purpose, you shall do your best to explore 
all depths, rivers, rocks, sands, and bays, as well as their breadth 
and direction and mouths. And that this should be done 



1658. 
13th Julj. 



by Tvater, the Hon. van Q-oens has expressly ordered ; also that the 
different mates should check each other's work, that errors may be 
reduced to a minimum, and that such corrected charts shall after- 
wards be annexed to those of the Cape. You shall therefore have 
to deliver to the Governor-General and Councillors of India at 
least duplicate sets of your drawings, and carry out the 
instruction that one shall check the work of the other. Perhaps 
when any of the lightest small vessels arrives here from home at 
the right time she shall en passant be sent thither to find out what 
shelter there may be there for ships which, sometimes leaving India 
late, pass the Cape. You shall therefore be pleased to take all 
this to heart and observe everything, that it may not be necessary 
for the Company to keep a yacht here for the purpose at heavy 
expense. And as you are further abundantly supplied with the 
instructions of the Masters for your further voyage to Batavia, we 
shall not amuse ourselves by totichiug on them, but in conclusion 
only wish you a happy, prosperous, safe voyage. 

(Signed) J. v. RIEBEKCK. 

List of annexures to the preceding despatch. 
No. 8. Journal of the Angola voyage. 
9. Charts of the Angola coasts. 



To Batavia. 

17th July. As the Maria is being detained by adverse winds, and in the 
meanwhile the Caapmen and Gorachouquas have retired far inland, 
though as some think, in order to return in large numbers and 
attempt something against us, we have notwithstanding (seeing 
that there are so few natives in the neighbourhood) placed on 
board eleven of the twenty men taken out of the Prins Willem, so 
that we have only kept nine, trusting that for the present they 
will be sufficient for our needs, even should anything occur, whilst 
we hope that some of the sick will also soon be recovered and add 
to our strength, so that all may leave this for Batavia by the first 
outward bound. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEBEECK. 

ROELOFF DK MAN. 



To Batavia. 

1st Aug. Since our last of the 13th and 17th July nothing of importance 
has happened, except that (as we feared) the Caapmen were 
wanting in supplying the ships with cattle, so that we may justly 
force them to do so, or by other means, either by detaining 



47 

hostages, or by other methods, which may in time be found more 1658 - 
expedient to compel them, but as they are coming to live nearer to lst ^ 
the fort, and are daily here, at present nothing more is put into 
their heads than that they shall enjoy the sacks of bread, pork, 
brandy and tobacco from the arriving ships, but that not one of 
them shall be allowed to board the vessels. 

As regards the Hottentoo Doman, he has, with as much as was 
in him, also deceived us, and acted the hypocrite, since he did not 
warn us that the promise, to supply us with cattle, would not be 
kept by the Caapmen, and though we expected nothing better, he 
is nevertheless not less vile and false, which is daily told him but 
with a laughing face, as well as that neither he nor any of the Oaap- 
nien will be permitted to go on board, or obtain any bags of bread 
there, so that their confidence might not be diminished and the 
Caapmen be again induced to trust us, that the Company may later 
on be enabled to bring them to better devotion. How we are looking 
about, and daily considering the best means to save our own and 
the freemen's cattle from the Hottentoos, our annexed Journal will 
show circumstantially. 

With this flute (Nieupoort] we send you the nine men detained 
here and landed from the Prins Wiflem (see preceding despatches) 
besides seven others restored to health, and two whom we have 
exchanged (the one a farmer (Boer) and the other a baker) in 
order to keep the number of wage earaers as small as possible. 
This flute will take nine more men from this than she had when 
she left home. She left five sick here, as the list will show. 

And as the flute (Nieupoort] as well as the Leerdam suddenly 
left Amsterdam with a favourable breeze, we only received a small 
note from the Amsterdam Chamber, dated 14th April last, 
mentioning that we would receive despatches from the Seventeen 
(at the time in session in that town) in which we would be fully 
informed of everything, and of their Honours' intentions regarding 
the plans of the Hon. van Groens and the further arrangements of 
affairs here. We expect them every hour, and as we have nothing 
more to say we break off. . . . 

(Signed) JO-HAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annextures to preceding despatch (per Nieupoort}. 



To Batavia. 

Since the departure of the Leerdam on the 21st instant, the H. 31st Aug. 
Louyse of Zealand arrived from Wielingen on the 5th 
May with 252 men. Three had died during the voyage, and 
many were suffering from scurvy, so that seventeen were left 



48 

behind here and were replaced with eight convalescents and others 
3iBt~Au<r. ^ P rev i us vessels, she therefore leaves this with 240 men (among 
them, besides the other officers that had come out, the skipper Grerrit 
Jansz, who was proceeding home in the Prins Willem last year, 
as junior mate under the Hon. Crab. Whilst here he had acted 
very maliciously, and shown himself very unwilling and obstinate, 
as he would not permit an audit of the ships' consumption books, 
or obey the orders of the Directors to send any of his men on 
shore for extraordinary services, except after much trouble and 
proud words spat out against and in presence of the Commander, 
as well as behind his back, to the latter's prejudice in his com- 
mand as well as that of the Council, yea ! in such a manner that 
it was shameful, so that he certainly deserved some correction, 
having opposed himself to the instructions of the Directors (copies 
of which have been forwarded to you) so much impressed on us, 
and confirming all the orders contained in the instructions of the 
Hon. van Goens, which amongst others require us to demand the 
accounts according to the forms given us by that Commissioner, to 
enable us to send them to you each time properly signed. All 
this having been communicated to the skipper in friendly terms, he 
haughtily replied that this had not been told him \>y the Lords in 
the Fatherland, and that he had had quite enough of the Com- 
mander (ende volgens dien den bruij van den Commandeur hadt). 
He would neither consent to render his accounts, nor send men on 
shore, saying that he would leave when he liked, or lie at anchor 
as long as he pleased ; that he neither acknowledged the Com- 
mander nor any one else as having been authorised to communicate 
anything to him, or demand anything from him. We might 
have proceeded against him here for all this disobedient and con- 
temptuous language (vilipendien) and conduct, but considering 
that we had no material here for making a change of skipper, and 
that we did not like to expose ourselves to the responsibility for 
what might occur during the further voyage, and might be ascribed 
to a change of skipper, we abandoned the idea, and deemed it better 
not to be considered as prosecutors, but to turn to you with the 
request that you may be pleased to issue such orders, or take such 
proceedings at Batavia (costij) that we may be maintained in 
carrying out the instructions of the Masters so highly enjoined on 
us, and for which we have received the authority, so that we may 
carry out what has been entrusted to us with less trouble and 
commotion. Hitherto no one has objected to our discharging our 
duty, save this aforesaid haughty skipper, who only three days 
after he had received the verbal and written order, sent us on 
shore 80 instead of 100 men for the purpose mentioned. Nor 
would he admit the Commissioners from the Fort to examine the 
consumption accounts, but contemptuously made them return with- 
out having gained their object, as will be seen from their annexed 



49 

report to the Commander. However, afterwards, he sent us an 
account formulated by himself, and later still the annexed account 
according to the form sent him on board. 

Should the account be correct, a mighty consumption of wine 
and brandy will be observed, nearly more than one half in excess 
of the ordinary allowance. We hope, however, for the Com- 
pany's sake, that when further examined by you the quantities 
will be found to have been less and more satisfatory, and that he 
has stuffed this account into our hands, in order (as he thought) to 
play the fool with us. This you will be able to discover. But as 
it has appeared on this roadstead that the said skipper had with 
some of the Cape freemen been considerably dissipating, and it is 
rumoured that it was not less the case during the voyage. But all 
this will no doubt come to light by further inquiry, our duty simply 
being to request that we may be supported in the simple discharge 
of our duty. 

Since our last letters with the Nieupoort and Leerdam, the deser- 
tion of the slaves had again commenced, as two of the Company 
and seventeen of the freemen ran away. The two of the Company 
and only two females of the freemen were recaptured with great 
trouble and after a long search. We accordingly decided, in order 
to prevent desertion in future, to clench all tlie Company's slaves 
in irons, excepting some old men, boys and women, and to notify 
this to the freemen all about, that they might do the same on 
request, in accordance with our resolution of the 28th instant, 
specially adopted for this purpose and inserted in our journal, which 
also mentions the fear of the Hottentoos of these slaves, which at 
least they pretend, and which seems to be true, as none of them 
dare to search for them thoroughly, saying that they are afraid 
of those big people. What the real facts are, is at present difficult 
to guess. Always, whenever they hear that slaves have absconded, 
they also run away, fearing that we will again detain them on that 
account. This at once causes a check in the trade, so that we have 
enough to do to allure them to us again with fair speeches, as they 
cannot be spared on account of the cattle which they bring, how 
little it may "be. It is always welcome for refreshing the ships, 
which cannot very well be satisfied with vegetables only, however 
much may be sent on board, and supplied for the further 

voyaffe 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

Annexed you will find a copy of the general despatch dated 16th 17th Sept. 
April, which will inform you of the opinion of the Seventeen on 

E 



50 

the suggestions of the lion, van Goens, regarding the catching of 
i7th~Sept. harts here. To enable us to make a trial we would again request 
you, as we did when we arrived here in 1652 (our letter being 
dated the 15th May) that besides some Chinamen or others 
experienced in the work, we might also be furnished with informa- 
tion regarding the manner in which it is done in Formosa and 
elsewhere, that is, in order to obtain large quantities and collect 
the skins, as they are seen here in thousands, but so shy and wild, 
that even with horses it is as possible to catch any as a bird in the 
air, so that as in other countries they can only be caught in a 
certain manner and by experienced hands, which we are without. 
We have accordingly decided to mention this matter, and ask you 
to assist us with ways and means from your parts, that we may be 
so fortunate as to set on foot during our presence here such a 
profitable business for the Company. The natives here do not 
seem to have any knowledge of these things, nor can they be 
encouraged to take them in hand, so that we must be assisted 
from the outside 

Praise be to God, the trade in cattle has been fine, so that 
evidently we shall have some refreshment on hand on the arrival 
of the return and other ships, besides an abundance of garden 
produce, as well as enough cattle for agriculture which is also 
beautifully developing. 

The twelve slaves that lately deserted have all been 
recaptured, besides two of the freemen and others, who have 
lost sixteen, and the Company seven Angola slaves, or a 
total of twenty-three men and women, of whose recapture 
there is little hope, a great loss indeed hence the other freemen 
have brought back most of their slaves to the Company, pre- 
ferring to do their work with Dutch servants. 

In consequence of the success of the cattle trade, and with the 
consequent prospect that we shall henceforth be able to get 
along with less Dutch meat and pork, we have decided to send 
you out of our store with the flute Hardt eight casks meat and 
four ditto pork, uninvoiced, as well as twelve half-aums of oil 
prepared by the freemen at Dassen Island from seals, and 
delivered to the Company at f8 per half-aum, which is cheap, 
and convenient. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEREECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

Lists of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

7th Nov. Since our last of the 17th September the cattle trade has 
progressed favourably, developing itself much better than we 
expected. At present the Company owns over 1,300 sheep and 



fully 400 head of cattle, whilst all the freemen are likewise 

well provided for their ploughs, &c. No agriculturist's home 7th~Nov 

which generally consists of from two to four persons, has less 

than 50 or 60 sheep and not less than 30 cattle, besides their 

milch cows, so that they also have been well served, ' and wheat 

cultivation does not promise less, thank God. As mentioned 

in our despatch to the 17, dated 23rd February last, we have 

through Eva, the interpretress, opened negotiations with one of 

the two greatest chiefs of the Cochoquas, the most powerful 

of all these tribes, which they keep in subjection. His chief 

wife is Eva's sister, and we have approached him with presents 

(see our journal of the 29th and 31st October, the 1st and 2nd 

November until the 7th, when we closed this, especially the 

whole of the month of September) though the interpreter 

Doman attempted to frustrate our good purpose and prejudice 

us against the Cochoquas, endeavouring to persuade us 

to conspire with the Caapmen and Gorachouquas and make 

war on them. Having missed their object, the latter do not at 

present know where to creep or to hide, being compelled to give 

the Cochoquas a wide berth, for they meant with our assistance to 

have secured a good booty. This Oedasoa himself explained to 

us through Eva, with the request that we should not interfere 

with anyone, but that if anyone did us any mischief we might 

offer resistance, without either himself or any other Saldanhars 

taking umbrage at it, as his only object was to trade and live in 

friendship with us, the more so as Eva, his wife's sister, had been 

educated and treated so well in the commander's house, &c., &c. 

See journal. 

So that, God be praised ! everything is more and more taking a 
good turn for the Company, for even these Cape Hottentoos, since 
they have had a taste of us, have not dared to cause the least 
annoyance to any of our people by robbing and despoiling them 
everywhere, as they very boldly used to do formerly, so that it 
had become high time to check them, lest they should commence 
to think that they would soon master us, but after long sufferance 
on our part, they have been taught differently, so that they are at 
present under beautiful devotion and awe. 

We send you now a half-aum of Cape beer brewed in September 
to see whether it will stand a sea voyage and arrive in good con- 
dition at Batavia. We shall be glad to hear the result, and 
whether it will be able to serve instead of mum, that we may 
know whether it will be worth while to establish a brewery. It 
will always ferment here, so that if we know that it will keep, we 
might permit a freeman to establish a brewery. 

Five similar half-aums have been deposited in a cellar, two of 
which we intend to send home to the Directors, to be tasted by 
them. The first outward bound arriving here will bring you 



52 

another, whilst we shall keep the remaining two, to be tasted by 
7th Nov. ^ e h n ' commander of the return fleet. Should it be found on 
all sides good and durable, there will be a chanoe, with God in the 
van, to provide India abundantly with it. (cF adviso). 

We also send you twelve young ostriches. Twenty-five or 
thirty have died, otherwise wo would have sent you more. We 
shall do our best to obtain as manj as are wanted ; hence we have 
offered rewards to the freemen and others for rearing them. 

How the ship West Vricsland arrived in Saldanha Bay on the 
14th October, after a painful voyage and in a very deplorable 
state, and reached this on the 28th following, and how she was 
abundantly supplied with refreshments and other necessaries, so 
thai; at present she is ready to leave, her officers will report to you 
and her accounts will show. . . . 

P.S. After the above had been closed, the Ensign returned 
from his second expedition into the interior with 200 sheep and 
25 cattle, so that we resolved that he shall undertake a third, that 
we may obtain as many animals as possible. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEHEECK. 
KOELOFF DE MAN. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

30th Nov. This is principally to inform you that the following freemen 
have stowed themselves away on the Went Vrieslaw/, viz. : 
Marten, Jochumus Vleckaert and Jan Andriese, both of Der 
Goitde, the said Vleckaert leaving behind him a debt of f-365. 6. 
10 to the Company, and f250. 10 to various freemen, or a total of 
f645. 16. 10. 

Of this amount, only f324. 16. 2 are owing to the treasury here 
for various things obtained by them ; the rest, as much as 
f250, they owed the Company for advances in the Fatherland, 
but deducting the amounts standing to their credit here, the 
deficit would not be more than f!60. Moreover, the mate of the 
latter, Pieter Jacobsz, of Bodegrave (who was in the country when 
Andriese deserted), was part debtor for the above-mentioned f324. 
16. 2, and now that he retains for himself alone the house, fishery 
and lands, he has taken over the whole debt, according to agree- 
ment made with him. (See our Resolution of the 13th instant 
and the Journal of the 9th do.) 

Nevertheless it is our humble request that you may be pleased, 
as a deterrent to others and for the maintenance of this newly 
established free colony, to punish them exemplarily in the manner 



53 

you may deem proper, and send them back to us by first oppor- 1668 - 
tunity, that no others may henceforth follow their example. We 3oth~Noy. 
intend to request the masters to do the same with those stowing 
themselves awav in the return ships, for last year as many as 21 
persons deserted to the Fatherland, viz. : 12 Company's servants, 
6 freemen's servants, and 3 Netherland convicts. Nor will this 
desertion cease unless exemplarily punished by statute, for by 
deserting they put back the good freemen by the debts to them 
which they leave behind them, and in the case of absconding 
servants also checking the freemen's operations. It is therefore 
evident that matters cannot be placed or kept on a permanent 
footing here, if we are always to be liable to such " stowing 
away," without its being forcibly stopped, that the works com- 
menced here, on which the Company has already expended so 
much money, may be maintained. We therefore most humbly 
pray that we may be properly backed in our efforts to develop 
agriculture already placed on such a favourable footing here 
(according to the wishes of the Directors), and which at present 
promises a mere extensive development as the result of our trade 
with the natives which has furnished us with cattle, and of the 
ploughs which we have obtained. By breeding our cattle has 
also been multiplying, so that, with God in the van, we need no 
longer feel ourselves straitened as regards refreshments for the 
ships and the feeding of the garrison, and it will therefore be a 
pity if all this is put back or made to suift r in consequence of the 
desertion of some bad fellows. 

As mentioned in our previous letter, the Ensign, Jan van 
Harwarden, had on the 10th instant undertaken his third expedi- 
tion inland. He returned on the 16th following, having obtained 
from the Ngonomoas about 80 sheep and 5 cattle, but from 
Oedasoa, Eva's brother-in-law, not more than 6 cattle and 25 
sheep, as, according to their statements, they were gorged with 
copper and beads. (See our journals of the 14th and 16th instant). 

The deepening of the river, previously mentioned, for the 
purposes of defence and protection of the Company's and free- 
men's cattle, we commenced with some of the men of this flute 
(De Harp), and found that in consequence of its depth in many 
places, it may be made to answer our purpose. The further 
results we shall communicate from, time to time. 

This will be brought you by the flute DC Harp from Zealand 
on the 31st May with 128 men, of whom 5 had died. The rest 
were all well when they left, excepting 3 or 4 left sick here, 
besides some farmers (boeren) exchanged for others. 

(Signed) JOHAN A T AN BIBBBKCK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN, 



List of annexures to preceding despatch : 



54 

To the Seventeen at Amsterdam and Zealand. 

On the 3rd instant arrived here from Coromandel out of 

ft T . lu Masulipatnam a private English vessel of about 100 lasts, named 

16 the Bnrbadoes Merchant (Captain Chaii Whyls and Merchant 

Richard Fouly), carrying 45 men. including 8 blacks. Her cargo 

consisted of saltpetre and cloth. She had left the aforesaid place 

9th 
on the -TT September last, after having called at Persia. 



Twenty months since she had left England, where everything, as 
regarded our people, was in a satisfactory state, the Portuguese 
forts llegenapatnam and Jaffenapatnam had been taken by the 
Company, and Goa so closely besieged by the Company's 
forces on the sea fide and those of the Visiapouder on land, that 
it would most likely also fall into your hands. The ships 
Erasmus and VogeUnsangh had brought many Portuguese to 
Masulipatnam and thonce to Batavia. The Naardcn alone had 
500 on board, among them at least 200 priests (papen). The old 
folk had been left on the coast, but the young had been conveyed 
to Batavia. What the truth may be we cannot say, but we are 
sure that long before the receipt of this the news will have reached 
you from Persia overland. We therefore drop the subject, and 
briefly inform you by this English vessel of our condition here. 
With the return ships soon expected, we shall write more fully. 

Coming to the point, we may mention that according to your 
instructions and orders matters fire in a desirable state here, both 
as regards cultivation and the breeding of cattle, as well as the 
bartering of the same from the real Saldanhars, so that at present 
wo have not only abundance but can depend on ourselves alone, 
and are also beginning to have something over. 

We also found the beer brewed in September and kept for some 
time to be good and durable. Two casks we sent to Batavia to 
see whether it would stand a sea voyage, whilst two others are 
kept in a cool cellar, to be sent to you with the return fleet, that 
we may receive your further instructions on the subject. 

Herry having become a little kinglet through his thieving and 
faithlessness, we have expelled him from his kingdom, taken all 
his cattle, and exiled him on liobben Island, where he still is. 
This has been taken in very good part by the tribes here, who 
consider it an act of courtesy, and wish that he may never 
return, but rather be killed. And as something occurred about 
the same time with the Caapmen, we again made peace with them 
on certain conditions, which they do not fulfil, and have thus 
exposed themselves to great danger. 

The same may be said of the (jorachoquas who are rich in cattle, 
for stealing our tobacco. In time we shall be able to pay off both 
these tribes for what they have done. In fact they would already 
have been paid off, if we had only received the horses promised us, 



55 

as with twenty horsemen, instead of the entrenchments and at l659 - 
much less cost, we could become the masters of all these s ~ 
aboriginals, especially of both the above-mentioned, who are 15 " Jan- 
sufficiently rich in exceedingly beautiful cattle, which can be easily 
seized for the Company, whilst since Herry's ruin they have been 
brought to such fear and good devotion, that not one of them 
would any longer think of causing even the least trouble to a 
child of the Netherlanders, so that in this respect, praise be to 
God ! the freemen are living very securely and have won this 
season a large quantity of grain, so much indeed that the half can 
hardly be stored in the barns. The vineyard also, planted by the 
Commander, as well as the olive trees, are also promising well, as 
well as all kinds of Indian and Fatherland trees. 

Neither the hop, juniper, mulberry nor strawberry plants could 
we get to grow, so that we expect some others to make a further trial, 
also some alder and holly seed mixed with earth (d'aerde gemengt). 
To date only one tree of each is growing, and of the spars not 
one ; the latter do not appear as if they will succeed. Oaks on 
the contrary thrive fairly well, and the ash remarkably so. 

The Ilasselt arrived here on the 6th May with 226 slaves. The 
youngest we sent to Batavia, and the oldest, limited to the number 
fixed by you, we have kept here at the Cape. The}' are, however, 
rapidly dying away and have already been reduced to 60, whilst 
various grey men and women are lying down sick and will also die, 
so that very little can be done with them, and consequently not 
much effected with the 80 Netherlanders, which number, exclusive 
of the sick, was never exceeded this season. The slaves that are 
young and strong are very apt to run away, so that we keep the 
rest in chains, who are accordingly hardly able to do half work. 
Some of the freemen's slaves have also deserted, and consequently 
some of them have brought theirs back to the Company. Had we 
been permitted to retain the boys and little girls, before they had 
come to riper age or known anything of running away, they might 
have been made to grow better and more nicely accustomed to us. 
But to obey your orders, we despatched them all to Batavia, as 
well as those captured by the Amersfoort on the Brazilian coast. 

The Hasselt and Maria had found nothing off Loango St. Paulo, 
but the former had captured two small Portuguese prizes of Amabo 
off Cape de Loop. They were on their way to Loango. They 
were fully worth f20,000, but were not brought in by the prize 
crew to which the one was entrusted. Whither they have gone, 
(rod only knows ! The Ilasselt and Maria having failed a second 
time in capturing anything at Angola, we sent them to Batavia, 
because we found that the slave trade alone caused a loss to the 
Company, as we shall point out later. 

This is merely to inform you hurriedly that all the ships of the 
Company, both spring and autumn, have arrived here in good 



56 

1659. order since our last letter. Praise be to God ! They had suffered 

5 ~ no serious mishaps (names of vessels given, fourteen all told), and 

Jan - had left for Batavia with 2,308 healthy men. Between Holland 

and the Cape 143 had died. The letters received by them will be 

fully replied to with the next return fleet. 

As we still had a remnant of seal skins which had remained 
over for two or three years, and had become damaged, as, on 
account of their stench, you did not like them to be sent home in 
the return vessels, we have sold 1,600 to this Englishman at 15 
stivers each. The amount we have paid into the Treasury here, 
viz. : f 1,200, believing that this will be better than nothing at all, 
or leaving them to perish. We trust that this will not be 
disapproved of by you. This we would like to know, and also 
whether we may continue doing so in future, as we can obtain the 
skins from the freemen burning oil on the Islands, at 6 stivers 
each, so that a little profit might be derived from this source also, 
as a slight solace for your expenditure here. In our next we shall 
say more on this subject. And (we would also like to know), as the 
train oil does not appear to be very acceptable in India, whether 
we might sell that also to the English. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 



London. 

To Mons. Lucas Luce per English ship Barbadoes Merchant. 

Request to forward the preceding letter without delay to the 
Board of Seventeen. 

(Signed) As above. 



To Batavia. 

16th Feb. As this little vessel, the Emmenhoorn, arrived here on the 12th 
February, in good time to enable us to despatch her, with God in 
the van, at the latest on the 20th March to the South land, we 
have, in compliance with your orders and in accordance with 
annexed Resolution, specially adopted, sent her thither, trusting 
that we have thus complied with your intention and dutifully 
obeyed your order. With you we wish, that it may have pleased 
God the Lord to deliver the wretched men in one way or another 
from the South land. . . . We are daily looking out for the 
return fleet, as well as the six other vessels which with this vessel 
left the Vlie on the 22nd October last, and will find an abundance 
of refreshments here, better than ever before, both as regards 
cattle and vegetables. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBBECK. 
E MAN, 



57 

Instructions for the officers of the flute Emmenhoorn. 

In 1656 the ship De VerguUe Draack (which left this for 1659. 
Batavia on the 9th March), was wrecked ahout the end of April 
on the South land in latitude 30f degrees. Since then, the High 
Government at Batavia have thrice sent an expedition in search of 
the men and the wreck, whilst last year we despatched hence the 
little flute Vincq for the same purpose. All efforts have, however, 
hitherto been fruitless. What the success has been of the second 
vessel from Batavia, despatched on the 22nd January last year, we 
are still ignorant of. We hope, however, for the best. 

And as their aforesaid Honours in their letters of the 26th 
December, 1657, and 18th January, 1658, have ordered us to 
despatch thither a light vessel arriving here from the Fatherland, 
to find out whether the helpless castaways from the wreck left on 
shore there, might stiil be rescued, as well as such specie as might 
be recovered from the wreck, it was decided by us in Council 
in order to comply with their Honours' orders, to employ your 
little vessel for the purpose, as it is still early in February, and 
that month and March are the best in which to visit the South- 
land. You shall therefore quickly take in your water, and as 
soon as you have been abundantly supplied by us with refresh- 
ments and every necessary, start on your voyage thither, regulating 
your course, &c., according to the instructions and charts given 
you by the Directors in the Fatherland. 

Having sighted the land, you shall especially act according to 
the instructions of their Honours sent over for that purpose, copies 
of which are now handed to you. You are carefully to study and 
attend to them, carrying them out with all your power as far as 
possible, as you will have to answer for the same at Batavia. 

For your further attention we also give you the instructions 
handed by us to the officers of the Vincq last year; also the 
Journal kept by them, and an extract from the letters of their 
aforesaid Honours. Attend therefore carefully to everything, 
especially as regards the observation of the orders of the Governor- 
General and Councillors of India. 

We wish you a happy and safe voyage to Batavia (inclusive) 
with the hope that if the small vessels despatched from Batavia 
have not succeeded, you may (if God wills) be more fortunate. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, this 16th day of February, 1659. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

List of papers directed to the Governor-General Maetsuycker 
Councillors of India.. 



58 

To the Seventeen. 

1659. Our last were dated the 22nd February, 18th, 31st March 

5th March. an( l 10th April. Received yours per Emmenhoorn, dated llth 
September last. We have replied to all your letters, including 
that of the 9th October, 1657, so that we have only to answer a 
small after letter of the 20th of the same month, mentioning that 
for the present we were not to expect the projected flute with 20 
or 30 horses which would have been very serviceable and welcome 
here, as well as the asses. But no matter what ships may call at 
the Island, none take any trouble in the matter, the one excusing 
himself in one way and the other in another. The Geelmuyden 
had called at Teneriffe, and stated that donkeys were obtainable 
there very cheaply, but the officers excused themselves on account 
of the vessel, so that the sum total is this that very little can be 
expected from that quarter. The animals would be very handy 
here, as already mentioned, especially in land journeys for further 
explorations into the interior, as the zeal of the volunteers has not 
yet abated, though they see that seldom an expedition returns 
without the loss of comrades, or other severe accidents (caused by 
wild leasts). But through want of donkeys they cannot proceed 
too far, as nothing is obtainable for the traveller except what he 
takes with him on oxen, so that it is plain that the food cannot 
last long for the men, and when wagons are employed, the 
roads round the mountains and through the valleys are not always 
passable. However we shall not neglect, with the means at our 
disposal, to have as careful an exploration made as possible. For 
that purpose on the 3rd Febr. last 7 volunteers left, provided with 
3 months bread and pork, packed on 2 strong pack oxen, which 
also carried all kinds of merchandise and trinkets, a little of each, 
with the intention of not returning before they had found per- 
manent cities (vaste steden) or towns ; on which we hope the 
Almighty will be pleased to grant his blessing. 

And as at present the niece of Herry has been educated in the 
Commander's house since her youth, and is commencing to speak 
the Dutch language perfectly, at the same time becoming more 
and more accustomed to and well inclined towards our nation ; and 
as she has mentioned to us people dwelling in stone houses (and 
in consequence has incurred the hatred of these Cape tribes which 
are doing their best to divert us from exploring the interior, 
especially the interpreter Doman, who has been at Batavia with the 
Hon. van Goens and has returned hither with the Hon. Cuneus).* 

* NOTE. This sentence is very obscure, so I give the original: "Ende alsoo 
jegeuwoordigh d' insichte (? nichte) van Herry in den Commandeurs huijs van 
Jongs opgetrocken de Nederlantsche seer perfect begint te spreecken, e ide meer 
ende meer tot onse natie gewent ende genegen wordt, die ons van voloq in steenon 
huijsen woononde heeft a>nvvijsingh gedaen doch daer door h -m spiffs dapper in 
den haet van dit Caep volck gebrachr, als soekcen oock die te te divert; ren van tc 
vernemen, hoc>'t int'landt gelegon is &c". ende voornamentlijck den Tolck Doman 
met d' Hr. van Goens op Batavia is gsweest, ende pr. d' Hr. Cuneus hier 
geretourn*"). 



59 

We believe that by means of translations and otherwise we shall 
through her in course of time more and more come to understand 5th March. 
the marrow of affairs in the interior, as already much has been 
revealed by her, which we have referred to in our previous com- 
munications Since our last only the Barbadoes Mer- 
chant has been here, arriving on the 3rd Jan. from Coromandel 
and leaving for London on the 16th of the same month with a 
cargo of saltpetre and cloth. We sent you a letter with her under 
cover of Sieur Lucas Luce, dated 5th January. ... . 
(Names and dates given of the outward bound which had arrived 
here during April- October, 1658, and Febr., 1659, and dates of 
their departure.) 

In reply to your last letters of the 16th April and 22nd Sept. 
last, we have to mention that the cruising of the Ilmwlt and Maria 
before Loango St. Paulo has been fruitless. The Hasselt accord- 
ingly proceeded to the Gulf cf Guinea, as you will see from our 
previous communications. 

Mr. Cuneus will no doubt also have narrated to you how the 
second voyage of the Maria, accompanied by the Robbcjachien, to 
the Angola Coast, has also brought in little profit, and that the 
Robbejdchim was lost, which has made it difficult for us to com- 
municate with Saldanha Bay and the neighbouring islands. We 
accordingly took a second boat from the Wapen van Holland and 
Prim Willem, which we decked for our present purposes until 
better accommodated. 

We have indirectly heard that neither proper effort nor the 
right desire and zeal have been displayed by the officers to explore 
and find anything on the aforesaid Angola coast, which their 
journals, hereunto annexed, also show, every one being too eager 
to proceed to India, and not desiring to be confined to the Cape, 
so that accordingly, in our opinion they have little desire to 
examine anything in this neighbourhood, thinking that they will 
be able in India to shake the gold from the trees. 

We have also heard from outside that a great deal may be done 
in Congo for ivory and slaves, as the King permits Dutch as well as 
Portuguese to trade there. We had already felt an inclination in 
that direction, and an idea of employing the rest of the Guinea 
and Angola cargoes, captured by the Ifassclt, and brought hither, 
as will be mentioned later on, but as the Commission of the West 
India Company in the hands of the officers of the Hasselt entirely 
prohibits the trade in ivory, we did not dare to undertake it at our 
own risk, otherwise the little yacht Maria despatched by your 
orders to Batavia on the 10th July last, would have been very fit 
for the purpose, as well as the three masted galiot promised to us 
by you to replace the T/ilp, if it had two orlop decks and were 
armed. We would therefore like to hear your opinion on the sub- 
ject, as well as your orders, and should you feel inclined to adopt 



60 

our suggestion, another somewhat larger vessel, of the size and 
5th March, strength of the Maria should be sent : but if you entirely abandon 
the idea of Angola, we shall not require such a galiot for a long 
while annually, as it would only be required to serve the return 
fleet and accompany the same to St. Helena. After its return 
hither, it could be spared from May to December for employment 
in something else, as we can easily get ulong here with the decked 
boat or " schapenjachjen " until you accommodate us instead with 
one or two good seaworthy decked lighters (steyger schuyten) of 
8 or 12 lasts sent out in pieces in any yacht or otherwise as you 
may deem best, boats similar to those at Texel which sail as far as 
Sweden and Denmark across the North Sea with only 4 or 5 men. 
They would be far less expensive than a yacht, and the bigger 
sized one might be annually employed in the service of the return 
fleet by sailing to and fro between St. Helena and the Cape, as at 
that time of the year the sea is very calm, and never rougher than 
the North Sea which they traverse so often. According to various 
skippers and mates the North Sea is comfortably crossed by such 
vessels, and therefore, in consequence of the less expense we repre- 
sent these to you instead of gaiiots. of which we could make one 
here ourselves like the Robbejachtjen, in which, however, ar we had 
no good master carpenters here, we found various faults, so that it 
would be better and cheaper to obtain one from home. 

Returning to the voyage of the Ha^elt to Loango St. Paulo, 
&c., it happened that on the 29th October, 1657, in 1 S. Lat. near 
Cape de Loop she captured a Portuguese vessel and the next day 
another, laden with Canary wine, brandy, St. Thomas cloths, 
palm oil, and a large quantity of soap, &c., according to the 
annexed invoice. The smaller vessel the Portuguese ran on shore 
at St. Thomas, but all her cargo was transferred to the larger 
vessel, which was manned with 6 Dutchmen under the junior mate 
Jan Petersz, of Durgerdam, and sent hither, laden as follows : 

65 " Potiisen " wine and brandy, ) n /.i, , 
in h J> } all filled up. 

10 pipes Canary wine, ) 

185 kegs palm oil of about 80 litres (kan). 

2 do. with black sugar. 

A considerable number of kegs of soap, not counted. 
1 large copper kettle. 
Some wooden spears. 

The vessel, however, never arrived here. It appears that the 
crew were not the masters of strong drink, and must have debauched 
themselves with it, according to news received by the Hasselt, 
which had it from a certain fly boat (heck boot) named Pi-ins 
Willem of Zealand, below Annabon, which had met the prize at 
sea and found the whole crew drunk, sailing just as the wind took 
her ; a sad business indeed, for the expense of the cruise might other- 
wise have been somewhat covered by her, as according to calculations 



61 

her cargo would have been worth 20,000 guilders, especially as 16ft9 - 
the palm oil would have been very welcome in India and found a ^ Ma rc h. 
ready market there, as well as the brandy and canary wine, 
besides the soap contained in thousands of kegs weighing from 4 
to 8 Ibs. each. 

The St. Thomas cloth would have come in very handy for the 
slaves, and some of it might have also been sold here among our 
Netherlander, after the return of the Hassett from Guinea, whose 
part of the cargo consisted according to invoice incorporated in our 
books of the 6th May, 1658, of the following : 

800 pieces St. Thomas cloth, valued at fl . . f 1,200 
5 red cloth, containing 130 ?atf4 . . 520 
3 Turkish stuff 111 ? at 10 stivers 25| 

15 black hats at f 3 45 

150 Ibs. copper basins at f60 the 100 Ibs. . . 90 

Total . . fl,910i 

Besides 143 St. Thomas pieces of cloth used by the officers for 
clothing the slaves. 

After having captured the two prizes the Hassett continued her 
voyage via Cape de Loop Gonsalvo (for water and fuel) to the 
trading place Arder. For reconnoitering purposes she had called 
off the Guinea Coast at Cape de Lou, and had further descended 
to beyond Ante, where she fell in with two canoes, in one of 
which was a Molaet of Delmina. They had, however, not seen 
the castle, but only the mountain of the Mina, as will appear from 
the annexed declaration of the assistant Gysbert van Campen, the 
only one left behind here by the Hasselt, and who has been closely 
interrogated, especially about the gold of which you wrote that 
the officers had obtained by barter at the Mina, but we could 
learn nothing. He is otherwise a young man of good disposition 
and very trustworthy, who would not, in our opinion, hide the 
truth. The Molaet had informed them that 3 or 4 ships had been 
at Ardre that year, and that one or two more were expected to 
come for slaves, so that but few would be obtainable there. He 
had accordingly advised them to proceed to Popo, which they did, 
but during 10 weeks they did not obtain more there than 271 
male and female slaves, among whom, as we now find, there are 
many old and useless ones. Before her arrival here 43 had 
already died, so that she only brought 228. Accordingly as we 
considered the slave trade alone to be too costly, we did not deem 
it advisable to renew it, and decided to send the yacht on to 
Batavia. She accordingly left on the 22nd May, according to 
resolution of the 8th May (see Journal, May 6th, &c., 1658), and 
we were glad to see that this step agreed with your intentions. 
We have also, according to your orders, besides the Angola slaves, 



62 

1659. gent on to India the youngest and best of the Guinea slaves 

oth Starch. receivecl P 6 ? Hasselt, viz. : " 80 

Add to this the number Eold to freemen and Company's servants 55 

The number of dead . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 

So that besides the 19 Angola slaves, the number left on our 

hands for service, including the old and sick, is . . 41 



Total .. 228 

( >f the prize slaves from Angola sent to Batavia the number 

was . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 

viz : Per Amersfoort, which had captured them . . . . 16 

Het Wapen ran Amsterdam . . . . . . 16 

the flute Spreeuiv 

the Dordrecht . . . . . . . . . . 30 

the ffasselt . . . . . . . . . . 22 

Sold to the freemen and Company's servants . . 24 

Fugitives or " runaways " . . . . . . 7 

Died 32 

So that independent of the Guinea slaves we have 

still alive here from Angola . . . . . . 19 



Total . . 174 

So that 172 slaves were sent to Batavra, and exclusive of the run- 
aways and dead, we have still 60 here, viz. : 

Guinea slaves . . . . . . . . 19 

Angola . . . . . . . . 3 

22 men 

Guinea female slaves . . . . . 22 
Angola ,, . . . . . . 16 

38 women 
Total 60 

Besides 2 Arabian " messieurs,'' 2 Madagascar do., and one boy. 

Annexed is a separate list specifying the slaves and cattle of the 
freemen and Company's servants, that you may be able to see how 
the one and the other here are provided and settled on their 
properties (Ingelandt), also what they owe the Company, &c., 
which for their own sakes we hope they will soon be able to pay ; 
but those who are new beginners should be assisted to a greater 
extent than you mention in your letters of the 16th April, 1658, 
if they are to be helped on their legs, as will be pointed out 
further on, when we are treating of the freemen and agriculturists, 
&c. For the present we shall confine ourselves to replying to your 
general and special missives aforesaid, when en passant we may be 



63 

able also to treat of those matters, so that the whole may 1659 - 
serve as a complete narrative, which we also communicated to 5th j^ r 
the Hon. Commander of the return fleet, who arrived here as 
commissioner, that besides this letter he might be able to report to 
you exactly, so that you might be informed of everything, as if 
you had been here yourselves. 

Regarding the salting down of meat here, and the quality 
obtainable, we have already written fully in our missive of the 
27th February, per Arnliem and Honingen, and stated that it could 
be fairly preserved in the cold seasons, but on account of its 
leanness when salted gives little satisfaction, and would 
cause discontent and trouble among the men on the voyage. 
For us that are here, it will, however, not be bad. In 
September last we purposely had killed two of the fattest grass 
fed oxen, and had them salted down in the manner usual at home, 
in order, as we do now, to send the meat to you, that you may 
judge for yourselves how it will keep. It was shipped in two 
casks marked " Caeps V(leesch) " (Cape meat) in the ships Pro- 
vintien and Wapen van Amsterdam, consigned to the Amsterdam 
Chamber, and 1 for Middelburg. For the same purpose the same 
vessels will take for the same Chambers 2 casks of beer, brewed 
here also in September, and marked Caeps B(ier) (Cape beer). 
But as regards salt meat, as long as we did not have too much 
meat for refreshing the ships (the result of our being obliged to 
provide the freemen with many oxen and cows for ploughing, for 
their wagons, and for breeding) we were obliged last year to fall 
back upon Dutch beef, that we might have more fresh stuff for the 
ships. This, however, has ceased for some time, as we are now 
well provided with our own stock of sheep, and now and then 
succeed in bartering more. 

The catching of harts Commander van Biebeeck considered when 
he was still at home and had been appointed to the charge here. 
And when he arrived here in April, 1652, he saw multitudes of 
these animals, as well as of elands, so that in his first despatch to 
Batavia, in May, he asked for information, in order, if possible, to 
carry out his intention (see despatch dated 15th May, 1652, the 
8th section, beginning with the words " the Chinese will here, &c.") 

Our journals of the first year (1652), especially of the 17th, 
18th, 19th and 20th July, and 18th September, will also show 
what efforts were made to catch some, forced as we were by 
necessity and want, as at first we could obtain no cattle from the 
natives. We acknowledge, however, that we omitted to mention 
the subject in our letters to you, because, in consequence of their 
shyness and wildness, we saw little chance to catch any. Besides, 
we expected great things from the seal skins, which could be 
obtained in abundance, whilst the harts were so difficult to get, 
that, in spite of the money offered to the freemen and hunters, 



64 

who, accordingly, did their best to shoot some, during the 7 years 
5th March. that have passed, not 7 have been caught. 

But if this country, instead of being populated with lazy, 
indolent Hottentoos, were, like Formosa, provided with smart, 
industrious Chinese and Formosans, well experienced in catching 
harts, something might be expected from it, as in Tayouan, far 
inland, troops of hundreds and thousands of game have been seen, 
as the Commander reported to Commissioner van Goens when 
the latter was here, who, however, reported against us in his letters 
to you. We, however, say that on behalf of the Company, not a 
hundred harts will be caught in a hundred years if no Chinese or 
other trained men are sent hither for the purpose. What, how- 
ever, will be the case after the lapse of many years when the 
Colony shall have increased in numbers, will then be known ; but 
otherwise, in our opinion, as little will be derived from them as 
from the tusks obtained from the Hottentoos, seeing that the 
latter, as already mentioned, are too lazy and indolent to take any 
trouble for anything, excepting breeding cattle, on which they 
know to maintain themselves easily, besides different kinds of 
roots growing wild, though at first our hopes were great in th : s 
respect, as will appear from our previous letters, as now and then 
a tusk was found among them and obtained cheaply, of which we 
sent you with the yacht De Goede Hoop on the 21st Jan., 1653, 
10 weighing 54 Ibs. and 49 weighing 49^ Ibs. We also as a trial 
sent some sea cow tusks to Batavia. 

What has been brought us since, during the last 7j years, 
hardly weighed 57 Ibs., and consisted of 8 whole and half tusks 
and some fragments, which we shipped in lid Wapen van 
Amsterdam, in a barrel marked 0. T. (oliphants' tanden), so that 
you will be able to see what inferior stuff it is, evidently having 
been found by the Hottentoos here and there buried in the sand, 
in which it had apparently been lying for many years, and mostly 
decayed. In order to encourage them to bring us more from other 
inland tribes, we bought what they brought ; but hitherto we have 
seen little chance of obtaining anything of value, and we fear that 
there is no prospect of better success in the future, for these 
Hottentoos will attend to nothing except their cattle ; besides, they 
are so afraid of each other, and so disunited, principally on account 
of the pastures, that they hardly dare go anywhere without 
immediately coming to blows, as we say, " Lustig oin de roose- 
crans" (merrily round the rosary). Therefore, having experi- 
enced all this, and finding that there was no chance of any ivory 
trade, or catching harts, we did not care to write about these 
things or to make any fuss about them. 

We cannot imagine that any tusks have been sent over by 
private parties. One or two may have been taken hence by some 
seamen of the return fleets, but we are certain that each time the 



65 

ten return ships arrived here not ten tusks were carried away to 1659 
the Fatherland. We can believe it, however, that before you took 6th 
possession of this place, sometimes every 2 or 3 years a needy 
ship arriving here may have obtained 10 or 12 tusks, so that those 
who obtained them had led those at home to conclude that many 
might be obtainable here. We also had at first come to the same 
conclusion, and were full of hopes on the subject, as our previous 
letters will show, because we had obtained a considerable 
quantity, which we sent to Batavia in the yacht Good Hope. We 
hoped that more would follow, so that the Company would be 
reimbursed for all its expenditure and the game won, but it after- 
wards appeared that it was all that the beachrangers had gathered 
together for a long time running, in order to barter it to those 
who might call here, as they have no cattle to trade with. And 
if we mention the subject to the Saldanhars, they laugh at it and 
say that they have to obtain it at a great distance and from a too 
savage people, and also that they have no knowledge how to kill 
elephants, &c. The tusks, however, they hold in high esteem, as 
they make large rings of the hollow parts, which they wear on 
their arms above the elbow, as you may observe from some of the 
biggest tusks sent you from which the hollow parts have been cut 
off for the making of such arm -rings. 

You may be quite sure that we are very zealous in discovering 
everything from which any profit may be derived, and that we are 
doing this to reimburse the Company for the heavy expenditure 
being incurred here, as well as for our own honour, without sparing 
anyone when holding back anything ; for instance, last year in 
the case of Grerrit Harmense, at the time skipper of the Robbejachtje 
and now a freeman, because he had bartered for himself and kept 
back 19 rhinoceros' horns in Saldanha Bay, &c. ; which horns, as 
well as others, were sent in 1657 in the Omnje to Batavia and in 
the Louyse to Patria. Some were also shipped in the Arnhem to 
Amsterdam on the 22nd February last year, as well as a barrel of 
Cape tobacco with every vessel to each of the Chambers, that you 
might judge whether there was anything in it, or whether the 
cultivation of the i vjne should for the present remain in abeyance, 
as the freemen are complaining that it is too hard that they are 
compelled to plant and sow this or that, or to refrain from follow- 
ing their own bent, as well as from bartering all sorts of things from 
the natives in order to sell them to the ships, as will be more fully seen 
in our journal of the 23rd October last, which will also show with what 
a mutinous spirit and purpose they have endeavoured to force the 
Company with many intolerable threats, &o. (to let them have 
their way), but how nicely we on the other hand (alter verser), at 
once, without delay, or causing any difficulty explained it to them 
quite differently, and brought them back to devotion and the 
obedience they owed us, &c. All this you will be able to read to 



66 

1659. your contentment under the same date, and find it worth reading 
oth March ^ ow & en ^J we rna( le them lay their heads in their laps and regu- 
late themselves' according to your and our orders, and the condi- 
tions of their discharge (vrybrieven) and title deeds, as well as 
those made with the Hon. van Goens, which were read to them, 
all which showed that their reins had not been tightened, but by 
connivance had been left much slacker than they had a right to 
expect from the conditions on which they obtained their freedom. 
We believe that we impressed upon them that they were not to 
place themselves against the well-established and still-to-be-estab* 
lished orders of the Company, but henceforth to live quietly settled. 
And though some discontent has since been shown again, we hope 
always to check it in good time, and not bother ourselves much 
about it; our one object being to attend to your orders, that we 
may obey them and make all others do the same, as well as to act 
strictl} r and rigorously when the Company's orders are disregarded, 
especially in the case of those who may withhold from us even one 
tusk. For this purpose the Commission appointed by the Hon. 
Jan Cuneus to assist the Fiscal will be of good service in order to 
create more respect for the maintenance of the Company's juris- 
diction and its placcaten. 

Long before the receipt of yours of the 16th April aforesaid, 
we promised to pay to the freemen who, living far inland, might 
obtain tusks without our knowledge, and more easily than we can, 
a fair price, in order to get all the ivory for the Company, but we 
were not able to obtain more than 2 or 3 tusks, so that our efforts 
have been fruitless, but as possibly they may obtain more money 
from the men on the ships, we have forbidden them on high 
penalty to barter more from the Hottentoos, as will appear from our 
Resolution of the 4th September, 1658, our Placcaat book and 
Journal. 

They have also been forbidden to give access to any natives 
to their residences, that they may have the less opportunity to 
obtain tusks. But this is somewhat hindersome to them, as they 
are prevented from utilizing the services of the natives and obtain- 
ing some milk from the latter, generally for a little tobacco, which 
milk they are much in need of to help them in their housekeeping 
&o., as the cows here give very little milk. Hence we do not carry 
out this our order too strictly (waerom wy die strickte gebonden- 
theyt oock te min offte slapper maiutineeren) in order not to 
create in them too great an aversion to their freedom, as we are 
quite sure that in a whole year all the freemen will not be able to 
obtain as many tusks from the natives as will furnish each return 
ship with one. 

In our earliest letters you have no doubt read that we not only 
had great hopes of securing ivory, but also amber, seed pearls, 
musk, civet and ostrich feathers, all of which, excepting amber, 
we have heard of as possessed by some (by sommige wel hebben 



67 

vernomen), but whatever we promise or do, we cannot induce them 
t3 bring us any, or to take any trouble to procure anything, not 5th 
even honey, which is so abundant in the forests (bossen). Now, 
however, it is collected by the freemen in the baskets sent them, 
with the prospect of becoming abundant in coarse of time. How- 
ever, leaving these matters which promise so little, and abandoning 
the hope of getting the Hottentoos to do anything, we come to other 
matters which promise a more certain profit, even so far as 
diminishing the Company's expenditure here. 

In the first place, wo mention the board money, of which you 
expect us to epeak, according to your letter of the 16th April last. 
It was not introduced so long as a common free table was 
kept here at great expense to the Company. Only since the 1st 
of May, 1656, it was paid, after the table had been abolished, 
when every official, married or unmarried, who used to eat at the 
table received board money on which to subsist. (See our special 
Resolution of the 1st May, 165ti.) We proposed this to you in 
our letter of the 28th April, 1655, and gave the reasons why that 
course would be more advantageous to the Company, and that we 
did not act without authority will appear from your reply of the 
>0th October, 1655, which says in the 8th paragraph, "If you 
deem it advisable to put the married officials ou board money in 
order to make it easier for the Company, we do not object to it, 
but authorise you by this for the purpose, &c." We accordingly, 
and only after ripe deliberation, adopted that course as will be seen 
from the papers sent over in 1656, which contain our reasons for 
believing that it would be for the benefit of the Company; but as you 
expect further sufficient reasons from us, we shall not refrain in 
reply to yours of the 6th April, 1658, to add the following to 
what we have already mentioned. 

In the first place, we shall summarise the board moneys of the 
aforesaid officials, as they had been fixed according to Resolution, 
before the arrival, and remained during his presence here, and 
after the departure of the Hon. Commissioner Ryckloff van 
Goens, according to Indian custom, and as they still are, viz.: 
For the Commander, to whom it is a matter of 
indifference, and who would accordingly 
prefer the free table . . . . . . . . Reals 20 

One junior merchant, Roeloff de Man, un- 
married, occupying the place of Secunde, and 
having the administration of all the stores, 
and depots, with the keeping of the books . . 6 
One sick comforter, Pieter van der Stael, with 
wife and three children, exclusive of their 
slaves (male and female), without board 
money, but fed with the ordinary food of 
the garrison . . . . . . . . . . 6 



One ensign, Jan van Har warden (who died 
5th March. suddenly on the 18th Feb. last), with wife 

and three children, exclusive of tliree slaves, 
fed as above . . . . . . . . . . Reals 6 

One chief surgeon, now without, but mostly 
formerly, with wife and children, exclusive 
of one slave and servants . . . . . . 6 

One fiscal ") 

Two assistants 

One dispenser now instead of a I i A -n i 

,1 * i ,-, . j ,1 Veachat Heals 4 

butler who could not do the f 

work, and 
One under barber J 20 

Add to this 16 tankards Spanish wine, viz., for 
the junior merchant, sick comforter, ensign 
and chief surgeon, each 4 tankards, reckoned 
at 36 stivers each, according to Indian price ,, 6 

Leaving a total of . . . . Reals 70 

Against this at the common table every person would for 
each meal receive one or two rummers of wine, the quantity allowed 
to the simplest ships' tables; calculating two rummers at 1^ 
" mutsjen," three of the latter would be required for the two daily 
meals, so that for the 9 persons ^exclusive of the junior barber) 
and 3 and sometimes more women, at the very least 33 " muts- 
jens " are required daily, or 3 tankards (flapcan), independent of a 
glass that sometimes goes round on extraordinary occasions, and of 
the fact that everyone claims, when they have no board money, the 
full ration of wine, even for the smallest infant at the breast, 
which would require another tankard, so that daily at least 4 
tankards are consumed, and consequently 120 tankards during 
every month of 30 days, each tankard valued at 36 slivers or f 
Real, or, together, Reals 90. From this you will see at once how 
the wine alone exceeds in value the board money and wine rations 
of all the free table guests, and that on that alone the Company 
saves 20 Reals monthly. 

What tho food, not referred to here, would come to can be 
easily imagined, for it would fully run up to twice 90 Reals, whilst 
now the expenditure is reduced to 70 Reals, whilst, moreover, no 
caterers, cooks, or butlers are necessary, as they were for the free 
table, without even giving satisfaction, the eaters always believing 
that they did not receive enough, and that every day sheep should 
be killed for them. Now, however, as in India, they are to depend 
on their board money alone, and pay for everything obtained from 
the stores. 



69 



15 

4 



12f 



Calculating that three sheep are killed for them weekly, they 
would amount to 12 monthly, or at the rate of f3, or |- Reals 
eaoh, the price paid by the freemen, or a total of . . Reals 15 

But as now they have to deduct the price of sheep from their 
hoard money, there is not any longer such a large consumption of 
sheep. 

Butter reckoned at 5 Ibs. daily at \ Real would 

monthly amount to . . . . . . . . . . Reals 87 

Of meat each month at least \ cask or 100 Ibs. at 6 
stivers . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Pork, reckoned at 50 Ibs. at 6 stivers. . . . . . 

Oil, 10 litres, at \ Eeal . . . . . . . . 

Yinegar, 20 litres, at \ Real . . . . . . . . 

Barley and peas, half a barrel of each per month . . 

Rice, 80 Ibs. per month, at \ stiver . . . . . . 

Bread at 16 Ibs. per month taken for the said table 
guests, with their wives, children and servants, &c., 
fully 30 mouths, at 60 Ibs. each, or 480 Ibs. at ^stiver 

Sugar, 2 picols monthly for beer at 2 Reals . . . . 

Brandy, which was sometimes offered to the table 
guests, reckoned at \ an anker, sold from the Com- 
pany's stores to burghers at f62, would cost at least 
f31,or .. .. . ....... 

Add to this prunes (stock pruijmen) and other small 
things which the Company also do not get for no- 
thing, say . . _ ....... . . 3f 

So that the whole, independent of what does not 

strike us now, amounts to . . . . . . . . Reals 223 

The above amount exceeds, now that the table guests are limited 
to board money, and the free table has been abolished, the 70 Reals 
of board money, by more than twice the latter amount, so that what 
was formerly required for a month now suffices for three. 

Since the abolition of the free table, the Commander 
did not keep it up for himself alone, but he has, according to 
usage in all parts of India and some private offices, availed himself 
of the free use of wine, oil and vinegar, as allowed to all chief 
officials (opperhoofden), as well as of meat and pork, though of 
the latter he does not uso 10 Ibs. a year. Nor does he take much 
of the coarso sailors' food, such as barley and black rice, &c. (the 
only articles in the stores), so that you may well understand that 
the 20 reals board money are not sufficient for him, and that he is 
to pay out money above that amount, and has also to have sheep 
killed for himself. 

And if the Command' T wore to bring into account what is con- 
sumed at his own private table, in the form of fresh butter, cheese, 
milk, &c., with which the ireemon make so much money, and which 



1659. 
5th March* 



70 

16/59. are accordingly extremely dear, besides all other kinds of dainties, 
5th March. 8UC ^ as an chovis (ansiobes), capers, olives, Dutch pickled herrings, 
red herrings, salmon, "stollicxse" (pungent), " sehravesanse " 
sheep, green parsley, and other kinds of cheese of better quality 
than the ordinary kinds of the Company (which latter are rarely 
seen on his table), besides many other things, such as " atjar " 
(pickles) and white rice, not a grain of which has ever been sent 
hither from India for the Company, so that the Commander was 
obliged to buy it for himself from private parties If all these 
articles had, besides those previously mentioned, been debited 
against the Company for the free table, but which the Commander 
never did, the amount would certainly exceed twice 20 Reals. 

At first, because no sheep were obtainable, there was nothing to 
fall back upon except the coarse food of the common soldiers (des 
gemeenen Volcx), so that contrary to their customary training 
(gewoonl : opvoeding) he with his wife and children had to make 
shift with that for a long while, and therefore, now that next to 
Grod it has been brought so far by indefatigable diligence, that 
everything can be obtained for money, it has been decided to have a 
free store (een vrije packhuijs) according to Indian usage, but no 
longer a free table at the expense of the Company, and to support 
himself besides on his 20 Reals board money, not on his own 
authority, but yours (see our Resolution of the 1st May, 1556). 
We therefore trust that for the reasons adduced you will decide 
to continue the board money and not abolish it. In the mean- 
while we shall let it continue until we have received your answer, 
seeing only loss ir. the abolition, as merely the fresh butter which 
the Commander consumes in his household (as he has a wife and 
three children) would absorb the 20 Reals, but as he deemed it a 
cheaper arrangement, his wife bought 12 milch cows from the 
Company, and keeps them for her own use under the care of the 
wife of the freeman, Hendrick van Zurwarden, for which he pays 
a servant f!6 per month out of his own pocket, whilst the woman, 
besides the wages given her, enjoys half of the milk, which the 
Commander's wife allows her to churn and sell for her own profit. 
The fresh butter aforesaid causes us to use less of the Company's 
Dutch butter, which is also a saving. Nor will your Honours 
observe anywhere that the Commander, so long as he has drawn 
board money, has ever charged the Company a single penny 
(holder off penningh) for fresh butter or milk, notwithstanding 
the extraordinary number of guests that sit down at his table 
when the return fleets are here or the outward-bound squadrons. 
And that everything should be beyond suspicion, the administra- 
tion, the keeping of the books and expenditure accounts are in the 
hands of the secunde or junior merchant. 

Befure quitting this subject, we cannot refrain, in accordance 
with honour and oath, from stating, in spite of those who condemn 



71 



it, that the abolition of board money would not be advisable either 
for the Commander or the unmarried officials, as (? the free table) 
as already mentioned is a great burden to the Company, whilst 
the Commander has felt the want of privacy and other difficulties, 
which were so great that they afforded him more worry than 
pleasure, considering also the little contentment which could be 
given to some of the table-guest?, and especially their wives and 
children, however much was provided and however many waiters 
were serving. All this has now been Abolished for the relief of 
the Company, but naturally everyone, because of the convenience 
to themselves, the small cost, the exemption from the care of pro- 
viding their own food, the enjoyment of such a fine free table, the 
service of the waiters, and wine for nothing, would like to have 
the old custom re-established, but we, bearing in mind the loss to 
the Company, have continued the system of board money, as, 
according to your letters, you require our reasons to enable you to 
decide whether it is to be continued or not. But certainly, if we 
are to speak in favour of the Company, the board moneys are for 
the reasons stated, to be most highly recommended, not only for 
the Commander (who is, however, personally indifferent on the 
subject, which he leaves to your pleasure) and the afore-mentioned 
officials, but even the least of the Co*mpany's servants inclusive, as 
the difference is enormous. It will also be of advantage to the 
freemen, who cannot, as the Company, give the servants rations of 
brandy, meat, pork, &c., and accordingly cannot get on so well 
with them as when the free food is -abolished, and everyone is 
given his monthly board money. In order to prove this, we have 
subjoined a short calculation, showing how much cheaper it will 
be for the Company if all the men, the lowest soldier and 
arquebusier included, were, as is customary in India, to receive 
board money. 

According to the rations given to the common people, as 
observed hitherto, every soldier's (yder slecht mans mont cost) 
food costs at the very least, according to the Fatherland prices, 
without any ocean risk, as follows : 

15 " mutsjens " brandy per month is half a one daily, 
at 1^ stivers each, which, deducting the leakage, 
certainly costs the Company . . . . . . fl 2 8 

6 " mutsjens " or 1 pints oil per month, at 9 stivers 
per pint, and for the reason already mentioned, 
certainly costing . . . . . . . . . 13 

6 " mutsjeus " or If pints vinegar, at 6 stivers per pint 090 
45 Ibs. barley, peas, &c., being for each meal | Ib. or 

1 Ibs. for three meals, at 2 stivers per Ib. . . 4 10 

6 Ibs. meat or 1| Ibs. weekly, at 4 stivers, which 
would cost the Company, because of the short 
weight (wannigheyt) of the barrels, not less than \ 1*> 



1659. 
,ith March 



72 

1059. 4 Ibs. pork every week, \ Ib. per man, at 6 stivers . . f 1 4 

16 Ibs. bread, at \\ stivers, which would, in our 

opinion, cost the Company .. .. .. ..140 

This does not include the double rations sometimes 
given to inferior officers, such as carpenters, master 
workmen, &c., so that, excluding these double 
rations, a private's food would amount monthly to 10 19 

But the board money, according to Indian usage, is 
monthly for a private, viz. : 

\\ Reals, at 48 stivers ' f3 12 

Of which f Real, at 51 stivers each, is 

debited against him . . . . 1 18 4 

So that the Company's expense amounts 

to no more than. . fl 13 12 



30 Ibs. rye and wheat bread instead of 40 

Ibs. rice, which a private in India enjoys 

for the aforesaid board money, which 

bread, calculated at one stiver per Ib. 

may be put down here at . . . . f I 10 

And therefore together costing the Com- 
pany not more than . . . . . . 3 3 12 

Which, deducted from the above sum of ., 10 19 
Shows that the Company will, by means of 

the board money, as customary in India, 

save every month . . . . . . 7 15 4 

From this it may therefore be easily calculated what the saving 
for the whole garrison would amount to ; and therefore, in our 
opinion, board money for all the men will not only be profitable 
to the Company, but for the alleged reasons also necessary even 
for the sake of the freemen, who, otherwise, as already mentioned, 
can obtain no good service from their servants, as the latter, just 
like the Company's servants, desire rations of brandy, &c. from 
their masters, which the freemen find too expensive. Board 
money would also produce a means of livelihood among the 
burgher small bakers and other food sellers, and bring some 
money into circulation among them, who through want of it are 
groaniug very much. For this reason we have had it in con- 
sideration to give effect to it as soon as possible, as it will be 
a great relief to the Company ; not doubting that it will be seen 
by you in the same light, and approved of as well done. 

The slaves or chained convicts (kettingh gasten) are given in 
India 40 Ibs. rice per month and 1 stiver daily and nothing more 
with which to buy fish or other additional food (toe spijs). This 
may also be done here, but instead of 40 Ibs. rice, 30 Ibs. bread 
and 1 stiver daily may be given. We trust before we receive 
jour answer to this to have everything in train, so that everyone 



73 

may be able at a sufficiently cheap rate to obtain one thing and 1659 - 
another from free shopkeepers, &c., as well as a good drink of 5^ March. 
beer, the price to be regulated in a fairly cheap manner according 
to the state of the grain- From all this it may be seen how 
everything here is beginning to be like everything in 
Holland, as everything that is nice (alle dingen van 
lieffelyckh*) is beginning to be very abundant here, as well as 
fowls, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons, &c., besides the abundance 
of game, such as pheasants, partridges, quails, snipes, wild geese, 
ducks, widgeons, teals, and whatever more is conceivable, besides 
such beautiful fisheries, already brought into train in such a 
manner that the free fishers often do not know what to do with 
their hauls. Besides other burghers, these will also keep and 
breed pigs. Those at .Dassen Island will do the same, where pigs 
thrive splendidly and much better than here on the Continent, so 
that your intentions in this are also being realised. 

You need not fear that we will not strictly carry out, as ordered 
by you, the instructions of Commissioners Ryckloff van Goens and 
Johan Cuneus. We did so with great pleasure, as the orders left 
here by the latter fully bear out, and as no doubt his report to you 
will also confirm, and will in future be confirmed by all Commis- 
sioners annually arriving here. Annexed you will find a copy of 
such questions as have been put to us and our answers to them. 

Continuing our reply to yours of the 16th April, and especially 
to that of the Chamber Amsterdam, which is of the same nature, 
we reverentially state that in accordance with your wish, we have 
not at all made a commencement with the entrenchments, but 
decided to await your further orders, which, having been now 
received, we have entirely put it out of our thoughts to undertake 
the work, and kept ourselves busy with the principal one, viz., 
agriculture and everything connected with it, as we observe that 
this is your principal object, and is promising well, and has with 
God's blessing advanced so far that this residency will henceforth 
be able to depend upon itself, and is already beginning to export 
some grain to Batavia. With what zeal we commenced this work 
from the very beginning and endeavoured to further it, may be 
gathered from the following detailed account, which shows the 
whole as in a mirror. 

In the first place, we reverently submit that when we understood 
your intentions we never showed a lack of zeal and diligence, but 
endeavoured to carry them out with all our power. This is suffi- 
ciently evident ; for when on the 6th and 7th April, 1652, Com- 
mander Riebeecq arrived here in the Drommedaris, Reyger, and 
the little yacht, The Good Hope, on such a parched, poor soil with- 
out a dwelling place, and only some light material, the heaviest 
timber being merely overheated spars, planks and joints, in order, 
according to your instructions, to build such a fort here as was 



74 

1659. necessary to carry out your intentions, there was not one man 
oth Mar"h. w ^ na( l the knowledge of anything, but there were many sick, 
who were unable to find one single small herb for their refresh- 
ment, so that the work had to be started with about 9U persons, 
weak and ignorant, just from a sea voyage, and suffering from 
scurvy. They were as raw as the whole world had ever seen. Of 
all this he was aware, and for that reason had to set to work him- 
self as engineer, digger, gardener, farmer, carpenter, mason, smith, 
&c., to that next to God matters were so far advanced that after 
10 months the Company's return fleet under the Hon. Demmer, 
which had called that same year, and remained here between 6 
and 7 weeks was abundantly supplied with refreshments, indepen- 
dent of the cattle obtained by barter from the natives, so that what 
with garden produce and fresh meat it did well. This, we believe, 
the said gentleman will still remember, and with admiration 
will have borne praiseworthy testimony to. We say nothing of 
the outward bound ships, which have also enjoyed abundance. In 
our opinion, therefore, the chief object of the Company has without 
delay been realised, and all other works have been advanced so far 
that afterwards no one arrived here unseasonably in order to enjoy 
an abundance of garden produce for refreshment, yea ! so much 
that according to private letters received from the officers they had 
not been able to consume everything given them on the voyage, 
independent of what they had daily received here, and that because 
of the abundance considerable portions were spoilt. From all this 
it is evident that there has been no want of diligence. And what 
is the situation now ? Anyone may merely say how mucli he 
requires and he will still have over, whilst, moreover, one-third of 
the residency hero was and is still being fed on the produce. It 
is true that the return fleet, under the Hon. Cuneus, arrived here 
when the supply of vegetables was scanty, caused partly by the 
extraordinary hot and dry year, and partly because the lands were 
full of caterpillars and worms, so that continually everything in the 
fields was parched and eaten off. Besides, the ships Arnhein and 
Honingen had twice daily for 9 weeks to be supplied out of what 
there was of our scanty crops, as well as ourselves. We were 
therefore completly cleared out, though the said return fleet, as well 
as the outward bound ships, received on board supplies for two meals 
every day, and rather abundantly for whole and half rations 
Besides, they were for their voyage provided with whole boats 
fully laden with carrots, beet, parsnips, &c. This year, however, 
there will be no complaints ; neither will it be necessary to incur 
expenditure to make gardens on other spots. At the time the 
freemen were worse off than we were, as they did not take so 
much trouble to raise an abundance of garden produce, like 
some others who at leasi: 25 times planted 5 or 6 morgen of ground 
in the Company's garden with cabbage, but of which for the reasons 
mentioned, not 25 were rearud. It is therefore evident that zeal 



was not lacking, but that everything depended on the blessing ,->f God 16 ' 59 
the Lord. However, as already said, there was as little want of 5th 
carrots, &c., as before, but in order to give full measure to the ships, 
we decided, above what was obtainable from the Company's 
gardens, also to buy for money a large quantity from the free- 
men at a reasonable price. This of course caused more expense, 
but we hope that, on the other hand, there were less complaints. 
The expenditure thus incurred will be much less thaa if the Company 
were to make more gardens on other spots, for more men would 
be required, and the garden would be toodistantforoarsupervision,so 
that the work would not be carried on so well as near this, to say 
nothing of the injurious thieving which is to be feared, as is 
sufficiently apparent in the Company's orchard behind the Table 
Mountain, and which, though guarded, is nevertheless subject to 
thieving. 

As regards the other object of the Company, viz , to obtain by 
barter an abundance of cattle, all our previous letters, journals 
and resolutions fully prove our diligence in this matter, but it 
becomes more evident every day that the whole trade depends 
solely on the good or evil disposition of the natives, for we need 
not point out how patiently and circumspectly and without the 
least hurry, but also with the greatest forbearance, we carried ou 
the trade. Certain Company's servants no doubt on their arrival 
home have complained, in spite of our letters, that we should have 
acted more vigorously toward the natives, but these people (that 
is the ordinary babblers) only look at the matter en passant 
superficially, whilst we, independent of the inspections of the 
Commissioners, speak from experience, viz., that patience and 
circumspection must be considered the principal elements (in our 
intercourse with the natives), but with such a purpose that if our 
object cannot be gained in that manner, to seize our opportunity 
for the Company against those who have deserved it (and deprive 
them of their cattle). The rest would then follow as desired, viz., 
the cultivation of the lands, which would otherwise be impossible, 
for draft oxen there must be (of which, praise be to God, but few 
are wanting) if agriculture, which is now being taken in hand, is 
to be promoted. 

Our previous letters will show that it was not for want of effort 
or neglect on our part that agriculture is not more developed. 
However, the Commander may now add this, that immediately on 
his arrival here, he sowed the barrel of wheat which he had 
brought with him, as well as some of the barley intended for the 
fowls, and some oat grains picked out of the wheat and barley, 
with the result that neither the Company nor the freemen were 
able to re-sow all that had been won, notwithstanding only one 
bushel of wheat had been obtained the first year. Of the other 
grains we could only collect handfuls, and though we were unable 



76 

1659. t gather a hundredth part of the wheat sown (during the first 
5th March. 7 ear ) we na d abundance afterwards. It is therefore evident that 
in order to secure an abundant grain supply, we had during the 
years 1652, 1653 and 1654 displayed as great a diligence as we 
did in other matters. We found, however, that in consequence of 
the heavy winds (de harde valbuyen) in Table Bay (? Valley), 
wheat-growing would not succeed, and that we nardly could gather 
each season as much as we had sown. This we often mentioned in 
our previous letters. Hence afterwards in 1655, we made an 
attempt behind Table Mountain and found that we were fairly 
successful, so that in 1656 (besides all our other work) so much 
seed corn had been gathered, that on the arrival of the Com- 
missioner van Q-oens, in March, 1657, everything was in a fail- 
way, even among the freemen, to carry on agriculture with 
energy, as you will find from our letters and amiexures prior to 
His Honour's arrival, as well as from the report of the latter, that we 
needed a sufficient quantity of seed corn, but were not deficient 
in diligence, for in order to obtain seel corn the Commander 
personally gathered up ear after ear on the land, as of the 
seed he brought with him, as he has already said, not a hundredth 
part came to perfection, for of 6 barrels (groff tonnen) rye 
or wheat not a basin full was won the first time, and then only 
by searching for and picking up the ears here and there. Of 
the red and white wheat and rye sent us last year not half a 
bushel of seed was won, so that it is intelligible that affairs 
here must be conducted with great trouble and diligence. 
Acclimatised seed has, however, now been won, which yields much 
better and very excellently, yea ! so much that last year (1658), 
we were not able to put into the ground all the seed won in 1657, 
so that a great deal remained over, that is of what had been sown 
for the Company, but not put into the ground \>y freemen, who 
did not at first display any diligence, so that we had to give them 
seed corn this year also. It is therefore evident that we have paid 
attention to grain growing, as well as to other matters, and that 
we have been zealous in our duties from the first, and that we have 
done our duty as well as any man could do it. 

Not only did we not forget to place agriculture on a proper 
footing, and build the uecesssary fortifications for defensive pur- 
poses, but we also built suitable brick houses on fine cellars for 
dwellings and storing all materials, provisions, &c., as the wooden 
tenements (herten huysen) made of over-heated timber soon 
failed us, so that we had, so to speak, double work in erecting 
houses, besides the brick building or principal corn loft on the 
battery (cat), which we could do as little without as the jetty which 
is already so far advanced that every one can fetch water now with- 
out getting wet. This naturally prevents a lot of sickness caused 
by the cold water to those voyaging hence to Batavia. Without 



77 

the stone houso we would not have known where to store our grain, l6 * 9 - 
though it was also of service as an office to Commissioner van Goens and 
those who carne after him, after whose departure it was used as a 
grain store. Thank God, we are already now again short of 
buildings and lofts in which to store our wheat, whilst in addition 
to all the other work, we also built a hospital, and smiths', wagon, 
plough makers', and carpenters' shops, also a mill, and corn 
granary like a small church on the company's lands, so necessary 
for storing the corn when cut ; also the highly necessary redoubts 
" Duyn " and " Coorn hoop " garrisoned by freemen and intended 
for the protection of the lands ; also a very much required sheep 
and cattle stable behind the fort in the kraal ; also a brick house 
occupied by the gardener and slaves and a free family ; also a fine 
horse stable with two corn lofts, one above the other ; also a large 
sheep shed on Robben Island of wood. All the other buildings 
are of baked brick, made of clay and lime found here, which in 
order to keep them busy were prepared and collected by the 
soldiers and boatmen. They are all at present in as good order as 
may be expected when a beginning is to be made in everything. 
Finally there are the Company's gardens covering fully 17 
morgen, from which the whole year through the ships can be 
abundantly supplied and refreshed, as well as take away with them 
large quantities of vegetables and fruit for the voyage, yea ! such 
large quantities that much of them cannot be used, whilst often 
one-third of the provisions is saved for the garrison so that 
everything here is in a desirable and flourishing condition, whilst 
besides cultivating the lands we have also planted many fine trees, 
all growing, all kinds of Dutch and Indian ones, viz. : 

Hundreds of orange, apple and lemon trees which promise to 
bear soon. 

Various pisangh trees (plantains). 

Two olive trees, thriving excellently and better than all the other 
trees, so that it is evident that soon we will be able to obtain many 
cuttings from them. 

Peaches, apricots, apples of various kinds, pears ditto, morellos, 
cherries, plums, chestnuts, walnuts, quinces, medlars, coinels 
(these arrived dead here), barberries (one tree growing), mul- 
berries (arrived dead), buckthorn, black red and white currants, 
rose and laurel trees (mostly all growing), one ash tree, number- 
less ash trees growing finely, ditto oak trees, still small and slowly 
growing, also hawthorns. Vines of various sorts aie thriving 
excellently and promising well. About 1,200 or 1,300 cuttings 
were planted by the Commander on his lands, and all are growing. 
The fresraen, however, do not care to plant any, only one or two 
perhaps against their houses, merely for ornament. They do not 
wish to have more. 

Further numerous kinds of Fatherland and Indian ground 
fruit have been planted for refreshments, so that in our humble 



78 

1659. opinion, praise Q-od ! and without boasting of ourselves, every- 
5th March, thing has been brought to a desirable state, in fact so far, that as 
regards grain, we can now sufficiently depend on ourselves, so that 
the brandy stills, as soon as the seed corn is once more in the 
ground (beginning in May for the purpose) may be made ready, 
whilst in time a brewery, which we prefer to brandy distillation, 
may also be started, that is, should we be informed that the beer 
sent to you as a sample has been found durable, and whether 
instead of mum you wish us to send stout beer to India, or small 
beer for the men on board the ships instead of drink-water. The 
first will brirg profit to the Company, the other will only cause 
expense. We therefore await your orders for our guidance, for 
we hope that by the time we have received your reply, viz. : that 
the beer has been found to be good, to have the brewery in com- 
plete working order ; but you will be so good as to send us also as 
much dry hops as may be necessary for the quantity of beer which 
you may wish to have brewed for India or the ships, as hitherto 
we have not been able to get either the seeds or the plants to grow, 
in spite of all the trouble taken. Last year we mentioned what 
lands had been distributed among the freemen ; since then only 
20 morgen have been added, viz. : 6 morgen at the Salt River 
near the fishermen, that the latter may, besides their fisheries use 
them for garden produce and rearing food for pigs, &c. Also a 
good 13 morgen granted to a Frans Grerritsz of Uythoorn for 
wheat cultivation. The Commander, however, received 101 
morgen of land to be planted by him with corn and wine. This is 
already being done. The aforesaid lands have this year been 
planted with wheat, rye, barley and cats, but very little peas, 
viz. : 

By Jan Reyniersz, of Amterdam . . 11 morgen 3 roods. 

Besides wheat they have also reared 

various ground and garden fruit for 

their own consumption, and for sale 

to the ships, selling at a reasonable 

profit. 
By Hendrik Boom of den Overtoom . . 10 141 

By Yreeden's Company, consisting of 

2 owners . . . . . . 15 401 

By Stevens' Company, consisting of 

2 owners . . . . . . 16 480 

By Harman's Company, consisting of 

2 owners . . 12 585 

By Visagie's Company, consisting of 
2 owners. They have sown this year 
for the first time, and are therefore 
the most backward and the poorest. . 85 



79 

By Simon In 't Velt's Company con- i659 

sistiug also of 2 owners, who also have 
sown this year for the first time . . 3^ morgen. 

By ourselves for the Greneral Company 46 78 roods. 

By the Commander for his own use, 
which, however, did not yield as 
much as 12 bushels. . . . 12 456 

All this is independent of the plots planted with vines, and 
hitherto not producing anything, so that last year the area 
covered with grain, but with very little peas and beans, comprised 
143 morgen. 

Every one is at present busy threshing all this grain packed in 
stacks, or stored in granaries. Only later on we shall be able to 
know what the yield will be. Some of last year's crop has been 
used as seed corn, and some freemen have received a portion for 
the purpose already mentioned, so that what was obtained from 
the Company's lands amounted to 45| muids wheat ; f mnid rye ; 
65 do. barley ; 40 do. oats (for the horses) ; 3 do. gray and white 
peas ; of do. horse beans ; 2f do. Turkish and Harricot beans. 

All the freemen together obtained 3 muids of wheat, raised by 
Brinckman's Company. What was raised by the other freemen 
was, as already mentioned, used as seed. 

This season, however, excepting the Commander's land, which 
did not produce more than 12 bushels, the 143 morgen of land 
will evidently yield well, BO that some will be able to reduce their 
debts. But if the price fixed by you on the 16th April last is to 
remain in force the cultivators will not be able to save themselves, 
as they have to suffer great labour and expense, before they are 
able to make this raw soil fit for cultivation. It would also 
deprive them of all inclination for their work. We have therefore 
not dared to communicate your decision to them. We have men- 
tioned it only to our Secunde, the junior Merchant Boeloff do 
Man, in order to create no discouragement or slackening of zeal 
among them, and therefore for a long while we have kept the price 
fixed a secret from them, and told them that you expected our further 
advices. They are very anxious to know the prices at which thoy will 
be able to pay their way (behouden blyven), as they expect to obtain 
f 10 for each muid, or f225 per last of 3,600 Ibs. as mentioned in 
our journal of the 23rd December, 1658, which is worth reading. 
It is therefore our opinion, subject to yours, after a fair estimate has 
been made, in order to encourage these people in their beginnings and 
not to discourage them entirely as we have seen that in the first year 
hardly seed corn could be won, and that the most industrious (the 
others being nothing worth speaking of) were able to supply a little 
the second year and bearing in mind that during those two years 
they had nothing but expenses that they will not be able to 



80 

supply at the closest calculations any wheat at less than 32 stivers 
oth March. P er bushel (though they expected a rixdollar) and other grain in 
proportion. Reckoning a last at 3,600 Ibs., we weighed every 
bushel and found it to be fully 40 Ibs., or 90 bushels, or 22 1 
muids at f6=f!44. Such a last would be equal to 1 
Indian lasts, which are reckoned at 3,000 Ibs. each, and would 
realise accordingly f!20 or 50 reals of 48 stivers, which we con- 
sider a fair price, as such a last of wheat, even at the lowest 
rates, is never sold at Batavia for less than 65 or 70 and often 
realises as much as 80 reals, or 32 stivers per bushel, or f6. 8. 
per muid, as calculated above. We believe that the freemen 
would come out with that, although they expect more. Before 
the receipt of your letter aforesaid, we had brought up in the 
books the wheat raised by the Company at 30 stivers per 
bushel, or f6 per muid, or 45 reals per Indian last, and the other 
grain in proportion see our books of the 30th Aprillast. But in 
order to encourage the freemen and not make them lose heart, we 
have debited them with seed and other corn advanced to them at 
32 stivers per bushel, until we receive positive orders from you to be 
carried out promptly. In our opinion it will be better to calculate 
the grain according to the Indian last of 3,000 Ibs. because it will all 
be sent thither and not to Patria. 

You will also be pleased to consider that if you fix a lower price, 
private speculators will intervene, and most of the outward bound 
officials will buy up large quantities, for the sake of the profits which 
can be made on them at Batavia. This it will be hardly possible to pre- 
vent in consequence of the facilities existing at the Salt River whence 
the grain is removed at night time ; unless the expense is incurrel to 
close the river with a boom and station boomguards there, or impose 
an export duty or any other tax. 

We did not dare to communicate to the freemen that you had 
fixed the price of wheat at f 100 per last of 3,600 Ibs., as we beheld 
their utter dismay when they were told that whatever was advanced 
to them in the form of tools, &c., for agricultural purpose, food, &c., 
was not to exceed the sum off 200, which most of them had already 
far exceeded, and which would have been much more, if we had not in 
time attended to it, and decreed how much each one might fetch 
monthly, under the pretext that as we had to obtain our supplies from 
other places, we could not allow more, if we were not to run short, 
&c., for every one endeavoured to fetch what was moveable, as if 
payment would never be required. This could not be prevented 
among themselves, as being divided into companies, the one lived 
richly and the other soberly, whilst the same difference existed in 
regard to their diligence in attending to their own affairs or agricul- 
ture ; all which urged us to be very careful, and now that we have 
obtained your orders fixing such a small sum for advances, we find 
that we have exceeded the limit and that the-f reemen, in consequence 



81 

of our strict supervision are very much dissatisfied, and at present 
dismayed at your order fixing the small sum of f200 beyond 
which no further advance shall be allowed, as well as the small 
price for their grain. They appeal accordingly to the verbal promise 
of the Hon. Commissioner van Groens, who, when he was here, 
assured them, so they maintain, especially at the house of Harman 
Remajenne one of the laziest and most talkative of the lot that 
the freemen, though they had left the Company's service in debt, 
would have the right to obtain their provisions from the Company 
on credit until they were able to repay the debt with grain. They 
were also to be accommodated with all kinds of tools, oxen, cows, 
sheop, and whatever else they might need for agriculture, as well 
as the free cattle trade (with the natives) and the building of their 
houses, granaries, &c. On these promises we have acted, excepting 
the cattle trade for reasons mentioned by you ; nor could we do 
less, for when the Hon. Cuneus was here as Commissioner, he 
agreed, in presence of the vice-Commander (of the fleet), the Hon. 
Wynant Rutgers (ex-Receiver General of India), that we should 
not be too narrow, but should continue to issue on credit whatever 
they required, until they were able to pay with grain. The chance 
of their doing so we expect to see soon. Biit as the Hon. Cuneus 
did not give us his written orders on the subject, and yours are in 
conflict with his verbal instructions to us on the subject, we have 
not dared to act any longer in accordance with his suggestions, as 
the freemen had already exceeded the credit limit fixed by you, 
and, accordingly, made everyone pay cash for his necessaries, so 
that it may readily be understood that those who had already 
exceeded the limit of credit fixed by you were not only dismayed, 
but great distress was caused among them. 

But if we were to speak from experience, we would, under 
correction, fully agree with the promises of the Hon. Commis- 
sioners aforesaid, as the freemen should individually be debited 
with not less than f 1,000 for advances. This the Commander found 
since June last in his own case (when he started farming), for he 
has already smothered nearly f3,000 in expenses on agriculture, 
without as yet having received any returns, as already previously 
mentioned, for during the first two years, no crops could always be 
depended on, even from the very best lands, and every agricultural 
establishment (bouwery) must have at least 

10 draft oxen, at f 12 f!20 

6 milch cows, (but those who have wives have 12) at f 12 72 
50 sheep, at f 3 150 

Total .. .. 342 



If 69. This first necessar}" expenditure therefore already ex- 

5th March, ceeds 300. Add to this all kinds of tools, such as 

ploughs, harrow.?, wagons, shovels, spades, picks, 
mattocks, axes and many other materials, such as 
nails, locks, hinges and other iron work for their 
granaries, stores, dwellings, &c., which, before every- 
thing is in proper trim, would cost almost as much, 
hut in order to calculate in round sums, let us fix the 
amount at . . . . . . . . . . . . f258 

Add to this their provisions for at least 2 years, which 
they are to receive on credit, calculating soberly for 
one year for each man flOO, so that if we have two 
farmers and two farm servants, or four eaters for two 
years, the amount will be . . . . . . . . f'8uO 

For 3 male or female slaves allowed by you at flOO 
each, the price at which the Guinea slaves were sold, 
who were stronger than those of Angola, independent 
of the food for 6 slaves for the farm of two owners . f600 



f2,000 

From this it is evident that no free agriculturist alone, or two 
together, can be put into position with less than f2,000, namely, 
those who have no balance in their favour in the Company's books 
when becoming free. 

But as most of the freemen have entered into partnership, some 
four, others three and others two together, and as we carefully 
looked after them from the commencement, the debt of each 
individual never exceeded f200, the sum fixed by you. However, 
they also received advances for 2 or 3 slaves at f 100 each, or f300 
in addition to the f200 mentioned, or, altogether, f500 for each 
freeman, excepting Jan B/eyniersz because of his squanderings 
and prattling habits, and his doing very little, neglecting mostly 
everything, who owes more than the amount fixed, and is evidently 
a man to keep back the whole Cape (om de gansche Caep te verset- 
ten). The other freemen, however, who are neither agriculturists 
nor fishermen, do not require such an advance, so that from the 
commencement they did not receive more than what stood to their 
credit in the Company's books, and in order to convenience these 
and others more, we have persuaded some private individuals to 
lend them money on interest (gelt a deposito te doen), in order to 
relieve the Company somewhat, but especially to tie both borrower 
and lender more closely to the Cape. In our opinion, this lending 
of money among one another is a good expedient. 

The free sawyer, Leendert Corneliez of Zevenhuysen, was 
accommodated with 12 slaves, who all ran away from him. This 
put him back considerably, as provisions ha^ been advanced to 



88 

him on credit for himself and his Dutch servants. By means of 
his plank-sawing, however, he will, should he remain in good 
health, be able to recover himself, as he is an industrious man, 
and of great benefit to the freemen and the Company with his 
planks and other woodwork required for buildings, &c. However, 
we would not have advanced him or any one else so much, if we 
had been sooner informed of your intentions in this respect ; but 
it was necessary to do so, as no one would have ventured on free- 
dom with such paltry assistance, as already mentioned in our 
previous letters, viz., that at the first start they were to be sup- 
ported, &c., and in your previous letters in reply you instructed us 
always to give them a helping hand, though we never did it as 
often as we saw that it was necessary and they liked us to do, as 
we feared that their debts to the Company would become too 
great, as we now already see, so that we have notified it to them, 
which has caused discouragement and faintheartedness among 
some poor ones, which became worse when we informed them of 
the price fixed by you on their grain. And though they have 
received their lands for nothing, we declare, gentlemen, from our 
own experience, that they will hardly be able to supply any grain 
for less than the price, as calculated by us above, and we express 
this our opinion with an eye to the general welfare and the 
salvation (behoudenisse) of the freemen, but principally also in 
the interest of the Company, it being your principal object to pro- 
mote agriculture, which cannot very well be encouraged without a 
reasonable price. We have accordingly promised them to write to 
you in their favour, and do so now, expecting your reply. In the 
meanwhile we shall debit the Company with the grain received 
from them at 50 reals per last of 3,000 Ibs. (Batavia), or 32 stivers 
per bushel. 

At this rate each Ib. of wheaten bread will still be saleable at 1^ 
stivers if baked and sold by the free bakers, rye loaves in proportion, 
which would not come to more than 35 or 40 reals per Indian last. 

And that they may have a further source of innome, the freemen 
assure you that they can now supply the ships with a fair quantity 
of cattle, for which they are prepared to pay a reasonable recogni- 
tion. Their breeding ewes and increase they wish to sell among 
each other tind the rams to the officers and men of the Company's 
ships, who would now and then desire to buy some provisions of 
their own more than what the Company supplies. This does not 
seem strange to us, as a fair profit would be secured to the Com- 
pany out of the recognition. We therefore await your orders on 
this also, for it will cost the Company nothing if any officers or 
men of the ships buy anything from the freemen, though it will 
serve as an additional refreshment, for besides what they receive 
from the Company, they buy many other things, such as fowls, 
geese, ducks, eggs, fresh butter, cheese, milk, &e., which, if the 



84 

Company were to supply in proportion to the demand, it would 
March. nave ^ incur a too enormous expense, for each large ship is daily 
supplied for two meals with 6 or 8 oxen and 10 or 12 sheep, and 
the smaller ones in proportion, besides garden and ground fruit. 
This has been customary for a long time, that the men be 
well refreshed. Moreover, each ship takes away with her, for at 
least a 12 or 14 days' supply, carrots, beet, parsnips, turnips, 
cabbages, &c. 

In refreshing the ships the following rule is maintained, viz. : 
As long as the ships remain here, vegetables are supplied to the 
men for two meals, so that they can eat as much as they like. 
Nothing of it must remain over. For the voyage the vessels 
receive carrots, cabbages, &c., as already mentioned, as they last 
for a considerable time. The vegetables always consist of what 
the season produces, viz. : chervil, whitebeet, sorrel, fine and coarse, 
marjoram, fennel, dill, leeks, onions, purslain, and also, almost the 
whole year through, curly, cruyff or sprout cabbage, by some also 
called farmers' cabbage (Boereu cool), and by the old East India 
Marines kaffir cabbage (Kaffir cool), because it curls like the hair 
of the Kaffirs. It is an excellent refreshment, and can remain over 
a whole year, and though we did not have much trouble with it, 
we did our best to grow an abundance of it. Also in plenty for 
every one, radishes, cress and salad, water melons and melons, 
of which often from 400 to 500 were sent on board, for which 
Indian fruits principally the outward bound winter, and Indian 
return ships are in time, of all which (produce) at present, accord- 
ing to your orders the quality and quantity are specified in the 
expenditure account, copies of which are sent to all the Chambers 
that all may see what their ships receive when here, and that the 
complaints of the crews that the saloon obtain the best and most 
of everything are unfounded, and that they are very wrong in 
their supposition. It is not unlikely that those of the saloon 
select some of the best things, but such a superabundance is sent 
on board, that after having lain here 4 or 5 days they feel satiated. 
Immediately after arrival they are greedy enough, but after that 
they will hardly take the trouble to convey the refreshments on 
board, or such vegetables as they require for the voyage, con- 
sisting of cabbages (sluyt cool), carrots, &c. They, however, stow 
away, and hide for all that whole barrels and boxes full, which 
is something else than that those of the saloon take everything 
for themselves. Some of the officers who look carefully after their 
men, succeed in saving fresh provisions to a fortnight after leav- 
ing, whilst those of the saloon preserve their own for two or three 
months, because they pickle the hardest cabbage heads and hang 
them up, so that no one, much less the crews, need complain of 
scanty fare On the contrary, they should boast of abundance 
instead of insufficiency. They could not easily do the latter, 



85 

as the refreshments, as already said, satiate them (haer doet 1669, 
walgen) and make them despise everything, however good it may 5th M 
be, and despite whatever trouble and labour, which garden work 
always entails, are applied for the purpose. As the vegetables are 
collected in baskets within the gardens, and afterwards trans- 
ferred into bags and thus placed in the boats for shipment, they 
naturally arrive on board in a withered state and do not appear 
attractive as may be supposed ; but this can hardly be prevented, 
as they are cut beforehand in order to be in readiness, to say 
nothing of their ill treatment by the ships' crews, through 
whose hands they pass at least half a day and a whole night 
before they are cooked ; for they are fetched in the evening in 
order to be boiled the next day, unless there are only one or two 
ships in the bay, when they are fetched in the morning early, 
to be used the same day ; but this is impossible when there are 
more ships, for it has often happened that when there were from 
nine to fifteen ships in the bay, 14 or 15 men had to be employed 
exclusively in preparing the vegetables for shipment. 

Other delicacies are also found here, such as Turkisli and 
Haricot beans, which every one can buy from the burghers, and 
as much as he requires ; also water and other melons, &o. by 
thousands, which are very acceptable on board, no matter how 
many may be sent thither. If the Company had to pay for eveiything 
the bill would run up mighty high, but if you understand it iu 
that way, the freemen might supply all these articles direct at a 
reasonable price, whilst besides saving the Company expense, 
nothing would be more satisfactory to both sides than that the one 
might buy as he likes and the freemen sell at their own free will, for 
they would obtain more for their produce in that way than the 
Company would pay for it. 

Four persons have received their freedom, and with two decked 
boats navigate between this, Dassen Island and Saldanha Bay, as 
fishermen and train oil boilers. They are a great accommodation 
with their train oil at f8 the half aum, for the Company as well 
as the public. Nor do they add a little to our food store by 
supplying seals' meat at 50 stivers per 100 Ibs. salted and dried for . 
feeding the slaves ; and especially fish at 1 reals per 100 Ibs. 
salted, or two reals dried and delivered to the Company ; besides 
the fresh eggs brought by them in thousands as a special delicacy 
and restora' ion for the crews of the vessels. Four or six they sell 
for a double stiver, so that we do not know what may be further 
wanting in the shape of sufficient refreshment, as all these articles 
are obtainable, besides fresh milk, butter, &o., and the enjoj'ment 
of beef, mutton and garden produce provided by the Com' 
pany. 

How all this is being carried out for providing the ships with 
abundant refreshments, and according to your orders how 



86 

1659. everything has been brought up in our accounts in detail, we have 

5th March, already mentioned fully above, having slightly skipped the latter part 

of your general despatch of the 16th April last. We shall 

continue to display the same care, so that your orders will be well 

attended to. 

We have already mentioned the salting down of meat and the 
brewing of beer which succeeded admirably, so that we send you 
two barrels of each. 

This year we also pressed a little wine (een cleyn proeffieu), 
which also gives fair promise of success. 

We have fully written about the poor prospects of obtaining 
ivory, &c., that is, as long as we have only these lazy Hottentoos 
to deal with, but we are very sanguine of soon discovering other 
nations, yea ! should it please God ! even those of Monopo'apa 
and Davagul, where the Kmporer of that country (van dit landt) 
according to Linschoten has his Court, and whence all the gold 
is conveyed to Mosambique, which is as far from it as this Cape. 
Thither, as already mentioned, six volunteers and a Company's 
servant, seven all told, proceeded on the 3rd February last, having 
freely offered their services for that purpose, with the intention of 
not returning before they had discovered towns and other nations, 
principally those who, according to Eva's statement, dwell in stone 
(Pbrick) houses, and wear prepared skins. They possess many 
tusks, and labour with slaves, so that our hopes in this respect are 
great, though we hesitate to write about the matter before we have 
obtained further information, which can only come to us in time, 
when we shall not neglect to advise you. Thank God, as already 
said, everything has been brought to a desirable condition 
here, both as regards agriculture and the barter and breeding 
of cattle, pigs and tame birds, &c., so that henceforth, 
every thing need only be maintained with good order and government, 
and with a continuation of diligence developed. It would extend 
this letter too much if we were to mention the ordinances issued 
by us in these and other matters, so that we refer you to our suc- 
cessive resolutions and placcaten, as well as our journals, herewith 
annexed. These annexures will also tell you what we have done, 
since our last letter, in the case of Kerry (banished on Robben 
Island) and the Caapmen, and how excellent the result has been 
to the Company, viz., that since, the trade has been much better 
than ever before, and is carried on by the natives without anxiety 
and continuously, so that at present the Company is very rich in 
cattle and sheep, and also in such a tranquil state, and so directly 
the opposite of former conditions, that no Hottentoo dares any 
longer to think of doing any mischief to the smallest of our boys, 
or stealing anything from them, which previously happened very 
frequently to our great annoyance. This resulted from their 
having believed (as it seems) that we did not dare to hurt them or 



87 

avenge ourselves, but now they have seen otherwise from the steps 
taken with Herry, &c. (See our Journal of July.) * fitll 

We were obliged to adopt that course, in consequence of the 
desertion of our slaves, who. we believed, were harboured by them, 
and our annoyance was intensified by their haughty words and 
deeds to such an extent tint it had become no longer tolerable, so 
that the Council, strengthened with the chief merchant, Willem 
Bastincq, of the ship Print Willem of Zealand, decided to act 
according to Resolution of the 22nd June last, viz., first to seize 
the two principal Caapmen hordes (when in the Port), as well as 
two others that had riot long before, when Mr. Cuneus was here, 
stolen some cattle from the freemen and 15 sheep from the Com- 
pany. Kerry was at the time lying with a large number of cattle 
and sheep about half an hour's walk distant from the Fort, at the 
Salt Kiver, and believing that he was on the best terms with us, 
permitted himself to be persuaded by good words also to enter (he 
Fort and the office of the Commander. On the 3rd July following 
Sergeant Jan van Harwarden was ordered to surround with con- 
cealed arms the camp of Herry, and bring to the Fort all his cattle. 
This was neatly done in the presence of Herry (who was standing 
next to us on the ramparts), but not without danger of his (the 
sergeant's) life, as some bold Hottentoos hurled their assegays at 
him, one of whom was killed and three or four wounded, who had 
with the assistance of other Hottentoos endeavoured three times to 
recapture the cattle, but being on horseback, our men each time 
succeeded in overtaking them, and besides wounding some and 
killing one, as already said, finally brought the animals home, 
consisting of 110 very beautiful cattle and 250 excellent sheep, so 
that the stolen cattle and merchandise ere this entrusted to Herry 
has been beautifully repaid with them, whilst at the same time the 
murder of the Dutch boy was avenged in the killing of the one 
Hottentoo and the wounding of some others. All this was done 
in one forenoon. (See our Journal of the 3rd July.) 

When Herry had been seized with the other Caapmen, all sat 
in equally great fear of being punished with death for their thefts 
and the annoyance they had. cost us. The one cried more than the 
other from despair; some pretended to be sick, only to recover 
their liberty. Finally the Caapmen offered to treat of peace and 
an alliance, also Htrry's people, though we had seized all their 
cattle (all not having really belonged to Herry) and killed their 
chief captain next to Herry, offering never to mention it, as if the 
shooting of the chief and the seizure of the cattle had never occurred. 

We pretended, though we also desired peace instead of war, that 
we were not so anxious about them as they fancied, but that we 
had merely been moved by their entreaties, and that such a peace 
as was necessary had to be arranged in proper fashion and order, 
viz., that for that purpose all the principal men of the Caapmeu 



1669. were to appear in the front hall within the fort, when they were 
6th March, to promise by the touching of hands (that they would henceforth 
keep the peace), and we would put the whole in writing, &c. 

Accordingly, on the 5th July, a permanent peace and closer 
alliance were concluded, consisting briefly of the following. (See 
Journal 5th July, 1658.) But regarding Heny, they did 
not concern themselves about it, that no peace was made with 
him, or that he was afterwards placed on Robben Island with two 
other Hottentoos, who had occupied themselves with stealing the 
Company's cattle, and were suspected of the murder of the Dutch 
boy, &c. They were, however, afterwards (see Journals of 2nd, 
5th and 18th September) at the earnest entreaties of the Chainou- 
quas and other Saldanbars, who pretended that they were of their 
race, and for other reasons brought back hither, as will be seen 
more fully from our Resolutions and Journals. Merry, however, 
was left there, with which all the natives (without one exception) 
were so well satisfied that it is a wonder. Yea ! they say frankly 
that they would esteem it an act of courtesy were we to cut his 
head off, as he has been from the beginning the principal and first 
cause of all the evil and distrust between themselves and us, with 
whom they were now inclined to trade and associate in peace and 
good faith as people of one country and as brethren. But then 
Jderry must be kept out of the way. This was faithfully promised, 
and the result has been that we are now daily having intercourse 
with them as peacefully as before. The Caapmen, however, sub- 
mit that they are unable to supply the stipulated number of cattle 
from their increase, and will accordingly do their best that so 
much more is brought to us by others, and as the trade is progres- 
sing fairly now, we make it seem as if we are somewhat inclined 
to deal more gently with them and to be satisfied. However, 
when we are sometimes badly provided, their memory is generally 
refreshed that the agreement may not finally become a dead letter, 
and they may be kept the better under control, under which, as 
already said, they have already been brought excellently, so that, 
as before mentioned, not one of them would dare to do the 
least hinder or evil to our people. Yea ! they look up to our eyes 
as servants to those of their masters. Nor would they venture to 
approach the Fort too near with their cattle, though certainly with 
their wivss and children, apparently from fear that we might 
serve them as we did Herry, and they may thus be deprived of all 
their riches, as he has been, who, on our arrival here in 1652, was 
a solitary naked beggar without people or anything in the world, 
and has since developed into a rich Cape king out of the Company's 
means, but has now been expelled from his kingdom by us, and 
placed as a convict on Robben Island where he is to remain, if we 
are to live in peace with his countrymen who hate him very much. 
This is very necessary, as it has "been found that otherwise very 



89 

little will be obtained from those of the Interior, who do not like 1659 - 
us to visit them, saying that they will themselves off and on bring ^ th ]yi^ r 
us what they desire to sell. This arrangement has succeeded 
admirably since Herry has been subdued, and is still succeeding 
in such a way that at present all the agriculturists are provided 
with so many draught oxen, milch cows and sheep, that with God's 
blessing, in a short time, the increase will form a mighty abun- 
dance, as there are at present, besides the cattle of the freemen, 
and independent of what has been so abundantly supplied to the 
ships, since the departure of Mr. Cuneus, as well as what has 
been killed for food for this residency, inclusive of the Company's 
plough and wagon oxen, calves, &c., on the arrival of this 
return fleet still three hundred and forty cattle and nearly 1,300 
sheep, which as we have said, will breed mightily, so that we do 
not doubt that the refreshments for the ships and the consumption 
in this residency will be sufficiently derived from the trade alone, 
all the rest remaining over for breeding purposes, so that it may 
be well understood how abundantly the increase will be. 

But notwithstanding we ara living on such favourable terms 
with the natives, and holding such good faith and trust, we have 
(having completely abandoned the idea of entrenchments) never- 
theless considered a plan for thoroughly safe-guarding such a 
splendid increase of cattle (which are better than those obtained 
by trade) lest the natives growing more cunning in course of time 
(though we are also growing gradually stronger by the increase 
of freemen) should again deprive us of them with a power of many 
men. 

This is also in accordance with your intentions that the freemen 
shall at the same time live without anxiety, as they are already 
commencing to extend themselves and most of them are living on 
the other side of the river Liesbeeck, whilst there are many others 
still to be located (who have asked for their freedom). Moreover, 
the pastures here are too little for the large number of the 
Company's cattle, so that we are often obliged to look for 
more grazing ground on the other side, beyond and above that of 
the cornlauds of the people, and at least 20 soldiers are required 
for the protection of the cattle of those living on the other side 
(of the river), at least so long as during the dry season there is no 
grass near the Fort in Table Valley or behind the Lion Mountain 
near the seaside (which land was given to Commander van 
Biebeeck by the Hon. van Goens for agricultural purposes) where 
there are also many Hottentoos close at hand. But if we had 
horses enough we might with 20 horsemen comfortably protect 
the whole establishment, yea ! including the Company's and freemen's 
lands and cattle against all the Hottentoos of the whole country, 
and keep the natives under such awe and subjection as we desired. 
This would be indeed much better, and less expensive than all the en- 
trenchments, or any thing else that could be devised. WQ therefore wish 



90 

1669. that, we } ia( j ue horses as we would then be able to make ourselves 
6th Maroh. masters of the beautiful cattle of the Gorachouquas, or Tobacco 
thieves, from whom we can obtain nothing except old sick and 
lame animals, and we still owe them the same trick we played 
Herry, as they are not included in the peace made with the Caap- 
men, having considered themselves too big to come to the Fort for 
the purpose, so that the matters of their stealing the tobacco and 
the driving off of the oxen and sheep of the freemen and the 
Company, are still standing open. Besides we have a right on the 
Caapmen because they have not carried oat their agreement to 
supply the promised number of cattle to the Company for the 
ships. Both these tribes we had already so far in the desired 
hoopnet, that we were able to make ourselves masters of all their 
cattle, the more so as Eva told us she is the sister of the greatest 
wife of the Cochouquas or Saldanhars (chief) that no one would 
at all care about it, as they would consider the act as one of as 
great a courtesy as the humbling of Herry, as may be seen under 
date the 26th July. 

How and in what manner the mill was provisionally made over 
to a freeman and we found that many oxen would be required for 
it, whilst we did not have enough for agricultural purposes (we 
have mentioned elsewhere). We therefore considered the practi- 
cability of running it with water on the river near the Fort. This 
water work was let out to a certain free sawyer Pieter Kley, who 
having run away in an English ship, the matter was delayed to 
our great inconvenience. We therefore would like to have a 
water mill and a person who can make it. 

In accordance with your wishes we shall endeavour to transfer 
the oil boiling (brandery), brewery and bakery to freemen, which 
can be better conducted by the latter than by the Company ; also 
agriculture (do cooren bou) . We have accordingly decided to lease 
all the prepared cornlaiicls of the Company or to sell them, so that 
the Company may retire from that class of business, as besides the 
care of the gardens, cattle and all other necessary works, stations 
and guards, it creates too large an establishment and causes too much 
fuss (ombrage), for it will be hardly practicable to keep the whole 
properly going with so few paid servants, for, for the sake of the 
manure necessary for the lands, many sheep and cattle are, as far 
as our boundaries extend, to be watched day and night by soldiers. 
Hence according to our calculation communicated to you last year, 
it was impossible to excuse the workmen from mounting guard 
during the night so long as we had only 80 men at our service. 
We had to revert to the old footing in order not to exceed that 
number, and make all the men without exception work during the 
day and watch during the night. This, however, ceased on the 
arrival of the slaves, so that the men may now be excused from the 
works and be employed in guarding the cattle day and night at the 



91 

fort or below one or other redoubt. In this way their disinclination to 

the Cape working and watching will vanish and they will desire g t ^ March. 

to stay here. 

"We have mentioned above that from Eva, the interpretress, we 
have gathered much information regarding the conditions 
(gelegenheden) here, so that in consequence the truth is as much 
as possible being investigated by the expeditions of volunteers into 
the country. Hence she has incurred the bitter hatred of the 
Caapmen and tobacco thieves, and especially of the interpreter 
Doman, a worse pest than ever Kerry was to the Company, because 
they, the Caapmen, are always trying to divert us from exploring 
the country, that in case they cause us any mischief, and then 
flee, we may not know where to find them. However, all passes 
personally examined by the Commander (Riebeeck) himself, are 
at present so well known to us that none of their hiding places 
are any longer unknown to us, so that with 20 horsemen they 
could, as already mentioned, be kept under devotion, as it may 
please us, and we should further be held in such awe by the 
multitudes of Saldanhars that none of them would think otherwise 
than of living in friendship with us. And as already said they 
would gladly see it if we seized the cattle of the tobacco thieves 
and Caapmen, as they suffer great annoyance from them, in 
the character of highwaymen. They rob them here and there 
behind their backs of many cattle. Accordingly they dare not go 
far inland but are obliged to remain in this neighbourhood, 
between the aforesaid Saldanhars and the Company's settlement. 
We wish they were in the power of the latter, but in order pro- 
perly to guard the cattle to be taken from them, 20 horsemen will 
be urgently required, who would, as often said, be also sufficient 
and able to withstand not only those two Cape tribes, but all the 
violence also that might be offered us by all the Saldanhars of the 
whole country. Accordingly we refer to this matter most 
earnestly, and advise the Company most strongly to take it in 
hand, as then all further diggings and fortifications for defen- 
sive purposes in order to hurt the natives, might be abandoned 
and for ever set aside. At the same time the freemen would 
to their hearts content be freed from all violence and protected 
without adding to the 80 men, the number fixed by you for this 
garrison, should the agricultural pursuits of the Company be 
entrusted to the freemen by lease or otherwise. Should you 
agree to our proposal we should require 12 large strong 
(gesloote vaste) cavalry saddles with holsters and pistols as men- 
tioned in our requisitions, that is, if you have sent us the large 
Dutch horses or still intend to send them; otherwise English 
saddles, like those sent us ere this would be better, as the 
Batavia horses (which have already increased to the number of 
16) of which only 5 or 6 are fit for use, are rather light and 
almost like English genets or light French horses. 



92 

1659. Besides, as already said, obtaining much information from 

6 h Mamhl -Eva, she is already commencing to read, and be taught the 
prayers, and the forms of our religion, of which she has already 
divulged so much among the Cochoquas over whom Oedosoa, 
the husband of her own sister, is one of the principal chiefs, 
that that chief has already ordered his people to have their 
children taught by Eva what she has learut from us, saying, 
that he could understand in his heart that it must necessarily be 
true and emanate from the real God and Kuler of all things, &c. 
They also show a particular affection for our people when some- 
times they come hither with cattle or perhaps our people visit them. 
They have also desired Eva to endeavour to learn more from us, 
in order afterwards to teach them and their children the knowledge 
of God, as will be seen more fully in our Journal of the 31st 
December (1658) from which it will also appear what a great, 
and powerful tribe the Cochoquasare andhow rich in cattle and sheep, 
and that Oedasoa is the own husband of Eva's own sister. This 
Oedasoa had lately been much wounded by a lion, when at the 
request of Eva he had with a large number of men been out 
hunting (wild) horses, in order, if possible, to catch some for us, 
so that the hunt had to be abandoned in consequence of their dis- 
inclination for such work, as already explained in connection with 
the catching of harts. However, we are now considering ways 
aud means by which we ourselves may capture some of those 
wild horses which are as beautiful, large, name coloured (bevlamt), 
and marked on the body and the forehead as in our opinion can 
be found in the whole world, or have ever bten seen in it or heard 
of, as may be seen from the annexed hide of a young colt, and 
a piece of that of an old horse, brought to us by Eva as a sample. 
These horses have also been seen by our own people in the country, 
on the spots marked in the annexed charts with the letters 
T: T: 

Last year we also specified in our letters how and where these 
people and Saldauhars are living, amongst others that the 
Chaiuuqua chief, one of the principal captains, named Chaihantetna 
(who had often bet-n at the Fort with cattle) had married a wife who 
had been educated in the Chobona's house, and was covered with 
many ornaments of gold, pearls, &c. 

Now it happened that this chief, in consequence of our con- 
tinuous requests, had been induced with the knowledge of his 
head men, to visit us in December last, (whilst Eva was still with 
her sister in the country) with a large number of cattle and men, as 
well as with his wife (who had very long hair falling down to her 
feet) whom he wished to introduce to us ; but having approached 
the Fort at a distance of 4 or 5 days journey, he was met there 
by the Cochoquas, and as shortly before there had been some 
differences between them, he was attacked by the latter who 



93 

were very strong, with the result that the woman also was killed l659 - 
and he was so completely vanquished that he barely escaped with 5th March, 
ahout 10 men. This is a great pity for the Company which 
through this woman would have finely become acquainted with the 
marrow of the Chobonas country and its resources, the more so as 
the said Chaihantima had promised the Commander to let some of 
our people accompany his wife to the Chobona, &c., which by this 
intervening misfortune has been miserably fustrated. According 
to Eva he has returned to his people, who would all proceed 
together to the Chobona for obtaining justice or a larger force to take 
vengeance on the Cochoquas, so that probably we may soon hear 
of a sharp encounter between these two mighty tribes as both 
possess thousands of fighting men. 

As far as we could gather, the tribes may according to our 
letters of last year be classified as follows : 

Chobona or Choboqua, whom we believe to be the Emperor of 
Monomotapa, dwelling, as far as we can understand, to the N. East in 
towns and castles, and who is rich in gold and ivory, under whom 
the Namana or Namaqua have the government over the Hottentoos 
and Saldanhars, who also dwell in permanent houses and fortifica- 
tions towards the N. West on the Angola side. Their clothing 
consists of white skins, and they maintain themselves also with 
cattle, churning butter in churns, just like the Hollanders, even 
making all kinds of casks. At present seven strong volunteers 
or adventurers have left to find them and also the Chobonas. 

Having commenced with the most powerful, we now come to 
those, brutal as beasts, living in movable camps of reed hiits, 
covered with hairy skins, and besmeared in a most stinking 
manner. These are the Saldanhars^ and consist of : 

Hancumna alias Hamcunqua, the name of whose king or chief 
is ?. They live to the East of the Cape, towards Terra de Natal, 
or in that direction according as the wars take place. 

Coclionas or Cochoquas under the two chiefs Ngonomoa and 
Oedasoa, the brother-in-law of the interpretess Eva, dwelling just 
in the midlands between both the others. They are very numerous 
and possess cattle like grass on the field. At present we are living 
with them in peace, and daily trading with them, as well as with 
the Chomaiquas, who shelter themselves among the Cochoquas 
and are tributary to the latter. 

Chainouna or Chainouqua, under one king or chief, equally 
powerful and rich in cattle as the Cochoquas, with whom the 
aforesaid Chaihantima had the encounter, to the great sorrow and 
injury or the Company, as we have with them also a good 
alliance, living at and also forming a wing on the side of Natal, 
&c. After these oome the great. 

Charigurinas alias Charigiiriquas, also a numerous people and rich 
in cattle. Among them are the little Chariguriquaa called 



94 

1659. Hosamam, together allied with the Ooohoquas, mostly living 
5th March. a ^ ou ^ Saldanha Bay, and lower down, depasturing cattle 
for the Cochoquas also, so that they as it were live among 
them as tributaries, whilst both the great and little Chari- 
guriquas are tributaries to the Namaquas, to whom we 
trust they will escort our people, or show them the way. 

The rest of the Hottentoos are those permanently dwelling in 
this neighbourhood, viz. : 

The Gorachouqua alias Gorachouita, under the chief Chousa, the 
tobacco thieves. 

Gorinchaicona or Goringhaiqua, under the chief Gogosoa, the 
thick fat captain of the Caapmen, among whom Kerry's late 
people or exiles (bannelingen) are now living, and with whom, 
as already said, we had war this year, and also made peace, <fec. 

From this narrative you will be able to gather what know- 
ledge we have already obtained regarding the aboriginals. We 
trust to learn the rest also ; for that purpose no effort will be 
wanting. 

When we wrote about the freemen, we mentioned Leendert 
Cornelisz : of Sevenhuysen, who had bought 12 slaves from the 
Company for his sawyer's work, and that all had run away 
to his irreparable loss, so that he requested some abatement or 
remission of his debt. This we did not dare to take upon ourselves, 
but communicated it to Mr 

There was also another, named Pieter Kley, also a sawyer, and 
mentioned above. In consequence of having killed a man, he 
escaped in the English ship Barbadoes Merchant, in January last 
(as we believe). He owes the Company f300, but on the other 
hand he has a bond of more than that amount on the house of the 
free agriculturist Harman Remajenne, for timber supplied and 
the preparing of the same, the interest fixed at f p. c. per month. 
This property will be sold or kept for the Company as we may 
deem best. At any rate, no loss will be suffered in this ease. 

Then there are the freemen Marten Blockert and his mate Jan 
Adriaense of ter Gou, who on the 1st November last stowed 
themselves away in the West Vneslant for Batavia. They received 
their free papers in order to become fishermen. This Vlockert 
(? Blockert) owes the Company for advances f450. 14. 6, but of 
that amount he owes in the Fatherland f234. 6. 4, which debt his 
mate took over, so that the Company will lose nothing in his 
case, nor in that of his mate, Jan Adriaense of ter Gouw, who 
owed the Company f24. We have written on this subject to 
Batavia and left his debt running on in the books, though, as said, 
that of his mate was taken over, so that should he be sent back, 
he may serve it in for the benefit of the Company, or otherwise 
as the High Government at Batavia may deem best, that others 
may not follow his example to the injury of the Company and of the 



95 

development of the Cape Settlement, for it has distressed the 1859 
good residents and freemen greatly, who are in consequence 
seriously embarrassed, whilst the works are also retarded, &c. 

Last year some freemen's servants, servants of the Company 
and convicts succeeded, twenty-one in number, in getting away in 
the return fleet ; viz. : 12 Company's servants, 3 convicts, and 6 
freemen's servants, leaving many debts behind, not only to the 
Company, in the form of debts contracted at home, which the 
Company do not guarantee beyond the amount which they have 
to their credit, so that she loses nothing, but the freemen do a great 
deal, which is very grievous to them, though it cannot well be 
prevented. Such fugitives will accordingly continue to be the most 
shamfaced and cunning contraveners (contramainours) of the Com- 
pany's orders, unless a penalty be enacted ordering the forfeiture of 
all the pay of the officers in whose ship such stowaways arrive, 
especially in the case of those assisting such deserters, who should 
be sent back from St. Helena with the stowaways, and in irons or 
otherwise, as you may deem best in order to prevent the evil. 
For that purpose a galiot or other vessel, as already mentioned, 
migh be annually sent to St. Helena in order to conduct the 
fleet thither. 

It would also be a good thing for the Company at the Cape, 
yea, most highly necessary that the freemen should have their 
wives with them, and with the latter some healthy (lustige) farm 
working girls should also be sent, the right or best agriculturists 
not always being found among the married. This the Hon van Groens 
had liked to see in the interests of the Company, as often good 
agriculturists are found as much among the unmarried, as among 
the married. The former would naturally marry if there were 
any material (stoffe). Moreover they are fresher and stronger 
and apparently longer lived, and more fit for heavy" work than 
some of the married. These young men have accordingly begged 
us to ask girls (Meijden) for them, whom they might marry, and 
so settle down permanently. We therefore request outward 
bound families to bring girls (Meijden) with them, and beg you to 
bear this in mind, as because of the many applications for passages, 
the Company might make the condition that those who wished to take 
any servant girls (Meijden) with them, were to leave them at the 
Cape, where the good ones might be retained and all others per- 
mitted to go on, for between Patria and this it will be easily 
discovered what sort of persons they are. In this way already two 
(Meijden) have come out and married here, viz. : one of the 
Upper Merchant Reyerse, married to the free tailor, and one of 
the Upper Merchant Bastingh, married to the free miller and 
brickmaker. We accordingly observe and see that the men when 
once married, decide to settle down permanently, whilst otherwise 
it can be easily understood that everything is done but indifferently 



96 

by them. We have accordingly not deemed it unnecessary to 
5th March. mea tion the matter for your consideration, that you may act as 
you deem best for the Company. As Leendert Gornelisz, the free 
sawyer requests that his runaway slaves may not be charged 
against him, or that the amount may be reduced, the agriculturists 
also pray that they may not be debited with the seed corn of the 
first year, as not a 20th part of it grew, and they only commenced 
to enjoy some fruit of it the second year. The reasons have 
already been mentioned fully, and we only mention it again in order 
to await your orders on the subject. The debts are due by: 

Harman Remajenne, half with Brinckman* x Company, 21 
bushels wheat ; 12 do. barley ; 7| do. oats. 

C which did not grow. A 

48-j^ bushels white and grey peas | quantity of Turkish 
31 do. horse beans <( beans was given to him 

| gratis, as well as to the 
(^following freemen : 

Steven, half with Vreden's Company : 

18 bushels wheat ; 12 do. barley; 7| do. oats. 
38| do. green, white and grey peas I did nofc y 
32 do. horse beans j 

Jan Iteynierxz, of Amsterdam, for himself alone : 
6 bushels wheat; 12 do. barley. 
4 do. white and grey peas j did t 

r\t\ i 1 1 i vAJXI, J.-IWU fLi \J W 

23^ do horee beans J 

Vasagie, half with Simon, In't Velt's Company : 

14 bushels wheat ; )7 do. barley j ,. , . , ,, . 

, , J > of which nothing grew. 

1 do. white peas I 

These Companies or Societies have divided themselves, some into 
2, and others into 3 parties, whilst some have for their purposes 
taken up more laad as will be seen from the journal and the earlier 
portion of this despatch, especially : 

Harman s Company, viz : himself and 

p . . , , ~"| each besides their servants and slaves 

Vnmkman . d consisting of two owners, as well as the 

Vrekints J following:- 

Steven's Company, in two parties and therefore with him also 
Vreden's do. 

Jan Reyniersz, quite alone. 

Henrick Boom, of Den Overtoom, also alone. 

Visagie's Company, in two parts, and therefore from him also 
Symon Int. Velt's do. 

Together nine companies, all agriculturists, excepting the 
Company's and the Commander's lands, as mentioned in the journal. 

Rice will not grow at all, in spite of every trial made. Mealies 
also do not thrive well as yet, also peas and beans, so that we 



97 

have entirely ceased rice planting. The others we shall continue 
with as long- as we win any seeds from them. Though good gth March. 
Guinea mealies were sown by the Company and the freemen, 
the seed was too old, and had hecome unfit. However, one 
or two pounds were raised by the Company this year, carefully 
collected in the field grain by grain, to soe whether it will suc- 
ceed better later on. 

Both the Koyhoutjens (decoys) sent us for a bird cage (trap) by 
the Amsterdam Chamber with the flute Elburyh, died after a 
few weeks ; also the young which they had on the voyage. 
It seems as if the European ' handen ' will not thrive here at all, 
as we observe in every kind ; hence we shall expect no more, as 
moreover, in consequence of promoting agriculture no time is 
left over for making a bird cage (trap) ; besides the freemen are 
unwilling to do so. Note. As the word ' handen ' in this 
sentence seems to be a clerical error, and I have been unable to 
discover what it really stands for, I give the sentence in the 
original " 't schynt de Europische handen hier gansch niet aerden 
willen, soo langhs soo meer aan aller hande slagh vernemen, &o." 
They can also hardly be persuaded to lease (aannemen) 
the salt pans, though at first wo offered them to 
them for nothing so as to be able to obtain the salt for the 
Company at a reasonable price. Only after long urging some 
of the free Saldauhars took them over this season with the 
privilege that no one should buy salt except from them. But 
the work proceeded so indifferently, that in order to make pro- 
vision for this residency for this year, and obtain what was 
necessary, we were obliged to permit all the other freemen to 
enter the pans for fetching salt with their wagons, we paying 
Rds. 2 for every leaguer of salt. We might thus obtain enough 
to supply Batavia also if the freemen would not in consequence 
overwork their oxen by conveying salt, and so make them too 
weak for the indispensable cultivation of corn. We accordingly 
did not have brought in this season more than was absolutely 
necessary for this residency. 

Not knowing any better than that we have now fully men- 
tioned everything in this, we shall forthwith conclude 

In the Fort, the " Good Hope," this oth day of March, 1659. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BJEBEECK. 

EOELOFF DTS MAN. 

.Requisition to Patria for the Cape. 

One pier boat with masts and sails, decked, like those in the 
Vlie, and Texel and Hamburg, that sail over the North Sea. It 
will no doubt be able to come here under sail. 

H 



98 

1659. Another, a third smaller and rigged as a yacht or flute, in order 

5th March, always to be kept here. The big one, besides being employed 
between this and Saldanha Bay, might also be used for voyaging 
to St. Helena in the service of the return fleet, instead of a galiot, 
as more fully explained in our letter. At present we have to get 
along with a second decked boat, which, however, is too small and 
also very unsafe in the strong currents between Saldanha Bay and 
this. 

12 bores (booren) for wagon wheels. 

6 entangling nets (warnetten) or 'schakels' (fishing nets). 
1 tent as requisitioned for before this. We only received the 
poles with the HHburgh, but not the tent, which has not yet 
been found at Batavia. 

12 saddles, viz. : large cavalry ones, if horses are sent to 
ns from Patria, otherwise English ones like those 
sent previously and described in our general despatch. 
Also the number of pistols and holsters belonging to the same. 

N.B. In order not to send any iron hoops expressly for beer 
casks, the brandy, wine, small or good beer might be given the 
outward bound ships in whole and half aums with iron hoops (as 
the beer brewed here has remained good for six months already). 
All these casks arriving here empty would exactly suit for being 
filled with beer at the Cape, to be sent to Batavia. They would 
be better than pipes or half leaguers, as the wooden hoops before 
arriving here have become rotten, and aums are more easily handled 
than pipes or leaguers in transshipping, &c., moreover the wine 
and brandy casks are very good for beer, and though the half 
aums may be somewhat small, the whole aums would be just the 
thing. This will obviate the necessity of sending iron hoops, and 
enable us to keep less coopers for making casks, &c. 

For Agriculture and its Dependencies. 

20 wheel ploughs. The Dutch kind is the best. 

50 plough shares with their coulters. 

100 iron plates, that we may make them here ourselves. 

Some plate iron with which to cover the ploughs. 

25 scythes. 

100 corn sieves. 

100 iron shod spades, 

100 shovels. 

For Sowing and Planting. 

Hop plants. The seeds have hitherto failed to grow, notwith- 
standing the trouble taken by us, But as the brewing succeeds so 
well, we requisition for more (hop-seed) to try once more. Should 
you take the trouble to send us some more, we shall be glad to receive 
them with the ships leaving home at three different times annually, 
in order to discover whether they will not be more successful at one 



99 

time than on another, otherwise we shall require dry hops annually 
for our beer. 

Buckwheat. To see whether it will thrive better in the country 
than it has done hitherto. 

Mulberry and Cornelberry saplings. The mulberry plants 
already sent arrived dead. 

The earth should be mixed with strawberry seeds which have 
sprouted, also with ashwood seed, of which only one tree is 
growing, but beautifully. There is a sufficiency, however, of oaks 
and ash. 

For the Trade. 

20 gross of tobacco pipes with the biggest bowls obtainable, as 

the pipes with small bowls are unsaleable. 
20 plates red copper as thick as the sample of yellow copper 

sent ere this. 
500 'massen' red beads, according to annexed sample, neither 

smaller nor rounder, for those who are slightly elongated are 

the best ; and any other kind would be left on our hands. 
200 Ibs. very strong Brazilian tobacco, as a trial, as it cannot be 

too strong for these natives, for it is a pleasure to them that 

from one whiff their heads begin to turn and they get drunk ; 

accordingly no tobacco can be too strong for them, but the 

stronger it is the better it is liked. 
300 Ibs. Martinique or Virginia (tobacco), like that previously 

sent in thick strands and bales. 

For Clothing. 
1 piece black cloth. 
50 Ibs. blue, grey and white cotton yarn, at not more than | a 

real per Ib. 

1 piece fine black serge. 
200 pairs woollen socks. 

For the Office. 
20 reams common \ 
20 reams medium > sized paper. 
6 reams very large ) 
50 bundles quills. 
Ink powder. 
Sealing wax. 
Some twine. 
12 penknives. 
Two New Articul Brieven and the instructions belonging to them. 

For the Barber's (Surgeon's) Shop. 

Medicines as in previous years. 
1 barrel buckwheat meal. 

H2 



100 

To St. Helena. 
To Commander Isaacq Coedyck. 

1659. We were very sorry that you and the three accompanying return 

i>th March 8Q ip 8 were on the 21st and 22nd February last, blown to sea from 
the mouth of the bay. We expected that you would return as the 
Provintie did, though she had lost her main-top-mast. We 
accordingly missed your presence as Commissioner for the inspec- 
tion of this place, in order to report to the Directors accordingly, 
and were at the same time deprived of the 22 lasts of rice and 
other goods on board the return ships for this residency. 
Accordingly we have decided to despatch to St. Helena one of the 
galiots expected every day from home, in order to take over our 
cargo ; but as they have not yet arrived, and we had already before 
your appearance despatched the Smmerthorn to Batavia, we have 
placed on board this vessel, Het Wapen ran Amsterdam, the 
following seven persons, viz. : 

Gysbert van Campen, assistant. 

Johannes de Leeu | to attend to the receipt of the goods and 

Joris Couwel ) return hither with the galiot. 

JurgenBittelmeyer \ in order to leave for Batavia with the next 

Pieter Pietersz and [ return squadron, their time also has ex- 

Joost Blanck ) pired,andtheyhaveroceivedpermissiontogo. 

All shall remain on the Island until the arrival of the galiot, iu 
order to take care of the goods in such a shed as you will be able 
to erect from the planks of the compartments in which the rice had 
been stowed, as well as from other material. We thought this to be 
the best plan in order not to keep you waiting for the galiot, but to 
enable you, according to orders from Batavia, to proceed home 
without waiting for anything. We also send you copies for each 
vessel of a letter from the 17 for the Council of the fleet, as well 
as the original, and have kept a copy here for the late return 
ships. 

In the aforesaid ships Het Wapen van Amsterdam, &c., we have 
shipped the goods brought back from Angola and Gkiinea, accord- 
ing to invoice annexed, and which according to orders from home 
and India were to be sent home in the return fleet, as the (slave) 
trade on those coasts had been abandoned. 

The invoice will also show that we have shipped two casks of 
mum and two barrels of beef, for Amsterdam and Zealand, that both 
Chambers may test them. We therefore request you to take good 
care of both articles and keep them in a cool place, that they may 
be conveyed home uninjured. We have also sent some elephant 
and sea cow tusks, as well as rhinoceros horns for the Amsterdam 
Chamber, that we may obtain their honours' further orders on the 
subject in accordance with their expressed directions to us. 

And that you may not altogether be deprived of Cape refresh- 
ments, we have given the aforesaid vessels double of what they 



101 

required, as the accounts will show, as well as 10 live sheep to 

each ship, but 15 to the Pro-vintie. We are very sorry that you 5^ March 

were not here personally, in order to have enjoyed everything* 

fresh from the land, as we fear that what we have sent will not, 

OH account of the great distance, arrive in such a i'resh condition. 

However, we could not refrain from sending some of our abund- 

ance, trusting that our Mends, the bearers, will do their best to 

deliver it well conditioned, which it will please us to learn, espe- 

cially their arrival together at St. Helena. 

Should any stowaways be discovered on the four ships (for we 
cannot know of their desertion before they are gone), you will be 
pleased to leave them well secured on the island in charge ol: the 
aforesaid assistant, Van Campen, in order to be sent back in the 
galiot, that others may not, as in previous years, follow their 
example, to the loss of the Company and the freemen here, to 
whom they owe much, thus causing great hindrance to the 
progress of the Colony. A.nd we are fully assured that by 
sending them back you will do an important service to the 
masters ; hence we entrust this matter to your good care as well 
as the provisions and goods sent you. 



(Signed) JOHAX VAN 

KOELOF DE MAN. 
In the Fort the Good Hope, 

the 5th March, 1651). 

List of papers addressed to the Hon. Isaaoq Coedyk, Com- 
mander of the fleet (see above) ; as well as of those addressed to the 
Directors : 

No. 26'. List of deaths Company's servants and freemen. 
27. of all the salaried, servants. 
28. of all the freemen, their wives, children, slaves, 

lands, cattle and ammunition. 
29. Chart (large si/e) of all the cultivated lands at the 

Cape. 

30. Chart of the Company'* fort, gardens and homes 
that are commencing to be built in the town, 
whose name we are awaiting the masters to give. 
31. Chart showing the journeys made inland and the 
results. Such a chart will be sent annually, 
showing what has successively been discovered 
and explored. 
32. (a) Journal of the voyage of the yacht Maria to the 

Angola Coast. 

(b) Charts made by her skipper from the coast of 
Saidanha Bay to Cabo de Negro. 



102 

1659. ^ Oi 33 ^ J ourn al of the skipper of the yacht Haswlt to 

oth JFarch. Guinea. 

(b) Journal of the under-merchant, Van de Venne. 

(c) List of the slaves received before Popo, &c. 
(/) Journal showing the trade in slaves in Guinea. 



Instructions for the Assistant, Grysbert van Campen, about to 
eave for St. Helena in the thip Provintie. 

Whereas the Hon. Coedyk has passed the Cape with the vessels 
Amersfoort, &c., and no doubt has called at St. Helena, and the 
vessels have on board for the Cape 22 lasts of rice, some uegros 
cloth, trees, " iuquanias," shoes and two baskets " catappen," we 
have decided, for the reasons already mentioned, to send you with 
5 or 6 men to St. Helena in the ship Provintie, in order to receive 
the above-mentioned goods from the vessels, and take care of the 
same on shore in such a shed as we have requested his Honour to 
have erected for the purpose, until the first galiot, expected from 
home, arrives here, which will be at once despatched to embark 
yourselves and the goods ; and as we fear that most of the little 
trees sent from Batavia in boxes have perished in consequence of 
the length of the voyage, you shall remove the dead ones and 
provide those still alive with new earth, and add to them as many 
St. Helena trees with their own soil as can be accommodated in 
the cases or in tubs, in whose bottoms holes are to be bored, in order 
to draw off the water. At sea they are to be daily refreshed with 
water, and placed below away from the air. This we found to be 
the best course, as as much as a thousand trees could be put into 
one tub and, covered with earth, be brought over safely, according 
to experiments already made. This Marten Reselaer will be able 
to manage well, as he has already been at St. Helena once before. 
He thinks he will also be able to catch the horses, so that you will 
ask the Commander's assistance for the purpose, but should this 
not be possible on account of the early departure of the ileet, you 
shall endeavour to do so with the commander and men of the 
galiot, and offer a reward of 20 reals of eight for each horse, in 
order to make the, men eager for the work. 

You shall also wring back with you as many old and young pigs 
as may be obtainable after the departure of the fleet, for breeding 
purposes here as we find that that kind thrives here very well. 
That more or A ess the expenditure of the galiot may be defrayed 
in one way or another, we shall, for their further encouragement, 
furnish the officers with additional instructions, that they may do 
their best in every way, for Reselaer tells us that last year this 
was hardly the case when those of the Maria were hunting the 
aorses. This for your guidance. 



103 



Johannes de Leeu 
Joris Cauwel 
Jurieii Bittelmeyer 
Pieter Pietersz and 
Joost Blancq 



The persons who accompany you to take charge of the goods on 
the Island are :- 

who are to return with you in the 

galiot. 

who are to leave for home with the 
next fleet, during your stay there, 
but should the galiot arrive whilst 

the present fleet is still there, you may let them leave at once, as 
their time has expired ; arranging their accounts accordingly, and 
keeping proper copies. 

You shall in any case remain with the galiot at the Island until 
the last return ships have arrived, that should any of them have 
passed the Cape, you may take out of them such cargo as belongs 
to us. This order you shall communicate to the officers of the 
galiot, who shall receive it as given to them also. With this we 
wish you a quick passage to and fro. 

(Signed; JOHAN VAN HIEBEKCK. 

In the Fort the Grood Hope, 

the 5th March, 1659. 



1659. 
5th March. 



To the Commander and Officers of the return ships. 

As the wind is still unfavourable, time is left to tie officers of sth March. 
the respective ships to make a more careful search for the stow- 
aways mentioned on the lists given them. We have, accordingly, 
decided to notify this to you, that you may order all the men on 
deck, and warn them to produce the deserters, in order to be landed 
at once, as otherwise we intend not only to write with the following 
ships to Commander Coedyk, but also to the Commander and 
Admiral of the cruisers, in order that they and those who have 
aided them may be taken by them out of the vessels and handed 
to our Masters ; with the further request that none of the ship's 
wage-earners shall be paid before the stowaways have been 
brought to the purse, and made compensation for the loss which 
the Company is made to suffer through many freemen (who are 
among the number), especially Warnar Gerritsz, from whom the 
Company will suffer a loss of five or six hundred guilders. In 
addition to those mentioned on the list, there are also Jochum 
Eyssen and Hendrik Heunnigh, as well as Frans Helmigh and 
Domingo of Bengal all stowaways. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN KIEBEECK. 
In the Fort, &c., the Sth March, 1659. 



104 

To Batavia. 

16..9. g- x d & y s "b e f ore receipt of yours of the 23rd Feb. last, we had, 

ii M;irch. according to orders, despatched the galiot Emmenhoorn tin the 
South land to search for the wreck of the Draeck and her crew. 
See copy of annexed letter to you. Had your letter arrived in 
time, we would not have despatched her ; however, we shall hence- 
forth leave the matter at rest. 

Arrival of the eight return ships together on the 21st Feb. last 
(see preceding despatches). Heavy S. Easters during the afternoon 
drove five of them to sea. The next day, however, the Procintir 
reached the mouth of the bay in safety, as well as the Wfipcn rttn 
Amsterdam, Oliphant and Vli^ingi'-n, on the 23rd and 25th. The other 
four proceeded on their way to St. Helena. Intention to despatch 
thither the first arriving galiot, in order to bring us the cargoes 
shipped in them for the Cape (see preceding despatches). An 
assistant and some men to remain on the island until the 
galiot's arrival, and with the latter not to leave before the depar- 
ture thence of the last return ships, in order also to bring back all 
the stowaways and deserters whose disappearance lias caused the 
Company, as well as the freemen, great loss, at the same time 
considerably hindering the progress of the Colony. To prevent 
this running away, we would request you that in the annual 
instructions to the officers, the latter may be directed to forbid 
their men to aid such fugitives. This year it has been so bad 
that no fiscal, yea ! not even our authority, availed anything, as 
the men of the return ships openly called out " Those who wish to 
accompany "as, let them but tumble into the boats," especially 
those of Het Wapen van Amsterdam, whose skipper, Jan van 
Campen, when, as he was on the point of leaving, threatened the 
Fiscal and Commissioners, who had come on board to look for 
"stowaways," that he would hit them on their faces and have 
them thrown overboard, &c. On the other three vessels things 
were not much better, so that a proper search could not be made. 
Sometimes the provost and guard, standing on the jetty to prevent 
deserters from getting away, were thrown into the water. This 
we had to bear with the best possible grace (waerinne wij oock 
hebben moeten met simulatie modereren), in order not to fall into 
a heavier encounter, as, plainly speaking, not even the officers them- 
selves pretended to check their people, for as their commander 
was not here, they imagined that they needed not to obey 
us, and were accordingly completely unoridled in their actions. 
We are therefore compelled humbly to request you to find means 
to prevent such conduct in future, as we also intend to do by first 
homeward bound vessel, so that being seconded therein from both 
bides, the stowing away and aforesaid absurdities may the sooner 
be prevented, as otherwise the Company will suffer great loss, and 
great hindrance be caused to the progress of agriculture here. . . . 
Ship's affairs. . . 



105 

We forward you this in advance with the intention of sending you 
copies of all the letters of the directors per the Hon. van Almonde, 19^, ^[ M1 
who, we understand, is coming out as Councillor ordinary, though 
the masters say nothing about it in their letters. In consequence 
of his rank, we shall request him to inspect the Company's affairs 
here, that you may be served with his written report hy the last 
ships, as you will receive none from the Hon. Coedyck, who passed 
the Cape. However, our last letters were so fully descriptive that 
there will be no want of complete information, as you will see 
from the copies sent with the Hon. van Almonde, so that from his 
verbal report you will learn everything. 

You will also understand that the object of the Company in the 
matter of agriculture and the providing of an abundance of refresh- 
ments, &c., has been completely attained, and that it is also our 
chief purpose to keep the establishment as limited as possible, and 
excuse the crews of the vessels during their stay here from doing 
any work, leaving them to refresh themselves at leisure. This 
will also save us many troubles. 

We did not think that we were doing wrong by taxing the prize 
slaves, as we had seen in Taiouan some captured prize goods from 
junks from Manilha taxed in the time of Governor Caron, and sent 
to Japan. We shall, however, in future readily and willingly 
refrain from doing so. We wish, however, that more and more 
valuable prizes could be captured for the Company, to compensate 
her somewhat for her heavy expenditure. 

The Directors have instructed us to refrain from con tinning tin- 
slave trade at Guinea as it is too expensive. Moreover, those 
natives have made it very lively for us, and caused us and the 
freemen much trouble by their running away, so that, with the 
reasons adduced by you, we can well understand that the Colony 
would most likely thrive best with Europeans, if only the " stowing 
away," as above mentioned, could be prevented, which would other- 
wise be quite sufficient to stop the play. 

Regarding the impossibility of catching harts, we have full}' 
written to the masters. As the Artichoke stools have died, we are 
at present endeavouring to save the seed to see whether we shall 
not be more successful in that way. Last year we were very 
unfortunate with our cabbage seeds, but now we have succeeded 
better. Having won some seed, we shall send you some with the 
following ships, trusting that it will thrive better than that of last 
year. We now send you some other seeds, as the list will show. 

Of the rice brought us by the three vessels that called here, the 
Provintic, &c., there were wanting 15,784 Ibs. or 5^ lasts. What 
the deficit will be in the ships that passed on to St. Helena, time 
will tell. However, we shall for the present be able to get along, 
as the grain crops this year have succeeded well, and the cultiva- 
tion promises larger quantities more and more. As a sample we 



106 

1659. send, you now 131 bushels of wheat. We hope that all the grain 
19th March will be threshed when the May ships arrive. At present we are 
also cleaning some " reynsborger " wheat, which has a particularly 
large grain, and is white. We also send you some train oil, cow 
hides and sheep skins, loojung almost like small hart or steenbuek 
skins. We send them now, that they may arrive in good time in 
Japan, where we believe they will find a market. The result we 
would like to know for our future guidance. 

The plants obtained from you came to nothing, excepting 3 or 4 
stools of sugar cane and some anan asses. The bamboos were all 
shrivelled up. The apple and shaddock plants passed the Cape in 
the above mentioned ships. All diligence is used in cultivating 
the sugar cane and pine apple, and, if possible, rear trees from the 
" Catappen " (cocoa nuts). 

Our requisition we shall hold over until the arrival of the Hon. 
van Almonde. It will most likely be a very small one, and cause 
no obstruction in the return ships. . . . 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIKBEECK. 
KOELOFF DE MAN. 

List of anuexures to the preceding despatch. 



To St. Helena. 
To the Assistant, Gysbert van Campen. 

29th March. At our request and with the permission of the Hon. van 
Almonde, now here with various vessels from home, the boat 
Zuylen is leaving for St. Helena to take on board the rice, 
clothing and shoes shipped for us in the four vessels that have 
passed the Cape. Do not fail in assisting the officers in every 
way, that the goods may be shipped at once and the flute return 
without loss of time, according to orders of Mr. van Almonde 
given to the skipper, without waiting to catch horses or for any- 
thing else, much less for the late return ships, but as soon as you 
have all the goods on board, you are to make sail immediately, 
that the vessel may the sooner reach Batavia. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN E.IEBEECK. 
ROELOPF DE MAN. 



To Batavia. 

sist March. Our last to you were dated the 19th March. We now send you 
also copy of our letter to the Directors of the T V Jan. sent home 
by the English ship Barbadocx Merchant, sextuple copies of which 
we sent away by the return ships, dated the 5th March, with three 



10T 

charts showing the lands of the Cape, all packed in a box, and 
entrusted to the Hon. Adriaen van Almonde, ordinary Councillor 31s 
of India, from all which you will be able to gather the state of 
affairs here, as well as from the reports of that hon. gentleman, 
whom we have dutifully shown and told everything, not doubting 
that our doings in the service of the Company will be approved. 

And as Mr. van Almonde has by resolution authorised us to 
despatch the boat Zuylen to St. Helena to take out of the return 
ships there the rice clothing and shoes shipped in them for the 
Cape, we will not require anything else this year than some white 
and black sugar, spices, &c., according to annexed requisition. 

Ship's aifairs. . . , 

(^Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEBKECK. 
ROELOFF BE MAN. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, 

the 31st March, 1659. 

Requisition for the Cape from Batavia : 

20 picols white sugar / in cases or barrels, in order to 

10 black ji prevent leakage. 

2 pepper ^ 
20 Ibs. mace 

20 Ibs. cloves )> for the sick. 
20 Ibs. cinnamon 

20 Ibs. nutmegs J 

\ last Japan rice, if obtainable, for the commander and 
officials. 

List of annexures to above despatch : 

No. 12. Chart, large size, showing all the cultivated lands at 

the Cape. 

13. Chart of the Company's Fort, gardens and buildings. 
14. showing the journeys made inland at the Cape. 
15. Notes of the seven volunteers written during their 
travels into the Interior, a, 1659. 



To Batavia. 

Departure of the Hon. van Almonde, on the 1st instant to 4th April. 
Batavia, and of the Zuylen to St. Helena. No arrivals since. 
The distressed English vessel Dolphin is still lying here, and will 
not be ready for sea for another fortnight. 

Annexed is a request to you from our Fiscus Abraham 
Gabbema, who two years ago by order of the Hon. van Goens 
was first sworn in at* secretary, and afterwards, viz. : last year, by 



108 

special commission of Mr Cuueus, appointed Fiscus. Both offices 
4tb April. ne na8 si 1106 satisfactorily filled, but only with the pay of an 
adelborst, as no emoluments fall to his share, as frooman, instead 
of being required to pay, need in consequence of their poverty to be 
subsidised. And whereas the Ensign of this Fortress, Jan van 
Herwaerden has lately died, who hud the superintendence of all 
the works, for which purpose he had been first, promoted from 
Corporal at f] 4 to Captaine des Armes at f 20, and afterwards by 
Mr. van Gk>ens made sergeant at f32 and extraordinarily favoured 
with the rations of a junior merchant with the further privilege 
to keep an inn ; and MS last year by order of Mr. Cuneus, in order 
to induce him to give up that business, he had been made ensign, 
his death compelled the said fiscus through his own zeal to attend 
to everything that belonged to the sphere of the deceased's duties, 
and is giving satisfaction in the same ; and as there is not always 
a military man at hand fit for the purpose, and we had to 
entrust the chief command to a sergeant at f20, or 1'16 less than 
the salary of the late Ensign, we knowing as well as Mr. van 
Almonde, that a superintendent is urgently needed here, 
and such an appointment does not clash with the office of tiscus, 
recommend him and his request, especially also because of his good 
conduct and abilities, to your favourable consideration, that his 
salary may be increased to f30 per month with junior merchant's 
rations, which is still f6 less than the deceased Ensign drew, that 
thus lie may have more authority in his office, and no longer V 
described by certain wags as a fiscal of f 10, &c. and the more so as 
at present the emoluments here cannot be anything worth mentioning. 
We have not been able to find in the flutes Lornm and 
Gortenhoeff the following articles, viz. : 

One screw jack at . . . . . . f!6. 

3 bundles Styrian steel at f21-| , . . . 54. 10 

I tun with 100 hand grenades . . . . 37. 10 

1 tun sulphur . . . . . . . 36. 

7 tuns large nails . . . . . . 462. 

1 tun with 500 Ibs. single middle size do. . . 57. 10 
1 tun with 550 ibs. two inch nails . . . . 82. 10 

Should these articles be found at Batavia, we request that they 
may be forwarded to us in the return ships. 

Also the following persons who have stowed themselves away in 
the last vessels that left this for Batavia, to the injury of this new 
colony, viz. : Dominicus Grerrits/ free servant of the free agricul- 
turist Otto Jausz: of Vreede, who owes the Company f!2. 10; and 
Pieter Aukees, of Sneecq, free servant of the free agriculturist 
Steven Jans/:. He owes the Company f84. 10. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN KIKBEECK. 

ROKLOFF DE MAN. 

of aunexures to the preceding despatch. 



100 

To the Lords Seventeen. 1659 - 
Our last was dated the 5th March, mentioning that we had 2f.t.li~A.pril 
received yours of the 2nd September last year. We have 
fully replied to it, as well as to previous despatches, so that we can 
now only add, that according to orders we shall not omit to keep 
the establishment going here in the least expensive manner pos- 
sible, and without undertaking many works to get on as well as 
we can, in order to attain the most necessary object, the sufficient 
refreshment of the passing ships, and tho reeding of 
ourselves (thank God ! already realised) ns well as the 
further development of the settlement; for instance the 
breeding of cattle is good, which is not being touched, 
but is reserved for work and stock purposes, for as 
already mentioned, the animals required for refreshment and our 
own food may be obtained by barter until we have bred more. 
This seems to us the right way of procedure, as what is generally 
obtained by barter, is generally old and worn stuff and refuse 
only, &c. Having obtained better animals by breeding, we may 
carry out your further intention to give the ships some weeks' 
supply of newly salted meat ; and as regards wheat growing, to 
fill the empty spaces in the outgoing vessels with wheat for 
Bat;iv;a. We already made a beginning this year, and as a trial wnt 
f>,<?40 Ibs. wheat thither in the Prwceatte Royael. But as the rye is 
not yet in abundance, and wo have only sufficient for sowing this 
year, we could not start the brandy still, or the brewery because 
of the little barley won this season. What we reaped was mostly 
wheat, of which we thought we could spare some, as we had been 
supplied with rice from Batavia, though as yet, we have only 
received 16 lasts instead of 60. We hope to receive the same 
quantity with the Znylen from St. Helena out of the return ships 
that have passed this, whilst the late ships, as they were too 
full, could bring us nothing. However, we shall henceforth 
require no more, if the crops are again as successful as during the 
last season, which may, God grant ! so that we may also have food 
for the multiplying pigs, which are easily salted. All these 
matters are, according to your orders, diligently attended to, 
though we regretted it that the Hon. Commander Coedyck 
did not call here, that, independent of our detailed communica- 
tion, he might also give you a verbal report 

We find that you have left our request in abeyance to send 
us another galiot to replace the Tulp, as you were under the 
impression that we might very well manage with the Robbe- 
jac/itje, which we no longer have. How we have bc j en 
managing since, we have already advised you, but as annually 
some galiots are sent out to India, one of them might be detail) ed 
here for a short time for service, for instance should any ships 
having supplies for us on board pass the Cape and make direct 



110 

for St. Helena, when such a galiot might proceed thither 
26th~April. to take on board everything as well as all deserters. If this latter 
evil be not suppressed retrogression must naturally result, as the well 
disposed will be greatly discouraged by the debts owing to them 
by the stowaways, for which the Company, however, cannot be 
blamed, as we have already mentioned in our letter to Batavia 
(hereunto annexed). We therefore request you also that all ships' 
officers, especially the officers of the homeward bound, including 
the quarter-masters, who usually are in charge of the boats, shall 
take care that no one leaves the shore without permission. (See 
despatch to Batavia above.) By adopting our suggestion all those 
who evade discovery here before the departure of the return fleet 
would not be able to proceed further than St Helena, as they 
would be sent back in such a galiot as described, which would 
only be required for that special purpose, which having effected, 
she would be able to continue her voyage to Batavia for other 
service, as we would be able to get along afterwards with a smaller 
vessel, unless you wish to employ it here for exploring the bays 
and harbours from this to beyond Terra de Natal, in which vessels 
might find shelter in stormy weather, or when in distress, instead 
of being compelled to proceed to Madagascar or Mauritius. The 
necessity of such an exploration has been demonstrated by various 
skippers that have been here ; hence we could not refrain from 
broaching the subject, that you might consult the oldest and most 
experienced (skippers) on the necessity or otherwise of undertaking 
such expeditions. Ships' arrivals, &c. On the 20th March, the 
Pare!, with the Hon. van Almonde on board, met at sea the 
Meliskerckett, which had been abundantly refreshed in Saldanha 
Bay with the assistance of the free Saldanha traders, so that with 
a healthy crew, she found it unnecessary to call here. . . . (See 
despatch to Batavia.) 

During his presence here we communicated to Mr. van Almonde 
the state of the settlement, and gave him every facility for a per- 
sonal investigation of the whole. His letters are annexed, and we 
do not doubt that he will submit to you a favourable report, and 
that he will advocate our personal interests to you in such a manner 
that you will be more liberally inclined in considering the Com- 
mander's request contained in his private letter of the 5th March 
last, and which he has the honour of repeating in this. 

We would gladly carry out your instructions to fish for the lost 
anchors, but the most experienced and the oldest skippers have 
advised that such could only be done with two ships' long boats, but 
not whilst the ships are lying here, as they would otherwise be 
delayed in their voyages to Batavia and Patria, for as the anchors 
are not attached to buoys, but scattered about and invisible, too 
much time would be occupied in the search, as the work can only 
be done during fine weather, which must be taken advantage of 



Ill 

for conveying on board water and refreshments, in which they are 

often prevented by the violent S.-E. winds during summer. They 2 6th April. 

accordingly advised that two large boats should be kept here with 

their crews, in order to avail themselves of every fine day to search 

for anchors ; but as we are not provided with such boats, this 

work must be left in abeyance until receipt of your orders. 

In the meanwhile we have instructed all skippers who might 
lose an anchor to sink a grapnel on the spot, attached to a buoy, 
in order to facilitate the search. They were also to take care not 
to throw any stones overboard, and so foul the roadstead more. 

List attached of the stowaways and their debts. (See preceding 
despatches.) 

The two asses we have received in good condition per De 
Princesse RoyaeL The female is with foal. Skipper Marten 
Doedere reported lhat he had had no trouble with them. 

As at Batavia, we have here also fixed the value of a stiver at 
2^ st. and of the double stiver at 5 st. Hence, in our opinion, 
it would not be unserviceable if the Cape were supplied with doits 
in order to assist the people among each other. Fifty guilder's 
worth would be enough. 

We have ere this asked for some muskets (snaphanen), but not 
yet received any. They are much required here (especially also 
to save matches) for the cattleherds and freemen. Hence, we 
have again asked for 200. On their receipt we shall send the 
match locks to Batavia. 

Skipper Pouwels Andriese Steenhouwer of the Hoogelande 
mentioned that when he returned home last year in the HofF van 
Zeelant as first officer in company of the Princesse Royael and Nieu 
Enckhuysen, under the flag of the Hon. Qualbergen, they had 
found at St. Helena two English war frigates, furnished, as they 
said, with Portuguese commissions, which with threats wished 
Uualbergen to surrender to them. Thereupon Steenhouwer visited 
the two vessels in ordinary sailor dress, the return ships in the 
meanwhile preparing for battle, fearing a bad encounter. 
Everything, however, passed off without the striking of the 
flag or any unfriendly treatment, but with a dinner on the 
Princesse Royael given to the English, which ended in mutual 
friendship ; and though we do not doubt that you have received 
intelligence of this, we have nevertheless deemed it good to warn 
the officers of these late vessels to be on their guard, and inform 
you of it, the more so as Captain Thomas Morgan, of the English 
ship Dolphin, informed us that henceforth English war frigates 
would be sent to St. Helena, but for what purpose we could not 
get out of him. 

As we find that there are still dissatisfied persons, notwithstand- 
ing the excellent manner in which the ships are at present refreshed 
and accommodated with cattle and sheep, besides an abundance of 



112 



all kinds of vegetables and ground fruit, &c., as you will see from 
20th April, the annexed ships' accounts, we have decided to give you here a 
list of what the vessels received after the departure of last year' 
return ships, viz. : 

From Patria. 



The 


flute Elburgh . . 


with 150 


men 


3 


shee] 


3 H 


59 


Mese 


56 


99 


2 


55 


Jj- 


59 


ship Dordrecht . . 


344 


59 


4 


55 


5" 


59 


Hasxelt 


50 


59 


3 


55 


1} 


99 


Mat-la 


24 


55 





5 


. . 


95 


flute Gee/mnyen 


78 


55 


4 


5 


1 


99 


ship Prim Willem 


456 


59 


7 


55 


10 





Nieitpoorf 


175 


95 


4 


95 


3 


99 


Leerdam 


169 


55 


5 


59 


3 


99 


Henrietta Low/ae 


,, 249 


55 


10 


55 


5 


,, 


ship Het Hart . . 


1^3 


99 


6 


55 


5 


95 


Goeree . . 


158 


99 


6 


55 


5 


55 


Wcxt Vr (extant 


269 


55 


33 


95 


5 


99 


Harp . . 


95 123 


59 


27 


55 


5 


95 


Emmerhorn 


34 


9! 


10 


5' 




The Return Ships from 


India. 


55 


Het Wapen van Amsterdam . . 


32 


shee] 


j 8* 


,. 


Oliphant 


. . 


. . 


31 


,. 


8' 


55 


Prorintien 


. . 


. . 


38 


99 


8 


,, 


Vlisisiiujen 




. . 


31 


9> 


71 



oxen 



Princesse Royael 

Arnhem 

U liases 

Loenen . . . . 

Hector 

Paerl 

Corten Hocff . . 

Zuylen . . 

Hogelande 



From Patria. 
with 386 men 8 sheep 12 oxen 



347 
94 
74 

173 

369 
66 
28 

130 



14 
9 

12 
5 



11 
34 
2* 

>-* 
i 

15 






The late Return Ship. 
Nncrden . . with 130 men 12 sheep 9 oxen 

Total 352 sheep 14S oxen 

From this detailed statement you will clearly see on what 
foundations the complaints about refreshments made by such 
never-satisfied persons rest, &c. 



113 

The Sergeant Jan van Harwarden having for his good services 
been granted by the Hon. Cuneus above Ids ordinary pay f32 per 2Gt,h~April. 
month and junior merchant's rations, and the privilege of keeping 
through his wife an inn and public table, and having, further, in 
order to induce him to give up that business, been raised to the 
rank of Ensign at f36 per month, died on the 18th Feb. last, at a 
time when he bad agreed with us to become free and devote his 
time to agriculture and beer brewing, which he had already begun 
by building a capital house, which the widow is now busy com- 
pleting, but not as a brewery, as she feels herself unfit for that 
work, but to use it, in accordance with the first permission granted 
her by Mr. van Groens, as a first class (oapitale) ordinary and inn 
for high and low officials of the arriving ships. Without 
expense to the Company, it is being built by the widow herself, 
though the Hon. van Goens left instrutions that we might have 
it done for her by the Company's workmen, she being willing 
to stay out her 15 years term at the Cape, and also having a 
daughter here married to a free tailor. A second daughter who 
lately came out in the Arnhem, though still unmarried, will not 
long remain so, and she has also a son accepted in the service by Mr. 
van Almonde as adelborst. Another little son is 1J years old, 
and she still expects another from her late husband, so that from 
her alone soon three Cape households will have sprung forth. 
Some more of the agriculturists have also married, e.g., one miller 
and one briokmaker, Saldanha traders, fishermen, hunters, and 
tailors. They are, however, much in need of satisfactory houses, 
but too poor to build any for themselves, so that they must keep 
themselves in a very primitive manner (sulx die wat onnosel 
hun behelpen) and have very little comfort (en cleyn genoegen 
doet scheppen), in consequence of the want of buildings. This 
naturally makes us think of bakeries as a first necessity, but as no 
one of means becomes free and thus able to have houses built 
for them, and the work would be very inconvenient for the 
Company to undertake, as more men would have to be 
retained here at its expense, some of the Company's officials 
might feel disposed to venture some capital in that direction, 
if they were not subject to the general orders of India, 
at once on their departure to sell all houses and landed property 
head over heels. And as there are no freemen here of means 
able to buy them, they would incur great loss, of which every 
one is afraid and consequently dares not attempt the matter, 
but if you were to exempt the agriculturists and house builders 
from that order, we believe that the aforesaid families will soon be 
provided with small residences of brick and also the bakers. For the 
latter this is so highly necessary that Commander Riebeeck has already 
contracted with the free carpenters and masons for suitable houses 
for two free bakers, and if you were to agree to the aforesaid 

I 



114 

1659. exemptions, he would be prepared on receipt of your reply to 
26th~April. erec t the first buildings at his own cost, but subject to that condi- 
tion that everything, as well as his lands, garners, &c., on free 
soil shall remain his property at least as long as his children shall 
be alive, and be disposed of by him at his own free will ; and with the 
further one that his proposal shall in no way prejudice his promo- 
tion, as he would much rather abandon everything above mentioned, 
which would at first only cause loss and waste of money, as well as 
no small hindrance, without any present prospect of return or 
gain, but on the contrary loss, as in case of his death, his wife 
and children would with difficulty relieve themselves of all that 
incumbrance. He has therefore made the offer purely from a 
disposition to help the Cape Colony forward as far as he can, and 
the sooner the better, as he has through you the honour of being 
the Company's first founder and establisher of this place, and for 
no other reason did he make the above proposal. 

His offer to continue longer in your Honours' praiseworthy 
service under the conditions mentioned by him in his separate 
missive sent in advance with the first squadron, has been made 
in consequence of the approaching expiration of his second 
engagement, with the confidence that you have been pleased with 
and will further take pleasure in the services already rendered and 
still to be rendered by him, to persevere in which he is prepared, 
trusting that he will deserve the promotion asked for (syne 
Solliciteerende conditie) by his diligence, and further entirely 
relying on your usual generosity and well known discretion. 

With the consent of Mr. van Almonde, Capt. Thomas Morgan 
of the English ship Dolphin was provided from the three vessels 
in the bay with an anchor, a few cables and some sail cloth, for 
which he paid 720 Peruvian or Paternoster reals at 30 stivers 
each, and 72 Spanish reals at 24 stivers as he had no other money 
to pay the amount charged, viz. : flOSl. 4., on condition that 
we had to send the coin to the Fatherland sealed with his and 
our seal, with the yacht Nacrdett, that should they be found there 
to be worth more, that then the difference might be refunded to 
his Masters, but should their value be less, that the latter might 
make up the difference to the Company, according to the annexed 
agreement signed by him and us. One of his Masters is named 
Thomas Hastel, Merchant in Mark Lane (Marcklain) Tower (tour) 
Street. London, to be heard of from Joan and Octavi Tensinij, 
Italian Merchants at Amsterdam. As, in consequence of the 
sickness of his men he had to remain here a long while after Mr. 
van Almonde's departure, many of the crew dying and others 
difficult of recovery in consequence of a certain Indian endemic 
disease from which they were all suffering, he had daily appealed 
to us for assistance, as he could not leave without some additional 
men, if he were not to perish ; hence, with the approval of Mr. 



115 

Almonde (see annexed Resolution), and assisted by th^ officers of 
the Naerden, it was decided to give him 14 of the Portuguese 2 eth April, 
brought by the Naerden from Batavia. Thus we believe we have 
done him a great favour and enabled the Naerden to save a con- 
siderable portion of her provisions, whilst the Company at home 
was at the same time relieved of the trouble and expense of passage 
money, &c., in order to get them home. We trust that this will 
meet with your approbation 

In the Fort the " Good Hope," the 26th day of April, 1659. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 



To Amsterdam. 

Received yours of the 10th October and llth November 
last. Care is taken that advances made to the women (Pvvives) 
who have come out, are refunded. It would be desirable if for 
the unmarried free agriculturists and burghers, at least 20 lusty 
farmers' or other ordinary peoples' marriageable daughters came 
over (nota) no Misses (Juffers) nor those that in Amsterdam or 
other large towns have lived and been educated in large mansions, 
but among poor ordinary country folks (slechte gemeene lantluy- 
den) or others of a similar class, as they may otherwise imagine 
to themselves that they will become great ladies here, whilst on 
the contrary everything must first be obtained from the earth by 
farm labour. Such lowly maidens coming over, would immediately 
obtain husbands, and the Colony at the Cape be thus more per- 
manently established, whilst those who might be inclined to desert 
would completely abandon the idea. And we mention this the 
more earnestly, because we find it most highly necessary and the 
unmarried freemen are urgently requesting it. Moreover we found 
that when the freemen were married they established themselves 
permanently. On the other hand working with unmarried men 
is very unstable and rests but on loose screws. 

Your second note informs us that the crew of the Robbejachtje 
(supposed by us to be lost), had, thank Q-od ! safely arrived at the 
Castle D'Elmina, and been judged unfit to return hither. You 
also believed with us that that vessel was too small and light for 
such distant voyages, nor did we send her away without anxiety, 
but as the officers of the yacht Maria believed her to be sufficiently 
fit, she was allowed to go. (See annexed Resolution of the 23rd 
January, 1658). Naturally one depends on the advice of seamen 
in such matters, but the officers mentioned appear to have abandoned 
the little yacht to her fate, as lightly as they had remonstrated 
and urged us to send her with them, whilst they showed no lees 

I 2 



116 

1659. negligence in investigating anything on the Angola coasts that 
26th April. sucn a voyage might be somewhat covered with some profit (see 
our general despatch of the 5th March last) 

Oi all the plants received, the only ones that arrived alive were 
a few elder trees. We have sufficient rose trees growing and 
would have wished that the strawberries had arrived iu good con- 
dition. This not being the case, we shall expect some more, with 
some chives and hop plants, to make another trial. 

(Reference made to the account of Hendrick Dirckse of 
Naerden, arquebusier, who after the loss of the Tulp at Madagas- 
car, had got on board the Arnhem mentioned as deceased.) We 
have debited the rescued men of the Tulp, who had remained at the 
French Fort at Madagascar individually with the goods saved and 
left in their care, as after all they would spend the whole there or 
squander it at least until their return when they may be able to 
account for the goods. For the rest they had their pay credited to 
them to the 1st February, 1657, when they accompanied the 
French to the fort of the latter whence they have not yet returned, 
as will be seen fully detailed in the books of the Tulp on the 
2nd June. 

The said Hendrick Diickeze of Naerden (as we understood) had 
not been present when the Tulp was lost in the river Colamboelo, 
but had been left by Verburgh (Zaliger) in the bay of Antougil, 
in order to keep the king there favourably disposed until his 
return, and barter as much rice as possible. He was therefore 
stationed on shore in the service of the Company, and got on 
board of the Arnhem on her arrival there, being of service to that 
vessel in one way and another, in its intercourse with the natives ; 
so that having until his death been in actual service, in our opinion 
his salary is due to him until his death 

We have received no medicines for two years, to our great dis- 
tress, as regards the sick and other " heavy " patients, of whom we 
generally have about 20 and more, independent of the garrison. 

We therefore request to be provided annually. Copper should 
not be sent uutil further notice, as we are still well provided. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEKCK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN. 

Further requisitions for the Cape : 

f50 wortli of doits. 

200 good muskets (snap oocks). 

10 rolls flat lead. 

200 hand grenades. 

Some gray Russian leather skins for covering the saddles of 

the horses. 
2 pack saddles for the asses, to be also used as patterns for 

otheis to be made afterwards. 



117 

To the Commissioners of the Seventeen at sea on the cruisers or 
within Texel or the, Vlie, per the yacht Naerden. 

Mentions the inconvenience and loss sustained through the stow- 1659 - 
aways; and the difficulty of preventing their desertions, which 2 6thTpril 
causes great hindrance to the development of the Colony, already 
so nicely in trim, in consequence of the money losses suffered by 
the permanent residents to whom they owe money, &c. 

Further that as this vessel, the Naerden, is about to leave, more 
persons are missing, and that therefore the officers have been 
requested, when at sea, and the deserters have made their appear- 
ance, to deliver them to you en board the cruizers, in order that 
they and those who have assisted them may be dealt with as it 
may please you, as a prevention of such desertions and a deterrent 
to others (see our general despatch). 

The names of those now missing are : 

Pieter Heynsz, who arrived here in 1658 in the Prins Willem as 
arquebusier. He became a free carpenter after- 
wards, and his wife and children are living in De 
Ryp he owes the Company .. ..91. 10. 

Including f90 (or 15 Flemish) Fatherland debt 
to Grrietjen Swindous at Flushing, so that the 
Company would only lose 30 stivers by him. 

Hendrick Jansz, of Noorden, who arrived here in 1658 

in the Qeelmuyden as sailor. He has to his credit f60. 4. 7. 

Should they not be found on the Naerden, they must have 
stowed themselves away in the English ship Dolphin, which left 
at the same time with the Naerden for Leghorn via St. Helena. 
She is commanded by Captain Thomas Morgan, who may have 
carried more away with him, so that in such a case the placcaat of 
their High Mightinesses regarding deserters would have effect. 
We certainly might have searched the Englishman before his 
departure, but purposely refrained from doing so, considering that 
that nation is at present evidently stronger than the Company V 
ships at the aforesaid Island, and we did not accordingly wish to 
cause any inconvenience to the Naerden, as her officers may tell 
you. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 

Lists of annexures for the Amsterdam and Zealand Chambers : 



To Batavia. 

Arrival of the yacht Naerden, on the llth April from Batavia. 17th May. 
Left on the 3rd instant for St. Helena, where we hope she will 
escape every hostile encounter, remembering the encounter of the 



118 

1659- late Squadron under the Hon. Qualbergen with the two English 
17th May. frigates there 

We hope that the Zttiylen, on her return from St. Helena, will 
he able to report that the Company's return ships had left before 
the arrival of any English war ships there. 

The annexed copy of our general despatch to the Directors will 
inform you fully of the state of affairs here. 

The cattle trade with Eva's brother-in-law, Oedasoa, chief of the 
powerful Cochouquas, continues in fine style, so that the refresh- 
ments for the ships and our meat supply are abundantly obtained 
from it, and preserved meat and pork saved, whilst the best cattle 
is kept for breeding purposes, so that in course of time we shall 
have an abundance of fine animals. 

As the rainy season is setting in (the ground being too hard in 
the dry monsoon for the* purpose), the plough is merrily going, 
and much seed has already been put into the ground, with the 
hope that the Almighty will be pleased to grant us His further 
blessing. The Caepmen, however, in this neighbourhood are 
beginning to trouble us again (contrary to the conditions of last 
year) by now and then stealing some of cur best cattle, and 
robbing, as of old, the people of the ships, without at the same time, 
leaving us or the freemen in peace. Accordingly the latter have 
requested us to seize them, and, as in the case of Herry, to take all 
their cattle. However, we have hitherto gone no further than to 
take away from their camp as many animals as they have robbed 
us of, with the warning to refrain from such evil doing, as other- 
wise the peace made with them would be broken (see our journal 
of the 5th May). 

And as these Caepmen cannot keep themselves quiet, however 
indulgently and circumspectly we treat them, we are sometimes 
compelled to resist them for a while, but after a time they have 
forgotten everything, and recommence their old evil ways, so that 
from time to time their faithless thievish nature becomes more 
evident, and it will be hardly possible to keep them under 
proper subjection, or live in safety with them, without adopting 
other means, for every article of treaty they have violated in every 
way, as well as attempted to draw us from the right Saldanhars, 
and the latter from us. Accordingly we humbly request, as in 
consequence of the previous departure of the last return fleet, we 
were unable to communicate this to the Directors, and therefore 
will not receive an answer from them for two years, in which time 
much may happen, that you may be pleased to advise us on this 
point and others that may still occur before the departure of the 
next return fleet, and of which we shall give you notice, as we 
require for our guidance the assistance of your judgment, wiser 
and riper than that which we can command, as in consequence 
of the few members forming our council, we would not like to act 



119 



without it, unless in cases of urgency, or proceed to hostilities 
against these Caepmen, though we are perfectly certain that the 
other natives will in no way mind it, whilst, with God's help, we 
would be able to defend ourselves as well as the burghers 
sufficiently against any annoyance that might be caused us by those 
who might escape. In our opinion the only question is whether our 
case for the Company is sufficiently just in order to bring them to 
better devotion by other means than a continuance of forbearance, 
and so wean them from their thievish propensities, and their 
troublesome habits, and also whether they have not deserved that 
their cattle should be taken from them, and those captured alive, 
should not, like Herry, be made exiles. 

It would be serviceable to the Company to take this course, as 
they cannot be prevented from as much as possible keeping 
away from us other natives from the interior ; moreover from the 
beautiful young cows that would be seized the stock would be 
so much increased, that ox barter would become an indifferent 
matter. 

Nor would it be unserviceable for the cultivation of the soil by 
the freemen ; on the contrary, it would be most highly necessary, 
as a considerable number of fine plough oxen would be obtained 
so that all the burghers would be accommodated, and many new 
colonists helped forward in the cultivation of many lands. From 
what the Company has at present it cannot supply as much as is 
required by the new arrivals, and the older sub-divided companies, 
as what is obtained by barter is lean and old, and the refuse, so 
that in course of time all serviceable cattle must be obtained by 
breeding, which is certainly progressing well, but the calves 
have first to grow up before we shall be able to work more ploughs. 

Having briefly informed you of these and other matters, we 
would very much like to receive your reply, trusting that in the 
meanwhile affairs will not grow so serious that we shall be com- 
pelled to proceed to extremities, but with forbearance and circum- 
spection be able to get along until we hear from you 

Having written thus far, news was brought to us that yesterday, 
towards evening, the colonists of Visagie's company had been 
robbed by the Caepmen of 10, and the new freemen of Roon's 
company of 6 draught oxen, and that the thieves had nearly 
beaten to death one of the servants, so that we fear that we shall 
fall into hostilities with them sooner than we like, as no measures 
of forbearance and friendship towards them seem to avail anything. 

Four freemen having followed the stolen cattle last night, were 
unable to recapture them, though they had come so near as to 
recognise the interpreter Doman and one Symon (ere this banished 
on Robben Island) driving the beasts away 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEKEECK. 
ROELOFF PE MAN. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch : 



120 

To Batavia, 

Our last to you was dated the 17th May. Since then matters 
4th June, wit h the Hottentoos have taken such a turn, that the latter very 
suddenly attacked us in open war, and have already done so much 
injury by thieving and murdering that already 4 corn farms are 
in ruins and their work stopped, so that (Grod better it ! though 
somewhat too late), it appears that our hopes, cherished from the 
beginning, viz., to accustom them by kindly intercourse to a better 
understanding, have been idle, and they can only be brought 
to it and kept to it by force and fear. 

Therefore in order not to let agriculture go down entirely (which 
the enemy has already brought to ruin, whilst many freemen have 
deserted their homesteads and others been driven away from their 
lands), we have with all diligence commenced to defend ourselves, 
as you will see from our journals and resolutions, but more than 
saving ourselves we could not well do, as it is an almost impossible 
task to protect the country houses, cattle and goods 
everywhere, as well as those of the Company that had escaped, whilst 
at present no plough can be kept going, for at least 30 or 40 
soldiers are required to guard the Company's cattle, consisting of 
about 300, and sheep numbering 500, exclusive of those on Rob ben 
Island, among which great mortality has taken place ; whilst 1 
more soldiers have been given the freemen to assist them here and 
there in the protection of their milch cows, sheep and horses. 
But even this measure has not completely insured the safety of 
the cattle, which, because of their numbers, require changes in 
pasture, so that the Company's cattle have to proceed daily two or 
three hours' distance from the Fort, and if any Hottentoos 
could break through among our soldiers so far that they could 
only reach the cattle, we would at once lose all, as, in consequence 
of the fleetness of the thieves, our people cannot possibly come up 
to them ; hence we have liberated from their chains some fleet- 
footed slaves, and having armed them with assega>s, joined them 
to the cattle herds. They can run as well as the Hottentoos, and 
beitig better used to us thau previously, we trust that they will 
prove faithful, as they are very bitter against the Hottentoos. But 
it was not without hazard, but only from necessity that we made 
the venture. 

The Hon. van Groens having inspected the settlement here on 
his homeward voyage also felt that at least 30 or 40 soldiers were 
required for the cattle, which would even then not be quite safe 
from the agile Hottentoos (see his despatch to you from St. 
Helena, dated June, 1655). This opinion has been confirmed by 
the conduct of the Caepmen and their adherents, which we are 
daily experiencing, and which is so contrary to the opinion and 
clamour of some who always cried out arid believed that one could 
force them as children. This would certainly be true if we could 



121 

again get them into the net, as 3 or 4 weeks ago, but as long as 
they know how to beware of it, and with their cattle keep in 4 
hiding and at a distance, as they will no doubt henceforth 
continue to do, they will in small parties continue to do us much 
injury in various directions, that is, in the case of the cattle 
and the people living in the country on their lands; but 
with God in the van, we will not have that danger at the 
Fort if it were guarded by 40 or 50 men, a quarter of 
whom we do not have, as mostly all are employed outside, 
in order to withstand the Caepmen and tobacco thieves, 
which two tribes possess together six or seven hundred men 
capable of bearing arms, and are the only ones that have 
hitherto attacked and robbed us, and against whom we can for the 
present, and until we receive assistance, do nothing more than to 
guard the passes in all directions and protect what we still have. 
At the same time we are doing our best to sow the lands of the 
freemen ploughed last year, the crops of which, when ripe, the 
interpreter, Doman, has threatened to set fire to, but we trust that 
before that time, with God's help, a great improvement will be 
secured, as it is our intention, on the arrival of some of the large 
vessels, to strengthen ourselves with men out of them, at least for 
a while, namely, of the weakest on board, in order to occupy all 
the country in the neighbourhood and around the fort and the 
lands, accompanying our older hands when going out. This 
reinforcement will again cause a great consumption, and conse- 
quently a scarcity of food, as we have this year linded no provi- 
sions from the passing ships, whilst the Zuylen brought us from 
St. Helena out of the return ships instead of 22, not more than 1 
last and 2,800 Ibs. rice, of which the Zuylen, in exchange for 900 
Ibs. bread, received 1,500 Ibs. for its voyage to Batavia. The rest 
had been distributed among the return ships, as they were so 
soberly provided with rice that they were unable to proceed home 
unless supplied with more. (See annexed letters of the Hon. 
Coedyk.) 

But if God the Lord blesses the seed already in the ground and 
what is daily being sown, and the produce is saved from being 
burnt by the Hottentoos, we shall be able to get on fairly. You 
will be pleased, however, next season to supply us with some rice 
to fall back upon in case of need. It would (we fear) not be 
superfluous, but, on the contrary, highly needed, and especially 
greatly encourage the freemen, who, in consequence of this 
Hottentoo war, have been much discouraged. We are doing every- 
thing to cheer and help them, neglecting no means to do so, 
whilst the commander has not abandoned the prosecution of 
agriculture on his farm, and though he has himself been robbed of 
a large portion of his cattle, he endeavours as much as possible to 
buoy them up with the hope that God the Lord will grant a 



122 

1659 - change for the better, otherwise the continuanoe of the war will be 
4th~June. a great hindrance to the promotion of agriculture among these new 
colonists. This would be a pity, as the grain, grapes and all kinds 
of fruit, also olive and other trees, are promising so well. The 
interpretress, Eva, has remained with us in our house and in 
the fort, who roundly declares that only the late interpreter, 
Doman, is the cause, so that he has accordingly risen high in the 
estimation of the Caap folk, and received the lion's share of the 
stolen cattle, and as Herry has set him the example, he will 
endeavour to act the part of a kinglet, and endeavour to strengthen 
himself with all the robbers that he may find about. She, however, 
wishes to assure us that not one of the right Saldanhars has had 
the least share in the matter, and that her sister's husband, 
Oedasoa, second chief of the Cochoquas, would soon, when the 
weather was fine, send us some men to ask us whether we at all 
suspect him of having a hand in this war. These emissaries will 
be recognised by the cattle with which they would be sent, a most 
desirable thing both for continuing the old trade, and making by 
interpretation a closer alliance with them. But no certain depend- 
ence can be placed on this, as the robbers attack us daily in 
greater and greater numbers. 

Those who are now warring with us are, as already said, the 
Caepmen, or, in their own Hottentoo language, Goringhaicoina, 
under the fat Captain Gogosoa, commanding 2 or 300 men capable 
of bearing arms ; and his adherent, Ankaisoa, chief of a small troop 
of people, but very rich in sheep, whom our surgeon did a great 
kindness four years ago by curing his knee that had been mauled 
by a lion, and from which he is still lame ; among these, always 
encamped near the Caepmen, Doman principally lives. For their 
assistance they have accepted besides all the beach and land 
rangers or watermen, Kerry's late people also, 

The tobacco thieves, who are called the Grorachouqua under their 
chief Choura, who has alone 6 or 700 fighting men, and is fairly 
rich in cattle and sheep. He had only lately been at variance with 
the Caepmen and their adherents and did them great injury, which 
sometimes happens, so that the weakest (being always the Caep- 
men) sue for peace. These three tribes have surprised us with war, 
and signified that they will never leave off: so long as we possess 
one ox or sheep, whether our own or that of the Company. This 
appears from their endeavouring to do all possible harm 
to the sawyers and others wherever they can. Yea ! already 
they approach us during the night, and more and more 
in larger numbers, so that they have already murdered 
a fine burgher, wounded nearly unto death in Iris neck a 
boy of the free sawyer Leendert Cornelisz (as Mr. van Almonde 
well knows), as well as some others with assegayp, which they 
know how to use dexterously, and by hiding behind the thickets and 



123 

bushes, suddenly attack our people, so that they make the roads 
so very unsafe that the freemen dare not go anywhere unless in 4t h j une> 
strong parties and well armed. Had we, however, as many 
capable horses as 20 good riders would require continually for 
patrolling the veld, we would keep the course clear, and finely 
protect the present circle (boundary) of the colonists (not extend- 
ing beyond the Bosheuvel, three hours walk from the fort) from 
these highwaymen, which Mr. van Almonde when he was here, 
must no doubt also have observed, as well as that our ideas do not 
go in the direction of further extension, believing that the present 
area contains as much cultivable land as the purposes of the 
Company require. Such an area is indispensable for the plain 
purpose of grazing the Company's cattle (which are already many, 
and which we hope will become many more) on it ; yea ! often 
they are obliged to graze much further, when the soldiers who 
guard them serve somewhat as a protection to the colonists ; and 
so long as the Hottentoos continue to disturb us with their 
robberies, we fear that we shall not be able to do with less than 110 
or 120 men or more, in order to keep everything going- aod 
oppose these Hottentoos. 

As a sample we send you a small keg of white wheat, which is 
very fine here, and a lot of damaged muskets as we have no stock 
or lock maker here to repair them. 

We would like to know your opinion on the wheat " 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

RoELOFF DE MANN. 

ABRAHAM GTABBEMA. 
List of annexures to the above despatch : 



To Batavia. 

" Our last was dated the 4th June. As the interpretress Eva had 7th July 
foretold, her brother-in-law, Oedasoa, the chief of the Cochoquas, 
or right Saldanhars, had on the 20th during the first fine weather 
sent in his first Commissioners, 7 in number, in order to maintain 
the cattle trade, and with an offer to enter into closer alliance with 
us, as well as a permanent covenant, after the Caepmen had until 
that moment, and daily still, cunningly, and with very bold attacks 
also, deprived us of many cattle, killed one person and wounded 
many, as will be seen from our journal to which we refer you, 
that we may at once enter upon the negotiations with Oedasoa, 
begun on the 20th June. This Lord (Heer) seems to be of a 
particularly civil and magnanimous nature, and showed himself 
very well disposed towards us, so that we hoped that we would 



124 

be able to make better peace and alliance with him than with the 
Caepmen and their associates, from whom we have never had 
anything but trouble and thieving to the diminution of our cattle 
and great loss in many matters depending on them, whilst on the 
contrary, we believed we might hope from these people, according 
to all appearance a continuous trade and friendship to the augmen- 
tation and prosperity of the Colonists who also had since good 
hopes on this subject. 

But after some of our Commissioners had gone to him, 
and various deputations had passed to and fro, we found more and 
more that no dependence could be placed upon him ; and though 
finally some good contracts were the result, we fouud that there 
were also among his people shameless sharpers, who when not 
being able to obtain anything from our people by begging, as soon 
as they find anyone of them alone and helpless endeavour to rob 
him by force, so that we have come to the conclusion that for 
that reason, we shall be subject to many troubles and difficiilties, 
especially if we are to preserve this establishment with a garrison 
not exceeding 80 men even if there were no freemen (? who have 
also to be protected), as the cattle can with such difficulty be pro- 
tected from these nimble brutal fellows, for as they (the cattle) are 
so numerous they have to graze far away beyond touch, and 
often be kraaled at night outside at the Company's corn granary, 
fully 1^ hours walk from this. We therefore deem it impossible to 
protect everything with less than 120 men, unless we have horsemen; 
but we have only four horses fit for work, the rest being stili young 
colts and a few mares (only 14 all told) which have been 
thoroughly knocked up by the plough and are only fit for breeding 
purposes. Hence, if at all possible, some should be sent us with 
each return ship or a yacht, that we may be able to mount 20 
men. This would enable us to reduce the footmen with ten or 
eleven more. We therefore humbly submit the above to you, being 
very desirous to know whether, for the reasons adduced, the 
establishment here may be increased to 120 men and remain at 
that figure, as especially in the present war times it will be 
absolutely necessary to preserve what we still have, independent 
of the works (verkinge) . Moreover, we are in great fear that when 
the corn has ripened it may, according to their threats, be set on 
fire by the marauding enemy. Already they have by stealing the 
peoples' ploughing cattle and milch cows brought 5 capital corn 
farms to a standstill, whilst half of the Company's agricultural 
work cannot be proceeded with, and those who still have any oxen 
dare not bring them on the lands, and have accordingly brought 
most of their cattle to the Company in order to be depastured under 
its protection, so that corn raising will yield but little this 
year, and we shall be once more very much pinched for food. 
Had we, however, received the 60 lasts of rice sent us, of 



125 

which, however, we received but 15 or 16, and had we not 
last year had to provide the Honingcn and Anthem with 19 7 
lasts, we might have been able to manage ; but this will now 
be impossible, especially should our corn be burnt down ; hence, 
we humbly request you to accommodate us with this year's 
deficiency, viz. : 44 lasts and the quantity which we had to give 
the Honingen and Anthem, viz. : 19 lasts, or altogether 63 lasts. 
We shall then be able to manage, and if the war ends satisfac- 
torily, we shall be able to depend upon ourselves by cultivation, 
as before these unfortunate robberies we were in such a fine state 
that there would have been no lack of an abundance of corn, whilst 
the first freemen would next season have been able to pay off their 
debts in corn, and possessed everything free and unincumb a red as 
their own property, besides their own houses, cattle, &c. Instead 
of this, however, everything has collapsed, whilst the Commander 
is daily expecting an attack on his own farm which is situated at 
the furthest boundary. He hardly dares to keep his men there 
any longer, and he would long ago have recalled them in consequence 
of the great expense and the uncertainty of being able to maintain 
a footing there, if that step would not have discouraged the free- 
men, for he feared that all of them would have broken up and 
abandoned houses and lands, so in order as much as possible to 
avoid despondency among them, we have resolved to defend it 
to the end, with the hope that God the Lord will be pleased to 
grant us amelioration, otherwise the freemen should be greatly 
pitied everywhere. 

It is surprising that notwithstanding all our searchings, we have 
not been able to discover the camps or houses of the marauders, 
though their persons are daily seen everywhere in the woods, 
spying for a favourable opportunity for stealing cattle, so that at 
present we can hardly advise in what manner we may be able to 
do them some injury or withstand them. All we can do at present 
is to keep ourselves everywhere in a posture of good and stronger 
defence than before, and therefore besides exchanging some time 
expired freemen's servants, we have strengthened ourselves with 
25 additional men, with the intention of making as thorough a 
search as possible during the approaching moonlight (breeckende 
maen.) 

How dangerous soever the times at present are, yea ! so that 
every day or night one fears to hear nothing else than that one or 
another has been attacked in his house and murdered, nevertheless 
we find these poor people (namely, most of the freemen, so reck- 
less and careless of their own lives, that, when there are ships in 
the roadstead, they drink (zuypen) themselves as full (vol ende 
sat) as irrational creatures, for mostly every day they are success- 
ful in procuring strong drink from the vessels, and are acting 
worse in these troublous times than ever before, which is very 



126 

1659. irksome and deplorable, but hardly to be prevented, as they know 
7th Tul how to get it on shore during the night and all hours at different 
spots, so that when they come to get their provisions out of the 
stores, not one of them has any money for the same, but as they 
have through the present war been ruined, they can hardly be left 
unprovided. Jan Keyniersz, who had from the beginning always 
paid cash for his provisions, has to buy them now on credit, as he 
has lost all his six draught oxen and 18 milch cows, so that if this 
stealing continues* the establishment of freemen will not bring 
much benefit to the Company. We therefore hope that God the 
Lord will soon withdraw from us His chastising hand, which is 
still lifted over the cattle, among which the mortality is such that 
on Eobben Island, on which at the departure of Mr. van Almonde, 
there were over 500 sheep, mostly all with lamb, (so that this season 
we expected about 1,000 there) at present there are no more than 
40. Here, however, it is not so bad, as, including the sheep returned 
to us by the freemen, we still have between 6 and 700, and nearly 
300 cattle, old and young, which we are very anxious to preserve 
from the robbers, whom may the Almighty soon check, and enable 
us to find, in order once for all to cause a great fright among them. 

This being so far ready for closing, and the ship Orangic taking 
on board her refreshments, there arrives here safely, thank God ! 
Hct Slot ran Honingen, which had left the Wielingen with the 
Orangic and Terboedc on the 12th February last with 341 men, of 
whom 12 died and 40 were ill. About the same number was 
suffering from scurvy. Had called nowhere. Had been becalmed 
6 weeks at the line. Hope in 10 or 12 days' time at the furthest 
that the men will, with God's help, be so refreshed that she will 
be able to leave without delay with the sick of the Oranyic and of 
other ships who are still in hospital, whose places will be taken by 
her sick, who will assist in diminishing our supplies, as these 
vessels can spare nothing of their pot food, viz., barley and peas. 

In our journal of this day's date you will read how the day 
before yesterday more than 40 of Oedasoa's men arrived at the 
fort with only 8 sheep, again leaving to-day. All of them had 
been hiding in the neighbourhood, behind and on the slopes of 
the Cape mountains, which makes us suspicious that their object is 
to unite with others and surround the Company's whole establish- 
ment, freemen and all, for we had also seen that they took their 
assegays (without which they had come to the fort with the sheep, 
and which they had hidden in the bushes of the downs) with them 
to their hiding-places, so that it became necessary to lay out more 
men in order to keep a closer watch on them, and finding any of 
them somewhere near the cattle of the Company or the freemen, 
or on any suspicious spot, to capture or kill them, so that we may 
also be able to remain on the defensive against Oedasoa, as all his 
proceedings are becoming daily more suspicious. Personally he 



127 

may be well disposed towards us, but then it is evident that he l659 - 
does not know how to- maintain sufficient authority and order 7th July 
among his tribe. The issue is known to God alone, from Whom 
we shall expect it in His own time. In the meanwhile we shall 
live in good hopes. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN B.IEBEECK. 

KOELOFF DE MAN. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

Eequisition for the Cape from Batavia. 

62 lasts of rice, because the Hottentoos, by carrying off the 
ploughing cattle, have prevented most of the lands from being 
cultivated. If possible, the rice should be sent in a special yacht, 
as otherwise we never receive the half of what is shipped for us, 
as much gets spoilt in the return ships, some of which pass the 
Cape. If the present crops are successful and safely garnered, we 
shall have again some wheat to give in exchange, and which will 
mostly be the white kind. 

2 or 3 leaguers arrack | For Oedasoa and Gonnomoa, the two 

1 or 2 barrels cowries j principal chiefs of the Cochoquas or 
real Saldanhars. They have specially requested this, as they find 
the brandy too strong. They are also very fond of rice, so that 
for them alone and their councillors or elders ^as the interpretress 
Eva calls them) 2 or 3 lasts will be required. 

Sealing wax for the office. 

And as many horses as can possibly be sent. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch : 



To Batavia. 

Since our last of the 7th instant, we captured one of the nth July. 
Gorachouquas, or tobacco thieves, and by means of Kerry's 
interpretation, got him so far as to promise us to show us their 
camp and that of the Caepmen. Thereupon a force of 150 men 
composed of the crew of the Honingen and our garrison were 
despatched last Sunday night in the dark, towards the interior, who 
on Tuesday morning certainly found the spot where they had lain, 
but also that not twelve hours previously they had gone off and 
fled. It was impossible for our people to follow them, as they 
were too tired to go further ; accordingly they returned unsuccess- 
fully on Wednesday night, and passing on their way back by the 
camps of Oedasoa, they found that he, Ngonnomoa and all the 
Cochoquas had also departed, llerry and the captured Gorachou- 
qua stated that they had all united together, and that Oedasoa 



1669 Da( j permitted our enemies to retire as far inland in his noighbmr- 
i7th~Julv. no d as they liked, in order to hide themselves from us, so that it 
will hardly be possible to overtake them, and we shall have to 
act according to time and circumstances, expecting what it may 
please Grod, the Lord, to grant. In the meanwhile we would 
humbly pray you, if practicable, to send us the horses and the rice 
a while before the departure of the return fleet, as the many who 
are left behind by the Honing en make our food supply very 

scanty 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF BE MAN. 
ABRAHAM OTABBEMA. 

List of annexurcs to preceding despatch : 



To Batavia. 

29th July. Since our last of the 17th, the Hottentoos have again been busy, 
and driven off some of the cattle of the freemen, and accordingly 
ruined the corn cultivation of Vasagie's company, as will be seen 
from the annexed journal of the 19th instant ; also that two of 
them were overtaken by the Fiscal (rabbema on horseback (4 
horsemen) and shot, one was mortally wounded and captured, 
whilst Doman narrowly escaped with a shot in the back. 

The prisoner, one of the Caepmen, who could speak Dutch 
fairly well, having been asked the reason why they caused us 
this trouble, declared for no other reason than that they saw that 
we kept in possession the best lands, and grazed our cattle where 
theirs used to do so, and that everywhere with houses and planta- 
tions we endeavoured to establish ourselves so permanently as if 
we intended never to leave again, but take permanent possession 
of this Cape land (which had belonged to tnem during all the 
centuries) for our sole use ; yea ! to such an extent that their 
cattle could not come and drink at the fresh waters without going 
over the corn lands, which we did not like them to do. Therefore 
(because it was their share of the earth), they had decided to take 
our cattle (as they saw that we were breaking the best lands and 
destroying the grass) , and to tire us out so ; and if this did not help, 
to burn the corn and the houses, until we had been compelled to 
abandon everything ; whilst Doman had encouraged them by 
stating that because of the sloping walls (after all the outside 
houses had been destroyed) the Fort might also easily be seized, 
so that the Dutch would be compelled to leave the country, &c. 
But with God in the van, there is not much fear of that. The 
outside houses, however, are exposed to great danger, so that we 
have enough to do to keep the freemen in them, who would have 



129 

abandoned them long ago, if we had not given them everywhere 16 ' 59 - 
eome soldiers for their protection, which is a great expense to the 29th July- 
Company ; but we had to do it in order to maintain the cultivation, 
and save the cattle, and will continue doing so until we have 
received your reply, which will arrive a year earlier than that from 
Patria. In order as much as possible to protect and save what 
there still is, we find that we can hardly do with 120 men, the 
number hitherto allowed us, but if we received the horses asked for, 
we would certainly be able to do with 10 or 20 men less, so that 
we again humbly ask for them, as well as for the rice, for the 
preservation cf the Cape establishment depends completely on our 
having horses for the saddle. Its destruction (because of the 
fruitfulness of everything), would be deplorable. On all these 
matters we desire your opinion for oar safe guidance. 

At present there is not the least hope of capturing horses inland, 
and much less of obtaining them through the Hottentoos, who 
have at present discovered too much already how these animals 
cause them injury, as by their means we can beautifully overtake 
them and be at their heels. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

liOELOFF DE MAN. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 
List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

Since our last of the 29th July, the Hottentoos have left us some- 20th Oct. 
what in peace and kept quiet; evidently some fear has seized them 
in consequence of the defeat inflicted on them by the Fiscal 
(already mentioned in our last), and a later attack by Corporal 
Elias Griers with 10 men, who discovered them behind the Cape 
mountains, shot three of them, and destroyed all their assegays, 
huts, &c., as will be seen from our journal of the 3rd August last. 
They accordingly left us fine time to strengthen ourselves some- 
what with 3 watch houses, and some fences made of poles and trees, 
(still in hand) to prevent them from driving off the cattle. 
A few of them had on two distinct occasions shown them- 
selves to us at a distance, and wished to speak to us from afar 
(as they said), as they did not dare to come within range of our 
muskets. Accordingly they each time ran away through fear, as 
we suppose. Afterwards the interpretress Eva, arrived with about 
20 men of her brother-in-law's, Oedasoa's tribe, with news that in 
consequence of their incessant pleading that they were anxious to 
make peace with us, he had taken the Caepmen under his sub- 
jection, and that the latter were prepared to restore half of .the 



130 

1659. stolen cattle. Thereupon she was sent back to Oedasoa with some 
aoth~bct. presents and the following answer ; viz. : 

That not for the sake of the Caepmen, but in consequence of 
Oedasoa's request, we were willing to make peace, but that in that 
case they were to restore to us what they had so treacherously 
stolen from us, and should they agree to this some of their principal 
men might accompany her to the Fort in order to speak of 
peace. 

But sirs ! we dare not trust Oedasoa and Eva, as we have men- 
tioned more fully in ours of the 22nd September, so that we do 
not know what the result of matters will be, but we shall expect the 
best from God the Lord, and in the meantime fortify ourselves 
with the abovementioned fences, &c., that our cattle may no longer 
be so easily driven away from us. 

And should we finally find that Oedasoa only intends to deceive 
us, our intentions are (when the above mentioned defences have 
been completed, and our cattle are inside of them under good pro- 
tection) to detain such of his people as may visit the Fort, until 
according to his promise, he has delivered our enemies into our 
hands, or guided us to them, that we may ourselves attack them 
and bring them to reason, &c. We, however, do not believe that 
we shall take this step before we have obtained from you by the 
next return fleet your wiser opinioB, unless urgent necessity com- 
pels us, and the nature of affairs cannot suffer delay. In that case 
we hope to conduct ourselves according to time and circumstances 
in the best interests of the Company, and with such knowledge 
and judgment as God the Lord may inspire us with. 

Since Eva was sent away with our answer, the Watermen or 
Kerry's people, before this attacked by the Corporal (as already 
mentioned), came to us on the 14th instant, and requested once 
more to be permitted to live near the Fort, with their huts, wives 
and children. This was allowed in order to attract the Caep- 
men also, that we may the better seize our opportunity against 
them, one day or another, according to Resolution embodied in our 
journal of the loth instant. 

The annexed letters of her officers will inform you of the painful 
voyage of the return yacht JEraxmu* from the Comoros and Mada- 
gascar. Her 30 dead included her skipper, Lely. . . . The 
survivors had suffered much in tbe unhealthy climate of the island 
Ansuany. We are busy nourishing the weak ones, which, on 
account of our healthy climate, is very successful. (See our 
Resolutions of the 7th and 9th instant, as well as our journal.) 
We have also decided to delay her departure uniil the arrival of 
the return fleet, in order not to be captured by English privateers 
with Swedish Commissions. Nor do we like her to call at St. 
Helena, which the English have occupied and fortified on two- 
tpots, according to letters of the Masters dated 7th May, hi which 



131 

it is also stated that we are not to expect any horses from home. 1669 - 
Accordingly, we trust, in order to be able to defend and save our 20th"oct. 
cattle, some will be sent us in the following return ships. . . . 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

Lists of annexures to preceding despatch . 

No. 5. Invoice of turkeys (calcoenen) shipped in the Malacca. 



To Batavia. 

Since our last no change worth mentioning has taken place in 28 * h Dec. 
the case of the Hottentoos, except that Eva, on the 14th Dec., 
accompanipd in the Schapenjachtje, Fiscal Gabbema and the 
skippers Mangus and Corn. Lodewyckxe from Said. Bay, who 
had been there further to explore and sound it. She mentioned 
that her brother-in-law, Oedasoa, had given his little flag to the 
Caepmen in order to send their Commissioners with it to the Fort 
and treat of peace. What the facts are, time will show. In 
the meanwhile we are safely getting our corn into the garners, 
which has been as successful as never before, as more than one- 
half more was reaped than the previous year, or about 30 lasts of 
the different kinds, so that we as well as the freemen are already 
living on it, and if matters continue so, will soon have turned the 
corner. It is a pity that this year our best draught oxen have 
been taken from us, and so many husbandmen ruined in conse- 
quence, otherwise we might have had such an abundance that we 
might have paid for the rice reqiiisitioned for with wheat, but this 
is now a year lost. We hope, however, that it will be better in 
future, if we can only obtain some cattle again. At any rate, we 
shall, with the blessing of God, be able to subsist on what is still 
left us of cultivation without requiring more than the rice lately 
asked for, or any other grain from other places. 

Herry and another Hottentoo prisoner escaped from Robben 
Island in a little boat with two small oars, used for fishing 
purposes and communicating with the vessels. It appears that he 
reached the opposite shore safely, as the boat was found a day and 
a-half 's journey from this with its oars high and dry on shore (see 
journal of 13th Dec., 1659). Eva believes that as he once stole 
our cattle, he will now return with many others of the Chainouquas 
in order to gain our favour. This would be desirable, so that 
everything may take a turn for the best, as this year has been a 
very troublous one. 

What happened here since the departure of the Malacca, and 
how we narrowly escaped being murdered, and the settlement 

K 2 



132 



1659. 



28th Dec. 



burnt, you will read in our journal of the 19th instant 
(December). The Resolution of the combined Council on the 
subject has, however, been left in abeyance until the arrival of the 
return fleet. In the meanwhile eight of the principal ringleaders 
were placed in close confinement, and some others who were less 
guilty lightly (civiel) punished and exchanged for others on board 
the Gccroonde Lecuw and sent to Batavia. Thus we have rid our- 
selves as much as possible from those tares, with the hope that we 
have extinguished the dangerous fire which would otherwise have 
commenced to burn last Sunday night, the 14th, had it not been 
revealed to us during the previous afternoon at 2 o'clock. The 
return yacht Erasmus had also been threatened, as the conspirators 
intended to seize and proceed in her to Angola, &c 

The Erasmus has been so well provided from the Gccroonde 
Leeinc that she will require nothing from the return fleet, and will 
be able to accompany the latter at once. . . . 



(Signed) 



List of annexures to the above. 



JOHAN VAN RlEREECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAX. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



1660. 
21st Jan. 



To Batavia. 

Since our last, the Hottentoos have kept quiet. A few days 
ago we observed fires inland and sent out men to reconnoitre, but 
hitherto they have discovered nothing. In the meanwhile the 
corn has everywhere been gathered into the garners. What may 
further happen (opdonderen) time will tell. There is every 
appearance that our enemies, the Caepmen, are inclined to be 
reconciled to us according to the reports from the freemen at 
.Saldanha Bay. (See journal of the 18th instant.) . . . 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

P.S. With this vessel the Enck/wysen we send you tix turkeys, 
three cocks and three hens. See invoice annexed. 
Lists of annexures to the above. 



To the Admiral and Broad Council of the Return Fleet. 
expressly icith the Fiscal to sea in the little Schapenjac/ijen. 



Sent 



1 2th Feb. With humble greeting we inform you that the English have 
garrisoned St. Helena, and that, as ordered by the Seventeen, the 



133 



fleet is not to call there, as we do not know whether, in con- 
sequence of the tottering Government in England, a firmer 
alliance with our State has been concluded, or a rupture has again 
taken place. We inform you of this by express, that it may be of 
service to you should strong south-easters kep you away from 
this, and urge you to make for this roadstead as soon as the wind 
enables you. If this be impossible, you are to anchor below 
Eobben or Dassen Island, or make for Saldanha Bay, whence you 
may sail to this with a W. breeze which often blows most unex- 
pectedly. If you cannot do this, you can always be succoured 
from here. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEKCK. 

KOELOFF DE MAN. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



1660. 
12th Feb. 



To the Hon. P. Sterthemius, Councillor of. India and Admiral of 
thf- Return Fleet outside, sent by the flute Loenen to meet you. 

On the evening of the 15th, between 9 and 10 o'clock, we 
received with the little flute Loenen your very pleasant letter of 
the 27th Dec., written on board Het Wapen van Holland at 
Cracatouw. In compliance with its contents, we at once 
despatched the Loenen to cruize about for you, and to warn you of 
the tottering condition of English affairs, and that it is the 
express order of the Masters that the fleet shall not call at St. 
Helena this season. As the Loenen was kept back by calms, as 
much was discharged from her as possible. The rest of her cargo 
is still on board. We trust that our warning will reach you in 
good time. Here everything is, thank God, in a desirable 
condition. We have an abundance of fruit for refreshment, but 
our cattle have been much diminished by the thefts of the 
Hottentoos and an abnormal mortality among the animals. 
However, the rogues have now left us in peace for a long while, 
in consequence of the fright brought on them, praise be to God, 
so that they are evidently desirous of peace. 

We can hardly tell you how much the sending of the horses has 
gladdened us. We only hope that they will reach us alive, and, 
though the fleet may not touch at St. Helena, we humbly request 
that the dogs may not be thrown overboard for that reason, but 
brought to us, as they are very necessary for us here. 

We have handed Skipper Schrael the Hollandse Mercurius and 
other newspapers down to the 6th Sept., 1659, inclusive, in 
order to be delivered to you, that you may at once be able to read 
some home news. . . . We have also given him 22 large 
baskets with yellow (carrots), 13 do. beet, and 4 do. parsnips, 
besides 450 cabbages, 320 water melons, 2 melons, as well as 



17th Feb. 



134 

i860. other vegetables. "What remains good he is to deliver to you for 
nthFeb distribution. . . . We trust he will find you soon, that you 
may enjoy the fruit, &c., in their fresh condition. Should, how- 
ever, he fall in with you tardily and the stuff be spoilt, the fleet 
will find enough on its arrival here, as, glory be to G-od ! the 
gardens and vegetable plots are excellently furnished. Most of 
the cattle, however, as already said, have disappeared through 
thefts and mortality among them. For the n st, wheat cultivation 
is in a desirable state, as for some time everything has been quiet 
since the Hottentoo war. The latter are, as already mentioned, 
asking for peace, as we shall communicate to you more fully 
personally. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To the Seventeen, 

19th March. Our last were dated the 5th March and 26th April, 1659. In 
the one we wrote you very circumstantially, almost in the form of 
a report (verbaal), regarding the state of this residency, and also 
replied to your pleasant general and private letters down to the 
2nd Sept., 1658. 

On the 25th September, 1659, the return ship Erasmus arrived. 
(For further particulars see journal 25th September, 1659, and 
preceding despatches to Batavia.) 

Ships' arrivals and departures. 

This will be a reply to yours of the 7th May and to two small 
letters of the Chamber Amsterdam, dated 23rd May and llth 

June, as well as to your general despatch of the 5th Sept., 1659, 

> 

But first, as regards the war with which th* Hottentoos have 
surprised us, shortly after all the outward winter and Indian 
return ships had left, when, in obedience to your orders, the 
garrison had been considerably reduced, and instead of soldiers 
we had provided ourselves with farmers. 

This the interpreter, Doman (who had been with Mr. van 
Goens at Batavia and learnt too much there), had very nicely 
observed with, his Caepmen and adherents, and turned to his 
advantage, at the same time installing himself as Captain-General 
over the warriors that had congregated together from the Caep- 
men and tobacco thieves, as well as some men of their adherent 
Ankaisoa, ere this cured by our surgeon from a severe wound in 
the knee inflicted by a lion. To these resorted all the beach 

ingers and brigands at the summons of Doman. Attacking us 
suddenly, as already said, on all sides, in a short time they carried off 
Irom the Company, but chiefly from the freemen, 148 of the best 



135 

draught oxen and milch cows, as well as 135 sheep, as will be seen 

from the annexed memorandum, thus entirely ruining five corn farms T 9t h March. 

and half ruining those of tbe Company and the Commander, which 

are the two most important of all, and that at the worst and most 

injurious time of the year, in the beginning of May, when the 

ploughing season commences. 

The tables were accordingly quickly and completely turned 
against us, and everything of which we had been able to give such 
favourable accounts in our last letters appeared to be going to ruin. 
At the very first we had many wounded, whilst shortly afterwards 
two were killed, so that, as already mentioned, being so short of 
men, we did not know whither to turn, cr how to defend ourselves 
in this sudden predatory war; whilst our anxiety became the 
greater because we had collected and reared such a fine lot of 
oattle, which with our corn culture we had to protect and preserve. 
The first attack took place on the 4th May, one day after the 
departure of the return yacht Naerden, as will be seen in our 
journal, to which marginals have been added for easy reference, 
and to which we refer you in order to avoid unnecessary details 
here, and to show you as briefly as possible how we, during those 
troublous times, placed ourselves in a posture of defence, as there 
was no other course open to us, and we were hardly able to do 
even that. At the same time we still managed to struggle along 
with the cultivation of wheat, which we have maintained so far, 
that, though no new ground has been broken, and only the old 
lauds of last year have been sown, God the Lord has been pleased 
to grant them such a good blessing that we are certain of it that 
we shall thresh a third more grain than last year, judging from 
the quantities already brought into the garners and still packed 
in stacks. Last year the whole quantity consisted of about 
32 lasts, of which 19 were raised by the Company alone, which now, 
however, has much more from the same lands in its granaries 
and stacks. The freemen in proportion. 

Meanwhile the Orangie and Honingen arrived, and we were 
necessitated to increase our garrison to 120 men, whilst it also 
pleased God the Lord again to bless the Company's arms, first on 
the 19th July in the first encounter under Fiscal Abraham 
Gabbema and three horsemen, who shot down three Hottentoos 
and heavily wounded their leader, the interpreter, Doman, who, 
however, escaped; and afterwards, on the 4th August, with eleven 
soldiers under Corporal Elias Giers, when three more were killed, 
and a whole encampment of robbers disturbed and dispersed. 
One of the killed was the chief of the beach rangers, named 
Orosoa, so that since they bave been somewhat intimidated, and 
left us for a long time afterwards unmolested, and we could in 
the meanwhile regain our breath and find time to think of making 
ourselves more secare, and enclose our cattle by the making of 



136 

160. three watch-houses and a fence of poles and rails, as the besfc 
v i boundaries (raarkten) in the Fatherland, 2 ^?) high, and 2,000 
' roods in length, at the places where they always drove our cattle 
through and carried them off. This work was begun in accord- 
ance with our resolutions of the 9th and 13th August, and has 
been so far completed that they will not lightly be able, without 
losing their lives, to rob us of so much cattle. But this is certain, 
gentlemen, that the settlement cannot be maintained with less 
than 120 men, however fine the peace may be ^that we may make 
with these natives, as we more and more experience that (as soon 
as they see a chance) they cannot refrain from their robberies, not 
even the right Saldanhars, who appear to be so much more 
reasonable than the Caepmeu and their friends, for through 
intercourse (with us) they have also Become bold and overtrouble- 
some, and are not to be trusted, as will be seen from the journal 
in various places, especially on the 20th June, when we commenced 
(treating) with Oedasoa, the chief or king of the Cochoquas or 
Saldanhars, brother-in-law of the interpretess Eva, educated by 
the Commander in his house. We thought that we would be able 
to do very good business with him, according to Eva's statements, 
who during the war voluntarily remained at the Fort, and whose 
beginnings promised a great appearance of truth, but she also has 
been found to be full of hypocrisy, so that we do not trust her 
more than as a hypocritical friend, as will be seen from the 
journal dated 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 26th, 28lh, 29th, and 30th 
June, the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, and especially the 9th and 12th 
and 16th July, the 20th, 21st, and 22nd September, and the 14th 
December, which mention all our transactions with them, which 
are briefly narrated here. 

Being then, as above mentioned, suddenly assailed by war and 
annoying robbery, and Eva alone staying with us in the Fort, she 
informed us that neither Oedasoa, the chief of the Saldanhars and 
her brother-in-law, nor any of hia people had any part in the war, 
but that, on the contrary, it was altogether against their liking, 
and that he would accordingly seize the opportunity, as the Caep- 
nien had behaved so outrageously, to enter into a closer alliance 
with us, in order to have the benefit of the Dutch nation, which 
the Caepmen had so long but so ungratefully enjoyed, and that 
for that purpose, as soon as he heard of it, he had decided to seize 
the first opportunity when the weather was fine (the rain falling 
and the wind blowing daily at present) to send us some of his 
men, who would be known by the sheep which they would bring 
with them, in order not to be received as enemies. All this fell 
out, as stated on the 20th June aforesaid. (See full particulars in 
our journal.) This was succeeded by various missions and nego- 
ciations to and fro, but the more earnestly we endeavoured to- 
come to some good and trustworthy alliance and conditions, th/> 



137 

more clearly it was made evident to us that it was only pretence 166 - 
and hypocrisj', for at first he had boasted that we could just sit igth March, 
still and take care of the cattle and goods that we still possessed, 
as he would destroy all our marauding enemies and recover our 
stolen cattle, and by barter supply us with as many more as we 
needed. 

Nothing, however, came of this, so that we proposed that he 
should supply us with a few guides to enable us to find our 
enemies and attack them ourselves. His reply was that he 
would furnish us with a large number of his bravest warriors to 
attack the enemy in conjunction with us, but that we should not 
be in such a hurry, as he would take care to let us know when the 
chances were favourable. 

Of this also nothing came except wind, so that we insisted upon 
having one or two men to show us where they were lying, 
for the purpose before stated, when at last, on the 9th July, his 
hypocrisy was exposed. For then he informed us through Eva 
(whom he employed as his agent with us) and through his 
emissaries that he had to retire deeper into the interior to search 
for better pastures, and therefore could not very well induce any 
of his people to conduct us to the Caepmen, whom we might treat 
according to our fancy, kill those whom we caught, or employ 
them as slaves, or send them away just as we liked, completely 
surrendering to us all who endeavoured to rob us or cause us any 
annoyance, even if they belonged to his own people, without 
taking it amiss. 

But the contrary has been experienced from what we under- 
stood from captured Hottentoos and Herry, namely, that it was 
bis object to get the Caepraen under his dominion for his own. 
benefit, as he saw that without his assistance, we had, in the two 
encounters above mentioned, brought terror on them. He there- 
fore very cleverly seized the opportunity to take them under his 
protection plausibly at their request and continuous complaints 
and lamentations, and to set up as mediator in order to treat for 
peace, as mentioned in the journal of the 20th and 21st Sept. 

But what is to be thought or believed on this subject it is difficult 
to gues?. One thing, however, seems clear, that Oedasoa would 
rather not have us make a permanent peace with the Caepmen, 
for now that they are beginning to sue for peace, Eva is continu- 
ally at us, as will be seen from the journal of the 18th December, 
with the statement that Oedasoa has ordered her continually to 
remind us that the Caepmen do not ask for peace with their 
hearts, but were only dissembling, and that we were to take care 
not to believe them too much, but also on our part make a feigned 
peace with them. 

Above all we were to take care not again to estrange ourselves 
from him, but be for ever allied to him as brothers. He soems to 



138 

1660. dread that the Caepmen will be again reconciled to us, whilst at 
the same time he would not wish them to be ruined by us. 

We have therefore concluded that we have here to do with no 
other people than such against which we are continually to be on 
our guard, the one (tribe) as well as the other, so that we cannot 
effect our purpose with less than 120 men. Moreover it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that Oedasoa intended, in case the Caepmen 
had had any success, to render them assistance under hand, and if 
the Caepmen had somewhat cleared the course, to side with them, his 
intention no doubt having been all along to hoodwink us, and 
having joined our enemies, to drive us completely away from the 
Cape, as Doman had often pretended to be sufficiently practicable, 
though, thank God, they were unsuccessful, and they now begin 
themselves to offer us peace, &c. 

And though it was dire necessity to defend ourselves against 
enemies from without, it was too sad to find that sometimes un- 
faithful fellows were found among our own people, as was ex- 
perienced during this year of trouble, so named with justice, 
as in addition to the said war and treachery within, we had 
mortality among the cattle, and traitors (both servants of the 
Company as well as of the freemen) who had planned a most 
execrable and never-before-heard-of massacre and destruction at 
this place. . . . (See journal 14th-24th December attempt to 
seize the Erasmus, &c., and massacre the garrison.) 

In reply to your letter of the 7th May and those from Amster- 
dam of the 23rd May and llth July last, as well as those of the 
4th and oth September following, we humbly state that according 
to the books the wheat, &c., threshed in the year 1653-1659 were 
as followe : 

From the Company's Lands Only. 

195 maids wheat, being fully 10-& lasts at 3,0-10 Ibs. or 1$ 
muids per last. 

20| muids rye, being fully 1-Jg- lasts at 3,040 Ibs. or 19 muids 
per last. 

103 muids barley, being fully 5-^ lasts at 3,040 Ibs. or 19 muids 
per last. 

40 muids oats, being fully 2-fr lasts, all put into the 
ground again this year (1659). 

4| muids white and grey peas, all destroyed in the fields by 
frost and beetles as soon as they began to blossom, so that we are 
entirely out of them. 

Mealies, \ Not more than a bushel altogether, which, 

Cadjangh, however, have all been put into the ground again 

Indian beane, ) to see whether we shall be able to multiply them. 

Hence from the Company's lands alone we have obtained 19 T V 
lasts. 



139 

From the Commander's Lands. 166 - 

muids wheat. ) Planted on fully 12 morgen of land=ff I9th March 

1 muid barley. ) last. 

He has, however, 10 or 12 hundred vines growing, which will 
bear in 2 or 3 years' time, judging from the appearance of the 
mother stems in the Company's gardens. 

From All the Freemen. 

188fV muids wheat jr-.cn 011 

41* do. barley } *>ng Wy Leasts. 

Making a grand total of . . . . . . 32 T 2 y- lasts. 

According to our calculation based on counting the sheaves in 
the Company's granary, gathered thither last January from 45 to 
46 morgen of land sown in 1659, we shall evidently have, not- 
withstanding the troubles caused by the war, not much less from 
the Company's fields alone, oats, however, included ; so that on 
this head no succour from outside will be required, though on 
account of the war and the consequent retrogradation of agricul- 
ture as well as the total destruction of some of the farms, further 
supplies were asked for from Batavia, which, thank God, on 
account of the beautiful crops contrary to our expectations, we 
found not to be necessary, as from the produce of the freemen all 
mouths, exclusive of those of the Company's servants, can be 
almost kept open, and the private cultivation of the Commander in 
1659 will always be able to add something, though it was but a 
partial success. 

Had we, however, not beer-, so suddenly surprised by this 
Hottentoo war, we would not have been able to find storage room 
for the corn, and there would not have been a single free agricul- 
turist in debt beyond his means ; yea, the harvest would have 
overtopped everything, and been the source of an astonishing pros- 
perity. The war, however, has considerably prevented this ; but 
notwithstanding we shall not neglect to make further trials of 
everything without losing heart at the first or second failure. 
Only the rice and horsebeans seem as if they will never thrive, 
but grapes as well as wheat, rye, barley, and oats grow most 
excellently and give the best promise. Accordingly we are 
anxiously expecting further information from you regarding the 
pressing of wine, but no tools, before you have received our 
further requisition, and then only such as you know we are un- 
able to make here, as they will only add to expense and trouble, 
and we have also very little room in which to store them for 
future use. 

In accordance with the orders of the Governor-General and 
Councillors of India (which agree with your intentions) the work 



140 

1660. h ere i s "being proceeded with in a limited area without unnecessary 
19th M^rrh forcing one thing or another, as we full}' understand that the 
principal interest is centred in agriculture, so that besides being 
able to afford the necessary refreshments to the ships we may be 
able to feed ourselves, and also in course of time to brew beer, &c. 
For all which wo believe the present occupied circle, from the end of 
the Bosbergen to the Fort, if colonised by agriculturists (which, if 
there had been no war and we had retained possession of our 
cattle, would have been occupied to its full extent) would have 
been sufficient' to produce enough corn, wine, and honey, besides 
garden produce and tree fruit, all which would more and mure 
multiply, &c. 

And as we are not to receive any horses from home we shall 
in consesequence do our best to get on with oxen and thus crawl 
along, at the same time endeavouring to obtain an increase from 
the Java horses that we have, that in course of time we may have 
enough for 20 horsemen, when we believe we shall have sufficiently 
mastered these natives, so that they will not be able to carry off 
our cattle as before, to protect which the better we intend from 
the sea shore (one rood in breadth), and outside all the lands as 
far as the ' Bosbergen,' to have the aforesaid whole circle ploughed 
and sown with bitter almonds, which in 5 cr 6 years will form a 
very thick bush, when the present fence shall have rotted away. 

How we have carried out the orders contained in the memoran- 
dum of the Hon. Cuneus you will be able to gather from the 
marginals attached to the same, and sent to you in copy last year, 
so that we have no doubt but that you will be satisfied. Accord- 
ing to your orders we shall also entirely abandon the navigation 
to Angola, and only employ the galiot to search for St. Helena 
Nova, and further endeavour to promote what may be done here 
at the Cape, not neglecting any opportunity to investigate what 
may further be discoverable here. 

The heavy cables sent per the Enckhuysen have been received 
in good order according to invoice, and stored in the boat house 
(which is dry and airy) near the seashore outside the fort, also the 
anchors, weighing only 2,'200 to 2,400 Ibs., and another fished up, 
weighing 2,900 to 3,000 Ibs. Some believe that the two first will be 
too light for large return ships, but serviceable for return yachts 
and flutes. 

We have written you on the 26th April last regarding the 
fishing for heavy anchors. Two heavy ones have already been 
recovered, but one with a broken shaft. On the 19th January the 
Enckhuysen also recovered one. accidentally attached to its own 
anchors ; nevertheless we paid them out \ of the value, according to 
your orders at flO per cent, in order the more to encourage others ; 
but how inconvenient it would be for passing vessels to be 
employed on this duty we have already mentioned to you, and are 



141 

of opinion that it could more conveniently be done by the galiot 163 
'which you intend to send us. In that case we shall do our very 19th 
best. 

We shall also take care that the beacon fires on Hobben 
Island are well maintained, and that no neglect in this respect will 
occur, that the safety of the incoming ships may be assured. 

And as we have never suffered leisure hours to pass unutilised, 
but endeavoured to employ them usefully for the Company, we 
have amongst others been busy in having the coast charts from 
Cabo Falso to St. Helena Bay (sent over ere this), including 
Saldanha Bay, amended in such a manner that at present nothing 
will be found wrong in them, as may be seen from the annexed 
copies, and may also be heard from the verbal reports of the 
Skippers Mangus Hendricxe of Amsterdam, and Cornells 
Lodewycksz, both of whom had expressly gone for the purpose to 
Saldanha Bay in the Schapenjachtjen instead of lying idle here (they 
were stationed on the Erasmus), accompanied by the Fiscus and 
the Land Surveyor. They had thoroughly gone over the whole 
and checked the work already done most carefully. 

The completion of this work pleased us the more, as it has made 
assurance doubly sure, and you will have the opportunity to receive 
a verbal report from, those who have themselves seen the whole, 
and have a knowledge of navigation. Hence the former charts 
may be withdrawn, and these henceforth given to the vessels as 
correct copies, of which we enclose two for the Amsterdam 
Chamber, and one for each of the others, viz. : each a coast chart, 
and a large one of Saldanha Bay, purposely to show its situation 
(gelegentheyt) and facilities for the return ships (especially 
should the English wish to make it uncomfortable for us at St. 
Helena), which on account of the vehement South-easters, which 
are at their worst here in February, are often blown past this Bay, 
and may find in such a case a safe retreat there, whence they may 
with a N.W. breeze easUy reach this. And in case some were 
unable to come hither, they might easily by means of a galiot 
be succoured hence with the necessary refreshments, and others 
touching there might perhaps also be accommodated with cattle 
obtained by the freemen from the natives, and in such quantities 
that sometimes they would require but little assistance from this 
place. The outward bound vessels also when falling too much to 
leeward of the Cape might find a refuge there, and during the 
N.W. monsoon (the wet season) also a fair supply of refreshments 
in the shape of vegetables, so that sometimes it would be 
unnecessary for them to call here, and they might thence proceed 
direct to Batavia, as did the yacht Meliskercken in March last year, 
in a most satisfactory manner, her men having been thoroughly 
refreshed there. For this reason we did not deem it 



142 

1660. necessary to ask for a galiot last year instead of the pier boats, 
19th March which would be too small, in order to convey thence any cattle, 
which are now more easily bartered than before. 

We had also hoped that the yacht Maria would have discovered ' 
St. Helena Nova during her second voyage, and certainly would 
have given stricter orders to the officers on the subject, if we had 
been informed of the intention of the English to garrison St. 
Helena, but some old skippers whom we consulted on the matter 
believed that it was a fictitious island, or laid down in the charts 
in a wrong latitude, so that it will never be discovered by anyone, 
as the Portuguese (according to the notes in ? journal) when 
returning from India, had their refreshment station at Loango St. 
Paulo, but as it at present seems serviceable for the Company we 
shall not neglect its further exploration hence, when the occasion 
is favourable, by means of the galiot with three masts (as trysails 
are not serviceable here) which you have promised to send us. 
We trust that her officers will display more zeal in exploring than 
those of the Maria last year, for being permanently stationed here, 
the longing (itching) for Batavia will be put out of their heads, 
and the vessel would be also of use in conveying hither cattle 
and sheep from Saklanha Bay. She would accordingly not 
require the luxury of a saloon, as all her space will be needed, 
for we shall be obliged to obtain our fuel thence and from other 
places, as it is getting scarce in the neighbourhood, and it is very 
expensive to have it conveyed hither from the country in the 
freemen's wagons. 

That the English, having taken possession of St. Helena, will 
not be too accommodating to our people, we can readily understand. 
We have therefore made every effort to correct the charts and 
positions of Saldanha Bay, and you may trust us that we shall 
not, contrary to your inclination, accommodate them as we 
formerly did, however much they may be in want. This we 
would prefer to behold, rather than displease you in the least (with 
our knowledge) in this or anything else. 

The voyage to Cabo Negro or Angola will henceforth be excused, 
but if those of the Maria had had a wish to explore, they might 
perhaps have discovered something. It is therefore annoying 
that on account of the want of zeal in others, we have not been 
able to give satisfaction. 

Of the galleon with 400 men which was ready to leave 
Portugal on the 31st March last year for India, we "have heard 
nothing, much less of others, so that they will most likely leave 
us in peace. 

As the rhinoceros horns realise so little at home, we have taken 
no trouble to obtain any more, in order not to delay the necessary 
cattle trade at Saldanha Bay and here. We have also last year 
written regarding the inferior kinds of elephant tusks, harts, &c., 



143 

obtainable here, but we shall nevertheless spare no pains to inves- 166 - 
tigate things more closely. I9tti 

The last paragraph in your general despatch of the 7th May, 
as well as your letter of the 5th September following, mention 
that the Cape tobacco does not appear to be worth auy money. 
Nevertheless the freemen here are very much inclined to cultivate 
it. 

And although last year we asked you to permit the freemen to 
cultivate tobacco and you gave your permission, nevertheless, for 
various weighty reasons and from practical experience, we would 
now dissuade you from further permitting it, as the natives cannot 
refrain from stealing it from the fields, from which continually 
trouble and disturbances result, as well as acts of hostility, as 
much as for the sake of the cattle, of which two things they are as 
covetous as any European natives of silver or gold. 

In the journal of the 18th Dec., 1659, is mentioned how some 
of the freemen, in 'consequence of their evil treatment of the 
aforesaid natives, have also given cause for the war. This is 
annoying, as on our part we have endeavoured to keep them well 
disposed towards ourselves by means of gentle and friendly inter- 
course. However, we trust that when once a reconciliation is 
affected, the freemen will have been taught to act more prudently, 
bearing in mind the losses which their conduct has brought upon 
them. 

The raising of the price of the wheat and other indulgences, 
such as the foregoing by you of the amounts owing by them for 
their first seed corn, with which you have favoured them, has 
greatly encouraged them, as well as the punishments enacted for 
"stowaways," as their servants often deserted, and they were 
often in consequence most seriously inconvenienced, &c 

According to your intention we shall in the most economical 
manner manage the subsidies, and as usual give the preference to 
the most diligent and not to the lazy ; we shall also take care, as 
far as possible, that no rams or other cattle are sold to the officers 
of the ships, but that what they have over they shall sell to the 
Company for the purpose mentioned by you. 

Brewers have informed us that in many places wormwood is 
used instead of hops, so that long before this we had sown the 
wormwood seeds found in the medicine chests, but none have ever 
sprouted forth. The brewers, add that a little hops should 
be added when the wormwood is being boiled. However, 
we ehall expect some hop plants, to see whether they will not 
eventually thrive here, and if you would be further pleased to 
snd us one large tuL with new, dry pressed hops, dried not in a 
kiln (eest) but in the sun, we might sift the seeds from the bells, 
as already previously attempted, but as they had evidently been 
dried in kilus, they were unfit for sowing or growing. 



144 

1660. That the beer sent you has been found to be very bad, is 

evidently the result of its unfitness for conveyance by sea. Of 
19th March. ^ twQ ^^ seat to Batavia, one had also turned sour, but the 
other was si ill drinkable. Here it is delicious, as Admiral 
Sterthemius and other officers of the present fleet, who have tasted 
it, will be able to testify. 

Regarding the complaints which are still being made about 
the leanness of the cattle, the cause is partly, as often mentioned, 
that amono f 50 head hardly one good one can be bartered from 
the natives-- only old, lean, overworked refuse can be obtained 
and partly that during the suoimer months, when the return and 
the principal outward-bound autumn and Christmas ships arrive 
here, the pastures have become so parched by the heat and drought 
that even the best of those bred by ourselves lose so much flesh and 
become so lean that many drop down from sheer weakness in the 
veld and die off, all which are the reasons why we generally have 
to search for new pastures with many men to protect the cattle. 
It is otherwise here than at home, where cattle have their settled 
pastures, namely, for every head one morgen of good fat pasturage 
changed at the proper time. Could this be done here in the case 
of the cattle bred by ourselves (not of those obtained by barter)^ 
they would grow better in flesh, but then only in the rainy season, 
as appeared from the salted meat sent over to you, which you, 
contrary to our expectation, when boiled, found so good and 
savoury. It came from two young cattle bred loy ourselves 
during the rainy season, when the country is well provided with 
grass. They had been depastured, as above described, and 
thoroughly taken care of, that we might exactly know what and 
how the best would, if salted, turn out. But it will hardly be 
possible to do the same in the case of the large troops of cattle 
which the Company sometimes has. Yea, in the dry season, the 
oxen are so weak that the farmers can hardly with them plough 
the stubbles of the mowed lands over into the ground. More 
lands would otherwise have been broken, which can only 
be done during the rainy season. During the greater j art 
of the dry season ploughing is impossible, as no plough can pierce 
the hard soil. Had it not been for this and the Hottentoo war, 
who knows how much land would have already been ploughed and 
brought under cultivation, and how much corn would have already 
been produced. However, praise be to God ! matters have 
already advanced so far, and been maintained with the help of 
God, that should we retain the blessing of God on the growth (of 
the grain), we shall henceforth be able to subsist on it. Already 
we have supplied some ships with freshly baked bread as a refresh- 
ment and delicacy, and taken in exchange for it ships' biscuits, as 
it is not yet too abundant. In this manner we shall continue this 
industry (should it please you), that is to say, as far as the bakery 



145 

built by us will for the present enable us to do, as after all it 
will be the same consumption of ships' bread (taking the one with 19tll 
the other), and gives great pleasure, &c. At the same time, our 
people on shore here (when there are no ships in the bay) always 
and commonly eat enough fresh bread. 

Besides the thefts already mentioned, there has been great 
mortality this year among the cattle of the Company and the 
freemen. Nor did those of the Hottentoos suffer less, as will be 
seen from the journal of the 33rd June, 1659. Had this not 
occurred, we would at present have had a countless number of 
animals (viz., sheep) as a result of the continuation of the barter 
with Oedasoa, the chief of the Saldanhars, even during the war 
with the Caepmen, as well as from our own increase, which gave 
excellent promise, for at the departure of the Hon. van Aelmonde 
on the first April, there were more than 500 sheep on Robben 
Island alone, all with lamb, so that there was every likelihood that 
we would soon have had more than 11 or 1,'<JOO there. However, 
already on the 5th July only 40 had survived, which diminished 
to 35 on the 18th August. Here, on the Continent, a large num- 
ber also died without our knowing the cause. At present, how- 
ever, the number on the island has again risen to over 70, fat and 
sleek. Babbits are also multiplying there considerably, and pigs 
appear to thrive there very well, as well as on Dassen Island 
among the free Saldanhars there, and among the burghers 
near the fort, so that everything is going on finely, and all further 
good success may be expected from God the Lord. Many other 
matters have been taken in hand and put into working order by 
us with tireless zeal, so that, with God in the van. they will be able 
to advance still further, as we have mentioned in detail last year. 

Of the 60 lasts of rice sent us last year from Batavia we only 
received 18| lasts. The rest was retained by the Fleet for its own 
consumption, notwithstanding the boat Zuykn had been purposely 
despatched to St. Helena for it. Of the 40 lasts received last 
year in the Schelms we had to give the half to the Arnhem and 
Honingen ; so that of the 100 lasts sent us during the two last 
years we only received 47 lasts, which would have left us in great 
straits if God the Lord had not been pleased so much to bless the 
growth of the grain, notwithstanding all the war troubles of last 
year, which, as already said, compelled us to ask for further 
succour, as we feared the complete ruin of agriculture, which, 
thank God, is again in a good state. But for all that we would 
have been obliged to subsist as soberly as possible on the super- 
fluous provisions of the outward bound, if the flute Loenen had not 
brought us from Batavia 63 lasts of rice, which gave no slight 
encouragement to the colonists, most of the corngrowers among 
whom are already beginning to be so permanently established 
(vast beginnen te sitten) that they will think little of moving 



146 

1660. (weynich om opstaen dencken sullen) ; so that, we hope, by retain- 
19th M*reh i n God's blessing, henceforth to find our own sustenance without 
the necessity of ordering anything from outside. And in 
order somewhat to cover the expense of the express voyage of the 
little flute from Batavia we have priced the rice at one penny- 
farthing (braspenningh=10 doits piece), which gives a clear profit 
on every Ib. and will cause no dissatisfaction among the freemen, 
as the latter are already (most of them) in fairly good circum- 
stances on their own ground and in their own houses, &c. 

From our Resolution of the 27th August last year you will see 
the reasons that induced us to distribute, as in India, board money 
among the servants, and also in what manner, so that it would serve 
them for their maintenance, and at the same time profit the free 
burghers and agriculturists. It also mentions what prices we 
have fixed for all kinds of provisions, everything subject to further 
orders from your Lordships, which we shall, with others, expect 
for our further guidance, &c. 

In order to show you henceforth annually the expenditure 
incurred for refreshments for the ships, we have embodied here a 
brief summary, though, since our arrival here, we have always 
annually given you a statement of everything spent for the home- 
ward as well as outward bound vessels, besides what we contributed 
to the Amhcm and Honingen for their home voyage, viz. : 

A- 1652 to 7 large and small vessels . . fol 17 7 

1653 19 . . 2,261 5 13 

1654 18 .. 3,579 15 15 

1655 37 . . 5,729 10 

1656 36 . . 2,671 15 2 

1657 25 . . 3,802 15 

1658 29 . . 7,496 12 4 

1659 23 .. 2,879 16 3 



The amount spent on refreshments, &c., for the 

ships here f28,472 18 6 



And in order also henceforth to submit a statement annually of 
our other ordinary expenditure, exclusive of that of the ships, we 
have added the following summary of the expenses since 1652, 
which, however, cannot be perfectly stated, as many things were 
sent us that were not charged agaiubt us. However, as we had 
booked everything from the beginning, we find that, exclusive of 
what was spent in hospitality, the following amounts were dis- 
bursed for the ships for their necessary refreshments, accommoda- 
tion, &e. : 



147 



1662. Expenditure on loans, or ad- 
vances to the men on account, 
equivalent to their monthly wages 
Donations . . 
Extraordinary expenditure 
Expenditure of merchandise 
Provisions 


f3,082 19 12 
10 12 
133 4 
44 14 
54 5 10 


Loss. 


Profit. 


Total of general expenditure 
during 1652 


f3,325 4 2 






And profits 


578 7 5 






Or a deficit of 

1653. Expenditure on loans, &c. 
Provisions 
Extraordinary expenditure 
Munitions of war 
Coots' utensils 
Materials . . . . 
Smithy 


fo,751 6 14 
2,151 11 
458 16 4 
15 
300 
136 18 12 
48 


f274G 16 13 




Total expenditure 
Profits 


f8,564 12 '14 
9 856 7 9 














Or a deficit of 

1654. Expenditure on loans, &c. 
Ammunition . . . . 
Provisions 
Extraordinary expenses 
Materials . , 
Knives used 
Barber's (surgeon's) shop 
Writing material 
Yarn used (gaaren) 
Cooks' utensils 
Butlers' do 


f5,770 11 12 
27 10 
2,874 12 8 
792 18 14 
795 10 
36 6 
350 
19 14 
22 19 3 
64 18 
39 V2 13 


5,708 5 o 




Total of expenditure 
Profits 


flO,894 3 4 
977 9 7 






Or a deficit of 

1655. Loans, &c. .. 
Extraordinary expenditure 
Provisions . . . . . . 
Surgeon's shop . . . . . . 


f6,024 10 12 
4,137 15 5 
2,066 17 
709 12 12 


9,916 13 13 




Total of general expenditure . . 
Profits 


f!2,938 15 3 
3,382 3 10 






Or a deficit of 

1656. Loans, &c. 
Board money for the officials . . 
Provisions for the men ('t gemeen) 
Extraordinary expenditure 
Materials used 
Cooks' utensils 
Butlers' do. 
Ammunition 
Office furniture 
Surgeon's shop 
The Robbejachjen . , . . 


fll,360 17 6 
1,456 5 2 
2,451 8 
2,193 3 4 
529 4 8 
6 18 
51 19 
26 
98 10 
609 12 12 
373 12 4 


9,556 11 9 




Total of expenditure 
Profits .. 


f!9,157 10 4 
4,190 16 5 






Deficiency . . . . 




14,966 13 16 





1660. 
19th March. 



148 



1660. 
1657. Loans, &c. . . ' 


11,969 12 
1,374 10 


9,016 1 14 


f3,103 7 7 
f3,103 7 7 




1,780 16 


Extraordinary expenditure 


1,677 10 12 
810 5 
14 11 
60 10 
71 10 
45 8 
100 10 
41 14 


Cooks' utensils . 
Butlers' do. 
Equipment* 
Ammunition 
Office furniture . 
Robbejachjen . 

Total of general expenditure. . 
Profits 

Deficiency 

1658. Loans, &c. 
Ordinary rations or board money 
Provisions, inclusive of those for 
the slaves . . . . 
Extraordinaoy expenses 
Materials . , . . 
Equipments . . . . 
Ammunition . . . . 
Cooks' utensil . . . . 


tl7,966 6 8 
8,950 4 10 


f9,153 2 6 
1,596 9 

3,610 5 5 
2,698 11 8 
858 7 
20 5 
67 19 
45 
55 2 
98 


Office furniture 

Total of expenditure 
Profits 


fl8,203 1 3 
21,306 8 10 


Surplus 
1669. Loans, &c. 


f9,800 10 4 
2,860 16 




Wages and salaries 
Provisions for all, slaves included 
Extraordinary expenditure 
Materials 
Equipment* . . . . 
Ammunition . . . . 
Cooks' utensils . . . . . . 
Butlers' do . . . . . . 


678 6 
4,741 10 12 
4,151 5 S 
782 13 6 
57 
67 4 
3 18 
038 
620 
520 
63 15 
118 
508 17 12 


Masons' tools 
Malt refuse ': (Bostel werck) 
Damaged stockings 
Office necessaries . . . . 


Iron 

Total expenditure 
Profits 

Deficiency 

< Jran'.l U,Ul 
Deduct from this the surplus of 1055 

And there will htill be a deficiency o 


404 


24,248 7 10 
15,125 13 11 




I 
I 


f9,122 13 


161,033 17 
3,103 7 


f57,930 9 


3 



149 

For which the Company holds this fortified refreshment station, 1 ^- 
and everything existing here, has been made, the results of which igth March, 
are still being looked forward to, especially as regards the cultiva- 
tion of wheat, &c., which is already in progress, and being further 
developed will tend to enrich the Colonists, and enable them as 
their prosperity increases to buy from us (building) and other 
material, provisions, manufactured goods, &c., so that the Com- 
pany, by an increase in the sale of their wares, will every year 
more and more secure larger profits. This has already become 
evident, for whereas from the years 1652 to 1657 we had a heavy 
debit balance annually, in 1658 we could show a credit one of 
more than f 3,000, the profit made on the slaves, whilst the profits 
last year amounted to more than f!5,000, so that credit and debit 
are already beginning to approach each other, according to the 
statements drawn from the books and given above. The Company's 
treasury at present holds more than f 6,000, notwithstanding in 1656 
and 1657 everything was sent us in cash for this residency, the 
reason being that we had already advanced matters so far among 
the agriculturists, that having been established but two years 
from the commencement of their freedom they came to buy what 
they required for ready money, sufficient of which they were able 
to obtain from the ships' crews by selling to the latter their fowls, 
geese, ducks, garden and ground fruit, as they had many oppor- 
tunities of doing ; besides, in order to avoid as much as possible 
giving them credit, we permitted the town burghers the privilege 
amongst others to sell to the freemen and others at a fixed price 
oil, vinegar, &c., obtained for cash from the Company's stores. 
This system we intend to extend in other ways also, in order to 
avoid those peccadillos caused by buying daily small quantities on 
credit from the dispenser, who was unable to attend to it properly, 
and that all freemen and burghers might have an opportunity to 
earn some money, and the Company's chest have sufficient (as is 
already the case), in order to pay out the "good months" and 
board moneys, without ever needing to ask for more cash. 

If they give credit to one another, they do so at their own risk, 
and the Company is thus relieved from great anxiety arising from 
the credit system. The freemen are. in that way also more 
permanently fixed here, and are compelled to take care that their 
debtors do not decamp or stow themselves away, &c. 

We might also raise some revenue by imposing some excise 
on one thing and another, but we think, subject to your better 
judgment, that it would be too harsh and odious a step at such an 
early stage of the settlement, hence we have also abandoned the 
duties levied formerly on the wines, and instead considerably 
raised the price of the latter, in order, as long as possible, to keep 
this place exempt from the name of lessee (pachter), which is a 
somewhat hateful one among the general public ('t gemeen). 



150 

i860. This we do not deem a strange proceeding, in order to secure 
19th March more allurement for this Colony. 

We have before mentioned that, according to your orders, we 
intend to despatch the galiot, to make a further search for 
St. Helena Nova ; hut many are of opinion that it is necessary 
that she should also explore the hays heyond this Cape, so that if 
a suitable port be found, distressed vessels might take refuse in it, 
instead of being compelled to beat up to Madagascar or Mauritius. 
This is considered by many to be urgently necessary, and therefore 
we cannot refrain from mentioning it. 

To return to the affairs of Herry and the Caepmen, our late, 
and perhaps still, our enemies, whom we have hitherto not men- 
tioned, as we expected that we would have further news to com- 
municate regarding them before closing this. Accordingly, we 
have to inform you that Herry and another Hottentoo prisoner 
succeeded in escaping from Robben Island to the Continent on 
the 8th December last in a small boat with two oars, kept theze 
for fishing purposes. Afterwards Herry visited our free Saldanha 
traders in that bay, coming voluntarily on board the vessel, and 
begging that he might again be permitted to live at the Fort. 

At the same time Doman and mostly all the Caepmen visited 
the freemen on board, and requested them to bring from the Cape 
a letter with a little tobacco, as a token from the Commander that 
they might come to the Fort, in order again to treat of peace. 
Accordingly, on the 2nd March, three of their men accompanied 
the freemen to the Fort, who returned on the 4th with a note 
signed by Mr. Sterthemius (see Journal of 3rd March), with the 
result that they came back on the llth following with Herry, 
Doman, and Pieter Otegno, one of the sons of the Captain of the 
Caepmen, and with a train of more than 30 men, bringing with 
them 10 cattle and 5 sheep as a present, which, as well as their 
offers of peace, were accepted by Mr. Sterthemius and ourselves. 
A provisional peace was accordingly made with them, permitting 
them to settle with their camp and cattle near the Fort, in order 
to treat with them of further conditions and a permanent un- 
breakable peace, so that, praise be to God, this dark war cloud has 
passed over, and there is a prospect of again obtaining a good supply 
of cattle, and keeping the plough merrily going. 

We trust also that the trouble of being again robbed will, for 
the reasons alleged, no more be so great, in consequence of the 
dread brought on them by the horses, and the fear which they 
now have the more, as they have seen that a considerable number 
has been brought hither from Batavia by the present return fleet, 
as well as the hunting dogs, which the fleet intended to employ at 
St. ^ Helena, but which will now be left here, of which these 
natives are dreadfully afraid, and by which they can be very 
much plagued. 



151 

In short, Sirs, all the troubles and difficulties have, thank God, 166 - 
passed by and are over, and everything is once more brought to 
good appearance. 

Regarding the above-mentioned conspirators, in order not to 
delay the fleet's early departure, it was decided to send them to 
Batavia for trial, and we were accordingly instructed to despatch 
them safely ironed to India in the two first outward bound vessels, 
in accordance with the Resolution adopted by Mr. Sterthemius 
and the Broad Council on the 12th March, after all the 
evidence had been read aud considered (see our Journal of that 
date), so that, thanks be to God, all difficulties have once more 
been surmounted, and now having also come to the end of our 
matter, we shall, with this, &c. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEKCK. 

RoELOFF DE MAN. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 
Requisition for the Cape for 1661. 

For trade and presents to the Hottentoos. 

100 gross smooth yellow copper jacket buttons. 

50 round bead chains of yellow copper, as big as peas. 

2,000 Ibs. tobacco, in canisters the usual Martinique or Vir- 
ginia kinds. 

200 Ibs. strong Brazilian tobacco. 

10 plates of red copper for repairing kettles, &c., also for an 
attempt to trade in the far interior. 

50 gross tobacco pipes, with bowls double the usual size. 

N.B. These two latter articles have been deleted from a follow- 
ing requisition, as we are well provided with both. 

Also hop plants, buckwheat and mulberry trees. 

For Clothing and Changes for the Officers and Burghers. 

400 pairs woollen stockings. 

200 worsted (saijette) stockings (sagathy). 

400 large, strong, dry leather shoes, of at least 12 or 14 

size. 

8 pieces shrunk English cloth. 
12 ,, common serge. 
100 complete coarse pilot cloth. 

50 Eastern pilot cloth, as received per Hasselt. Such 
warm clothing cannot be obtained from India, and is nevertheless 
indispensable for the slaves here, on account of the cold climate. 

Munitions of War. 

Besides the 200 snaplock muskets already ordered last year, 50 
pairs of pistols, in order to provide the men with double firearms, 
as these natives, after the first discharge (having been taught by 



19th March 



152 

Doman) boldly attack our people and surround them, BO that, before 
they nave again loaded (as they are generally but a few together), 
they are miserably murdered with assegaye, as has been proved by 
pitiful examples. 

2 kegs with well prepared flints, for the aforesaid muskets and 
pistols, as many are used up. 

400 to 500 Ibs. assorted shot, much used by the freemen, and 
sold to them with a profit. 

2 kegs pistol { , n 

2 musket j D 

4 cross-bar shot (drachtkogels) for the muskets. 

3 or 4 tuns iron caltrops to scatter about. 

8 English saddles and their belongings, like those sent in 1654. 
That is besides the 12 asked for last year for the horses now 
received from Batavia. 

20 pairs of holsters and pistols, and 50 carbines with snaplocks 
and their belongings, e.g., bandoliers, &c. 

Materials. 

100 heavy stiff iron garden spades, without any handles, to save 
space. 

25 wooden corn shovels for stirring the ground. 

50 stock locks. 

25 assorted door and wardrobe look-i. 

4 grindstones. 

50 staves, inch iron. 
2 kegs stiff double tin. 
100 cooks' axes or choppers. 
2 tuns wainscot nails. 



2 double , . ., 

9 > medium sized nails. 

* smgie ) 



Kitchen Utensils, to be also sold to the Burghers for their convenience. 

The undermentioned tinware, not turned but beaten, as other- 
wise they are immediately broken, viz. : 

24 tin dishes of the largest kind, as wash basins. 

24 ,, half size. 

24 " drielingen " (pewter wine cups). 

12 butter dishes. 

24 " kommetjes " (small basins) with 2 flat ears, such as the 
burghers use. 
12 salt cellars. 
12 mustard pots. 

24 dozen spoons with square handles. 
24 tin table plates. 
24 chambers with broad rims. 
50 large and common iron pots. 
50 metal do. 



153 

25 common copper fish kettles. 166 - 

25 small do. 1 9th March. 

25 large and small dipping pans. 

3 or 4 eases with assorted earthen pots. 

25 sweet and ) , . ,, , , 

25,butter milk | hair 8ieves ' 8ma11 and lar S e - 

For Solving and Planting. 

1 keg new^buckwheat for sowing 

3 or 4 large tuns of hops dried in the sun, in order to sift the 
seeds out of them (see letter). 

.... hopj:plant8 growing in deep cases and thinly planted, to see 
which of both will be successful here, as wormwood also thrives 
badly here, and (those marked A) arrived here dead. 

.... strawberries, also thinly planted. Not one arrived alive, 
because, as it is supposed they were planted too thickly. 

.... rnulbsrry trees, also thinly planted. 

.... hemp and linseed, a little of each, about a cupfull, that we 
mayjnake further trials with a little at a time. 

Provisions for the sick. 

1 small tun of currants. 

1 buckwheat meal. 

2 dozen 'sugar loaves. 

Office Necessaries. 
20 reams common \ 
12 ,, medium / paper. 

6 largest size ) 
50 bundles quills. 
A half aum of ink powder. 
Sealing wax. 
Twine. 

For the Surgeon's Shop. 

Medicines like the previous years which generally weighed and 
measured a third less than the figures given on the lists. A great 
deficiency is also found in the instruments requisitioned. 

List of Annexures to preceding Despatch. 

Nos. 17 and 18.j.Title "deeds and freemen's certificates (vry- 
brieven). 

No. 21. List of the deceasedjservants of the company and of the 
freemen. 

No. 22. Muster roll of the garrison. 

No. 23. all the freemen, their wives and children, 
&c. 

No. 24, List of the cattle stolen by the Hottentoos in 1659. 



154 

No. 25. Chart, large size, of Table Bay, with the coast, as far 
19th March. as Saldanha and St. Helena Bays inclusive. 

No. 26. Small chart of Saldanha Bay. 

No. 27. Sea chart (zee spiegel) from Table to Saldanha Bay. 

N.B. The above were sent to Amsterdam, and copies of Nos. 
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27, also to Zealand ; some of them also 
to the other chambers. 



To Batavia. 

6th April, Received yours of the 15th Dec. last per Loenen, as well 
as the rice you sent us, from which we were obliged to give 
6 lasts to the fleet of the Hon. Sterthemius, and also some to the 
little flute cruising for the Return Squadron, in order to deliver 
to it our Masters' letters, and warn it that St. Helena had been 
taken possession of by the English under Capt. Duttum, and was 
being fortified by them, &c. (see preceding despatches). The 
whole squadron accordingly arrived here on the 2nd March com- 
bined and with a fine N.W. Ireeze, having received our warning 
outside that they were not to pass the Cape. However, the Hon. 
Sterthemius had already made arrangements to that effect in the 
Stiaits of SuLda, and oidertd that in case the fleet were blown past 
the Cape, to proceed to Saldanha Bay, so as not to be separated 

truly a well considered plan, for ships harbouring in the 

latter bay can always be succoured hence, until they are able to 
reach this bay with a N.E. breeze, which has often happened (see 

our general despatch to the Directors on the subject) 

This vessel (Amstel) will also bring you, as we have been instructed, 
4 of the heaviest criminals, the other 4 will follow in other vessels, 
as we do not like to have too many of them together in one ship. 

We were left rather soberly provided last year, in consequence 
of not receiving all the rice sent us in the Return Squadron, but 
with what has now been sent us in the Loenen, and a prosperous 
harvest, notwithstanding the war troubles, we are now better off, 
hoping that henceforth we shall not require anything more from 
outside, especially as our affairs with the Hottentoos (who 
have been sufficiently frightened, and still more so by the arrival 
of the horses) have taken that turn, that they have been begging 
for peace, so that we hope that now everything will be placed 
on a proper footing, as we have been taught how and where 
to beware of them, and also what their secret designs are (see our 
despatch to the 17). But it will not be difficult to let them take 
to their heels, especially if the masters are willing to keep 110 or 
120 men here ; the desertion, however (by ship) of the men this 
year, as well as of freemen, has been very great ; but if such a 
garrison were to be kept here it would be the right sledge hammer, 



155 

as will be seen from our further communication to the Directors 
by the second squadron. We would accordingly request you to 6t ^ April. 
be pleased to send us the other stowaway Martin Flockert, ban- 
ished to Onrust, in order to work out his debt, as there is the same 
opportunity for him to do so here. Should he arrive here, he 
might, with your pleasure, be treated in the gentlest manner, as we 
otherwise fear that the desertions to India will become as numerous 
as those to Patria, which cause us the greatest embarrassment, as 
we are obliged to get along with novices drafted from the ships, 
and teach them from the beginning. 

And, as regards the want of food (honger) of which they com- 
plain, this is frivolous, as appears from the care taken of them, 
the demanding and landing of all kinds of provisions, and the fixing 
of such liberal rations, as will appear from various Resolutions 
adopted by us on the subject. But what can we do ? They must 
say something to excuse themselves, though we are to remain here 
and have to comfort ourselves in the best way we can, whilst for 
the ordinary individual there is an abundance of all kinds of food, 
and as cheap as anywhere else, as we have often mentioned, though 
it seems that it has sometimes been contradicted by dissatisfied 
tempers, but mostly by the common people. But we see more and 
more that this cannot be very well prevented, however excellent 
our progress here may be, on account of the inward dislike which 
many have to this place. We shall, therefore, have to bear it the 
best way we can, whilst our successors will have the same experience. 

After a closer reconciliation with these natives we shall not 
neglect to send you once more to your satisfaction, some young 
ostriches as well as turkeys, but the latter are reared here with 
great difficulty, and the freemen will not submit to the trouble 
connected with them. We shall, however, do our best. 

It does not seem as if the Cape beer can stand a sea voyage very 
well, but the consumption here would be great, if there were only 
one willing to build a brewery. But such an undertaking would be 
too much for the Company, whilst as a result of the desertions 
everything is every time put back, so that at present many houses 
of the freemen are left unfinished, in consequence of the absconding 
of the free carpenters, masons, &c. persons not yet permanently 
settled though those that have done so are progressing fairly well. 
Besides the 15 persons who had stowed themselves away in the last 
fleet and we got back, there were 20 company's servants, 2 Batavia 
convicts, and 10 freemen and servants, altogether 41 persons. 
How they will fare at home, and the orders against desertion will 
be maintained by the Directors, we shall hear later on. 

We send you a last of our best white wheat, and later on we 
shall also ship you a last of new rye with the Amersfoort, as we 
are told here that some bakers at Batavia have already had some 
and baked bread of it, though last year every seed was sown here, 



156 

1660. except half a bushel which the Commander had kept over, in order, 
oth April perhaps for a change, to have a rye loaf baked from it ; hence it 
must have been a wonderful Cape rye from which the said bakers 
managed to bake Cape rye bread, as last season we were obliged to 
distribute a quantity of seed among the agriculturists for sowing : 
so that no rye could have been obtained from them either. At 
present, however, we have in our garners from the Company's 
lands, thank God ! between 9 and 10 lasts of rye, which grain, if 
you like, we can always send over to you in exchange for rice, that 
is as long as we have no ampler harvests (of other grain) as it 
seems to thrive here very well, for the 9 or 10 lasts deposited in 
the garners in 1659 was the produce of a small bowl sown after 
Mr. van Goens' departure in 1657, the produce of which was sown 
in 1658, and in 1659 had increased to a beautiful extent, whilst 
besides, as already mentioned, half a bushel was last season used by 
'.lie Commander also for sowing. It is, therefore, evident that this 
! nd of grain will thrive here excellently, as well as thw white 
. lieat which we send you, and which is more successful here than 
'. : e brown, a little of which was sent you as a sample last year, 
and which was found to be somewhat gritty and crummy, so that it 
was entirely set aside and only the best wheat cultivated. 

In consequence of the marauding war just over, we cannot send 
you any hides or skins as samples for Japan, but train oil will follow 
after this, as what we had in stock at present we were obliged to 
give to this fleet which required it. 

We shall be able to tell you later on what the cargo of rice in 
the Loenen amounted to, as we have as yet left the half in her for 
ballast whilst cruising for the return fleet with our letter of warn- 
ing, &c., as already mentioned to you, when we also informed you 
of the arrival and departure of the fleet under the Hon. Ster- 
themius, who had, as Commissioner, inspected affairs here and left 

such orders as you will find in the annexed papers 

We cannot sufficiently thank you for sending us such a fine 
number of horses, of which only two had died during the voyage 
and one here on shore. Another seems to be in a bad way, how- 
ever we have saved 14, which added to our own, will enable us to 
make a satisfactory stand against the robberies of the Hottentoos, 
and should the Mae s and the Vogelemangh (daily expected) also 
bring two each, it will be so much the better. The saddles, how- 
ever, sent with them are all old and spoilt and unfit for use, but 
this is nothing as the Amersfoort brought us 12 French ones from 
Patria. 

Regarding the garden seeds, we declare that we have always 
sent you under proper invoice, no old, but the best and newest, as 
soon as gathered, so that we do not know why no good hard firmly 
closed cabbages have been reared from them. This season they 
were extraordinarily excellent here, better than ever before, so that 



1 57 

we now send you the best sorts as well as many other kinds of seeds * 
acoording to invoice. It may be but little, but no dependence can 6th T ril 
be placed on what the freemen win, who besides do not collect such 
an abundance, or of such a quality that private parties can be 
accommodated by them with as good cabbages as the Company can 
grow ; yea, even what some gentlemen and friends may raise is 
but a small quantity, and not a 50th portion sent over from time 
to. time or of the same kind as transmitted to you according 
to invoice, unless the gardener has succeeded in pilfering some, 
which he would scarcely be able to do, for, as a rule, the Commander 
personally examines all the cabbages in all the gardens and marks 
them with sticks and other signs, in order to obtain the best seeds 
and give you satisfaction. This he considers according to his 
bounden duty of the highest importance, so that he trusts that you 
will not in the least doubt his zeal in this and his further strenuous 
efforts on behalf of the Company and your service. 

The banished Chinaman Wancko arrived here safely and well 
in the Arnheim. We wish that we had more of that industrious 
nation here, instead of European born convicts, who every now and 
then manage to escape in the return ships ; besides better work is 
obtained from the Chinese, who will never take it into their heads 
to desert, as they live in hopes of getting sooner back. If more of 
them were here, they would soon become nicely accustomed to the 
place, hence if it could be done conveniently, we would humbly 
request you to send us some more. 

We have sent you copies of the last letter of the Seventeen to 
us. Since we have received no later communication from them, 
excepting a small private note from the Amsterdam Chamber, of 
which a copy is annexed. 

Having written thus far, there arrived here on the 2nd, 3rd and 
4th instant from home the Amersfoort, Naerden, Ziierickzee, Vlis- 
singen, and Walvis, bringing together 65 dead, but for the rest all 
fairly healthy crews, which were at once refreshed with ground 
fruit and vegetables. They will be able to leave in 6 or 8 days 
without leaving many sick here. The skipper of the Naerden is 
somewhat indisposed, and that of the Vlissingen is down with a 
broken leg, which is rather inconvenient. What the result of their 
voyage may be, you will best hear from themselves 

In the Fort the Good Hope, the 6th April, 1660. 
(Signed) 

JOHAN VAN RlEBEECK. 

EOKLOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



1660. Requisition from India for the Cape. 

6th April. 4 or 5Qo new tight gunny bags for the farmers in which to 
convey the grain from the lands to the Castle. 
10 packs guinea linen. 
2 sampouris. 
1 white ) 
1 blue I Betillos. 
1 red ) 

1 coloured gingham. 

4 Surat and Golconda coverlets. 

2 sail cloth. 

2 Fotas Bangala, or negro cloth. 
20 picols black and ( 
20 white j su S ar - 
10 wax and cotton for candles. 
Spices, tiz. : 

1 pepper. 
20 Ibs. cloves. 
20 cinnamon. 
20 mace. 
20 ,, nutmegs 

1 firkin cocoa nut oil. 

Should you think that the above would very much hamper the 
return fleet, and accordingly decide to ship them to us in a special 
galiot or small fluit, the latter might also be filled with rice for this 
place, which would be sold here at a good profit, as it is very much 
desired. Instead we could send you wheat and rye to Batavia, so 
that the little vessel would be able somewhat to recoup you for the 
extra expense incurred, whilst during its stay here it might cruise 
about for the return fleet in order to communicate to it such latest 
news regarding the conditions at home, as we generally receive 
annually from the Masters for the fleet when expected here, as was 
done excellently this year by the Loencn, by which means the 
vessels could better remain combined and be informed of everything 
necessary for them to know. Such a little fluit would also be found 
useful, as in the case of the Paerl this season, to discharge cargo, 
in order to look for leaks, &c. 

One more Chinaman, Champantyn, with his belongings, as more 
fully explained in our letter of the 18th June. 

100 bundles cane. 

List of documents despatched to Batavia in Het Wapen van 
Amsterdam : 

No.^ 12. Coast chart of Table Bay as far as St. Helena Bay 
inclusive. 

No. lo. Sea chart (Zeespiegel) from Table to Saldanha Bay. 



159 

To Batavia. _ 

" In order to communicate to you as soon as possible the uth April, 
peace made with the Caepmen, our late enemies, and what 
further happened, we have had hurriedly made an extract from 
our journals on the subject, and deposited it among the papers 
sent you in Het Wapen van Amsterdam. We now send you the 
continuation of our journals, which contain our Resolutions, as 
well as the reasons why various delinquents distributed among the 
ships, have been forwarded to you, besides others sent to you 
hence by order of the Hon. Sterthemius, according to annexed 
list. In accordance with our previous letter, we send you in the 
Amersfoort as a sample a last of new rye, and it may be probable 
that we shall have to send you in the Loenen some new white 
wheat in order to make room, as we are much in want of sufficient 
corn lofts. This vessel was once more sent outside on the 7th with 
half her cargo of rice in order to cruise with our letters until the 
25th following for the return ships, for their warning ; but having 
by stormy weather been injured in her bowsprit, she was obliged 
to turn back for repairs. In the meanwhile the small freemen's 
boat is cruising behind Robben Island in order to intercept such 
vessels as might be prevented by the South-Easters from reaching 
this. 

Since our last the flute Diemermeer arrived, having lost only one 
man. The rest are in such good health that they will be able to 
leave at the end of the week. The Amersfoort, Walvis, Vlissingen, 
and Z. Zee were ready to leave since Sunday, but were prevented 
by the west winds. They hope to leave together to-morrow. , . . " 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBBECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

Since closing the above, we miss the following goods, which the 
ships' officers declare that they have not been able to find. 

From Het Wapen van Amsterdam a case, No. K, with 200 pairs 
" Feres," or woollen stockings, at 12^ stivers per pair. 

From the ship Amersfoort a case, No. 0, with 6 rolls Brazilian 
Tobacco, weighing 325 Ibs., at 15 stivers per Ib. 

Should these things be found in one or other ship at Batavia, 
we kindly request you to send them to us in the return fleet. 

List of the prisoners sent to Batavia. 

In Het Wapen van Amsterdam. 
Pieter Barber, of Hamstede, 



Jacob Born, of GUasco, 
Patrick Job, of Glasco, and 
Marcus Hollimelson, of Ogel, 



Prisoners from the Fort the 
Good Hope. 



160 

166 - Cornelis Jansz: of Flensborgh, third officer of the Het Wapen van 

Amsterdam, for manslaughter. 

Jan Brouwer, boatman on the said ship, for disobedience 
towards the said officer. 

In the Amersfoort. 

PasquaelRodrigodeTeneriffe, j From the Fort . 

Jacob Dirckxe, of Antwerp, 

Arent Kievit, Sergeant of the Yacht Z. Zee. 

In the Walvis. 

Hendrick Hendricksz, of Oloppenburgh, and 

Claes Wisaebroeck, of Lingerick, 

And Hendrickus van der Strate, soldier on the yacht Z. Zee. 

List of Papers sent to India in the Amersfoort, &c. 



To Batavia. 

22nd April. Shortly after having given the Diemermeer the bearer 
of this, her despatch, the flutes Vogelemangh and Hilvermm 
arrived, having left Batavia on the 17th January last. Being the 
two last vessels of the return fleet, their long absence had caused 
us considerable anxiety.. ... As their officers submitted a list of 
articles required by them as well as an order from the Direotor- 
Q-eneral to take them out of the outward bound vessels, the 
Difmermeer was delayed a day, and from her were taken for the 
Vogelensangh : 

2 bales French sailcloth for a mainsail. 

20 Ibs. sail yarn. 

| cask plums. 

20 Ibs. candles. 

1,400 Ibs. bread. 

1 leaguer wine. 

1 haif-aum brandy, 
f cask butter. 

2 tuns barley. 
1 half-aum oil. 
4 iron hawsers. 

And for the Hilversum. 
600 Ibs. bread. 
leaguer wine. 
1 half-aum oil. 
^ cask butter. 
1 tun barley, and 
1 wheel cable. 

As will be seen from the receipts signed by the officers and 
handed to the skipper of this vessel, Diemermeer, which takes this 



161 

short note written hurriedly in order not to detain her. Later on 166 - 
we shall reply to your letter of the 17th January, for we are still 22ad~ipri 
expecting the Mmquaetloom, &c., from the Fatherland. ..." 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEFCK. 
ROELOFF HE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 
List of Annexures to the ahove. 



To the Seventeen. 

At the end of our last general despatch of the 19th 4tt lfa>. 
March, sent with the fleet under the Hon. Sterthemius, we 
mentioned that we believed that we had overcome all difficul- 
ties, but after the departure of that gentleman, we found that 
matters were not so rosy, and that new difficulties had arisen, not 
as regards the Hottentoos, but in consequence of the many freemen 
and company's servants who had stowed themselves away in the 
fleet to the number of 57, of whom only 15 were recovered, so that 
the remaining 42 are still at large, the result of the hurried depar- 
ture of the vessels. This desertion, we are told, was the result of 
their having been seduced and persuaded by the crews of the fleet 
to run away (see annexed declarations, &c.), which crews had in 
every possible manner made them disgusted with this place, and 
disposed them to desert. They had gone everywhere and said, 
What are you people doing in this cursed and damned land? 
Come, go with us on board ; we shall hide you well, and assist 
you properly. Why should you be afraid ? Why should you be 
sent back, and that from the Fatherland ; there is no fear of that ! 
And if anyone alleged that he would rather leave with honour and 
consent than in disgrace, they took him (if possible) by force into 
their boats, especially when anyone came on the wharf whilst the 
last boats were leaving, and thrashed those severely who would not 
accompany them, calling them informers and spies who were 
looking to see whom they were taking with them ; yea ! they even 
dared to resist the Provost and five or six soldiers on guard at the 
jetty, and thrash some of them soundly, and as these soldiers had 
not been ordered to go to extremes in such cases, they had to bear 
it and give way. Yea ! they even carried off some of the men on 
guard with or without their consent, and whilst the commander 
was on board to bid farewell to the Hon. Sterthemius who, on 
account of the freshening breeze, was compelled to leave rather sud- 
denly two men were seduced out of his boat by the seamen and 
stowed away, without the officers being able to discover them in time. 
Moreover, during the commander's absence on board, matters 
became so bad on shore that, as already mentioned, 57 persons 
were found missing. 

M 



162 
] 660. T ne company's gardens, which stood so extraordinarily beautiful, 

~ and were s ful1 as tnev had never ^ een Before, were ^y tneir 

insolence and wantonness as it were completely razed to the 
ground and destroyed, and when the gardeners desired to give 
each his share in proper order, pointing out the lots intended for 
every individual ship, they declared that they were all equally 
good and would take what they liked, ordering the gardeners to 
go away as they had nothing to do with them, driving them 
away with knives in their hands, and also with stones, out of the 
garden, so that everything went on most irregularly, and the rough 
crowd did just as they liked, breaking and treading down nearly 
everything that stood there, fully six times more than what they 
took with them on board, whilst it is our opinion also that what 
had been kept ready for the voyage had, most of it, been hidden 
away among the men, and that not a tittle reached its intended 
destination. From these gardens we should have had in proper 
order, as in former years, an abundant supply for 50 ships, as it 
can be imagined what may be obtained from 15 morgen of grouud 
full of beautiful cabbages and carrots. Yea ! the garden was 
fuller and more beautiful than ever before with cabbages, water 
melons, and melons, all which were trodden under foot and crushed, 
so that we were at our wits' end to discover how properly to refresh 
the following return and outward bound vessels (at that time 
expected every moment). We only had carrots, beet and parsuips, 
which it had been too much trouble to dig out, otherwise they 
would all have been destroyed just as the aforesaid fruit which 
they had left trodden down and crushed by thousands in the gar- 
dens, saying, break and tear down as much as you can, then it will 
no longer be required of us to come to this damned country. They 
also forcibly pulled from the ground the pole to which were affixed 
hePlaccaat and the extract from your last despatch against stowing 
uway, &c., and broke and threw it at the feet of the Provost and 
the soldiers whom he had with him. And if the latter had not 
retired they would have attacked them with it. Moreover, they 
most wantonly, and contrary to the orders forbidding them to do 
so, burnt the Company's boat, a sampan, to our great embarrass- 
ment, also various wheelbarrows and other vehicles that came 
within their reach. They did not care whether it was the property of 
the Company or the freemen, from whom they carried off several 
pigs, fowls and ducks, &c , as well as doors, window frames, and 
everything that they could lay their hands on in or outside the 
houses, and which they broke to pieces. 

Yea ! in a most daring manner, whenever the sergeant was 
found anywhere outside the Fort they threw stones at him and 
chased him out of one house into another, so that hardly anyone 
dared to put his head out of doors. 

When some stowaways had been found on board the Admiral's 
ship, Mr. Sterthemius said to Commander liiebeeck, when the 



163 

vessel was getting under way, " Commander ! these people com- 
plain very much and unanimously of hunger, and, as I perceive, you 
may expose yourself to personal danger." 

In answer to this we refer you to our last Resolution regarding 
rations, adopted on the 27th August last year, according to which 
everyone, in addition to his board money and subsidy, or meat 
and pork instead of subsidy, received a monthly allowance of 30 
Ibs. hard, or 40 Ibs. fresh bread, and as much fish as he could catch 
with the sein, which fish is often so abundant that they sell a large 
quantity, whilst moreover of the Company's half share they also 
obtaia each, as long as it lasts, 1 dried or fresh fish. Of brandy 
they receive every morning half a " mutsje " (wineglass) which is 
more than what is done in India, because the workmen and soldiers 
who have during the day to guard the cattle and the outposts, 
have also to be awake during the night in order to keep the 
watches. 

And when our Resolution adopted on the 2nd March last, 
regardiog rations, after receipt of supplies from India, is consulted, 
you will see how frivolous those complaints are, for we declare to 
you that the people are quite satisfied and perfectly contented with 
the said rations, and that they always have something over. Nor 
is it true what some freemen, who had stowed themselves away, 
told Mr. Sterthemius, that every one was to fetch every month 
for himself one bushel of wheat, for we have found that they could 
bake 52 Ibs. of bread from it, whilst they received salt meat and pork 
when fresh meat was not abundant.* But this even they did not 
desire, on the contrary they wished us to give them each time the 
best sheep, so that they might kill them as their fancy dictated, 
and feast on them, instead of letting them multiply, as we have 
experienced much too often to the loss and injury of the Company. 
Butter, oil and vinegar they can always publicly buy in small 
quantities from the burghers, as much as they require, whilst those 
who would but take the trouble, would be able to catch fish in 
abundance, so that too much is left uneaten. Besides there are 
various garden and ground fruits cultivated by every one 
here and obtainable at reasonable prices. What reason would 
there then be to complain of hunger, as each one could dispose of 
more than 50 Ibs. bread monthly out of a bushel of wheat, which 
(with the exceptioa of the agriculturists, who bake their own bread) 
everyone buys at the Company's stores at f2. The Hon. Ster- 
themius mentioned that this was also considered a grievance by them, 
as the Company only paid 32 stivers for the same to the growers, 
or at the rate of 50 reals per last, according to your last sanction ; 
but as the corn cannot be retailed in proportion to the 
quantity received, what reason can these people have for com- 
plaining, or why should the Company not enjoy the 8 stivers 

*NOTE. This passage is very obscure in the original. 

M 2 



164 

16*). scanty profit on each bushel of corn and other grain in proportion, 
4th Ma a8 8ne b as to suffer loss from leakage, and has built valuable stores 
and corn lofts, and must maintain a number of men to turn the 
grain ! Subject to your correction, we believe that she is justified 
in charging this advance ; or if, in order to content the complainers 
(who often take their corn away from the Company on credit, 
and would like to swallow it without payment), we were to use 
Utrecht measure (stiohtse maete) we might have received the grain 
from the farmers at a higher price, and retailed it with Amsterdam 
measure at the same rate ; which, however, if it became known, 
would also cause a frenzy, so that it would have been very difficult 
to manage. However we never heard of any complaints, but 
these deserters had to say something to excuse themselves, for they 
did not dare to acknowledge to the Admiral that they had incited 
fhe men, for seeing that the ships were already under weigh, they 
had to leave in them, and if they had stated anything else they 
would have been teased too much during the voyage by those 
whom they had incited. We could, therefore, have wished that 
the wind had blown contrary twenty-four hours longer, as we are 
sure that in that time the Admiral as Commissioner and Highest 
Authority in these matters would to some extent have redressed 
them ; but it seems that this did not please the Lord God, and 
that when we believed that we had overcome every difficulty, we 
were forced to remain in such a confused state that we did not 
know how we were situated, and whether we still commanded the 
respect of the men who had been left here on shore, or not, besides 
the fear that desertior.s to Batavia would not become much less, 
unless proper orders were issued and carried out to suppress all 
wantonness, and imprison without distinction of persons or hesitation 
all the delinquents and keep them in confinement until the last day 
of the departure of the vessels, thus keeping the crews so long in 
fear and submission ; or to act otherwise as you may determine, 
for we can assure you that in the near future everybody who is 
here will run away ; yea ! even the permanently settled freemen, 
who are already nicely beginning to make their fortunes, will not 
dare to remain, as the stowaways by means of the debts contracted 
with them, and otherwise, put them back and discourage them too 
much, thus causing great embarrassment in all matters, for instance, 
if the fleet were lying here during harvest time, the corn could not, 
for want of mowers be carried in from the fields, but would "be left to 
perish there, whilst many houses would remain unfinished, as 
everyone would have run away carpenters, masons, thatchers, 
some of the Saldanha traders, millers, and it is difficult to say who 
not, excepting those who had landed property here and had already 
commenced to make their fortunes, having also their wives and 
children with them, whom also (the mutineers) openly offered to 
take away together with their children, boxes, beds and bedding, 



165 

and find room for them on board, so that it seemed this year that 
their sole aim was, by hiding the men, to ruin the Cape completely, 4tb Ha 
and denude it of men to such an extent that the rest might be " 
ruined by the Hottentoos. We acknowledge that we became 
aware of this too late, otherwise we would (as we had commenced 
to do on the last day of the Fleet's presence here) have earnestly 
beseeched the Admiral to be pleased as Commissioner to redress 
the extraordinary confusion, and we do not doubt that His Honour 
would have done so, as his skipper Douwen Auckes had at once 
discovered 22 men, whilst the other skippers had promised us that 
they also would do their best ; but the sudden favourable wind 
would not permit them to carry out their intentions and enabled 
the crew once more to hide seven of the twenty- two recovered. 
And that we might as much as possible come to know the cause of 
this stowing away, we had at once, without being present personally, 
collected everywhere from everyone the annexed declarations, 
through one of the burgher councillors, the sergeant, and the 
assistant, Hendrick Lacus, that the people might speak out fear- 
lessly and fully before them and state what they had heard and 
seen. Prom their declarations it would appear that the stowing 
away was caused mainly by the instigation of the crews of the 
homeward bound, whilst amongst the freemen as well as the 
Company's servants there were also some slovenly fellows who 
took no interest in their work and neglected the service which they 
owed to their lawful superiors, to whom, as well as to many honest 
folk, they attached large bundles of burr in the form of debt (JBnde 
groote Clitsen van Schulden deselve Elude meer eerl ; Grerneene 
luyden aensetten), so that one can hardly say more than what Mr. 
van Almonde (who, at our request, had given free audience to 
everyone and listened to their statements) said at his departure, 
" Commander Riebeeck ! I plainly see that you are saddled and 
have to do with an unsatisfactory dissolute canaille, who would 
like to have everything for nothing from the Company and swallow 
it and after that still complain." These are the exact words 
spoken by Mr. van Almonde, whilst we also witnessed the dissatis- 
faction of Mr. Sterthemius on the same subject, warning us to be 
on our guard, as already mentioned. It can therefore be easily 
understood that it is somewhat difficult and vexatious to do one's 
best with all one's strength to satisfy everyone properly, and that 
there are many reasons which might be adduced for the Com- 
mander's transference, with your permission to a better place, but 
as this affects himself alone, and he is expecting with the May 
ships your reply to his request of last year, we shall not mention 
this matter at present, for though, in the opinion of some, the hatred 
felt against the Commanier personally may be a great cause 
for their dislike to this place, he has nevertheless willingly borne it 
so long (for the sake of the Company's service) and never minded 



166 

loco. the hatred of the public (gemeen) much, and for that reason he 
uh~Ma ever Desired to be diligent even in the smallest thing ; and whereas 
it is seen that this dislike of the Cape, c., is growing, however 
much he tries to do, matters might perhaps be somewhat mended 
by his removal, for if this were done for his own sake, it would not be 
quite unadvisable, but if on account of the dislike which the people 
have of the Cape, it would in that case soon show itself. How- 
ever, it will always remain highly necessary to make provision 
against this insolence in such a manner as you know better than 
we can contrive. 

Coming now to the matter of the Hottentoos, if what is men- 
tioned above could only be prevented, everything would go on 
fairly well, and the further service and affairs of the Company 
be advanced with pleasure and zeal, for already we hardly know, 
since the recent arrival of rice for our relief, where properly to 
store our corn, as already lofts for the purpose are failing us ; 
therefore should the cattle trade revive now that peace has been 
renewed, we would be able to provide the ploughs with more oxen, 
and accordingly depend on our own crops. We therefore intend 
to unburden ourselves of some wheat and send it to Batavia, just 
as we lately sent of our beautiful white wheat and rye, with Het 
Wapen van Amsterdam and Amersfoort, to the gentlemen at 
Batavia, a last of each as a sample. 

But returning to the subject of the Hottentoos, we made peace 
with the Caepmen on the 6th April last (see journal for full 
details). In the journal are mentioned the reasons given by them 
why last year they, in their own fashion, made war against us, 
viz.: that our people, without our knowledge, had done them 
much harm, and also mayhap stolen some of their sheep and calves, 
and eaten them, &c,, in which there is some truth, as the common 
people can with difficulty be prevented from doing this, if they are 
only a little beyond reach, so that they believed that they had cause to 
take revenge, and especially upon people who had come to possess 
themselves of, and occupy, their own country, which had belonged 
to them through all ages, cultivating and ploughing all the best 
portions and keeping them away from the fields on which they 
had been accustomed to depasture their cattle, &c., so that at pre- 
sent they were obliged to make their living on the pasture grounds 
of others, which could only be done by quarrelling with their 
neighbours. Accordingly they pressed this point so hard that 
their lands should be evacuated by us, that we were finally com- 
pelled to say, that in consequence of the war made against us, 
they had completely forfeited their rights and that we were not 
inclined to restore them, as the country had become the property 
of the Company by the sword and the rights of war. Moreover, 
they had set us the example by not being able to resolve to res tore 



167 

the cattle so unjustly stolen from us, which however we had over- 166 - 
looked, so that in this case they should do the same. Yea ! they 4 : th Ma v 
pressed the matter so hard that the conclusion of the peace began 
to appear doubtful. You may therefore be able to see from this 
narrative, how this nation is disposed towards the Company's 
settlement here, and how we are to remain continually in a proper 
posture of defence with our eyes ever watchful, in order to pro- 
tect properly what we possess here. But, as stated in our previous 
letter, this cannot be done with less than 120 men. We also 
advised you that as yet we could not resolve to make prisoners of 
them, in order to obtain restitution of the stolen cattle, as they of 
their own accord approached us to beg for peace, and we do not 
think at present that it is of much consequence, as it is of far 
greater moment to retain the confidence of the tribes of the interior 
in our good nature, &c., that they may come down to us with 
their cattle with a sense of greater security. This cattle barter is 
the principal thing, and as we have ere this advised you, nothing 
worth anything is obtained from the Caepmen. What your in- 
tentions on this subject may be we shall be glad to know. From 
the letters received by us from Batavia you will gather, how their 
Honours are of opinion, that if this nation only sees a chanee, it 
will never of their own free will leave us in peace (this agrees 
with our opinion). This has been properly grasped at the root, 
so that if the Company attaches any importance to this .Residency, 
a more careful watch should be kept than has been done hitherto. 
For this the horses from Batavia will be of excellent use, as well 
as the French saddles received from the Amsterdam Chamber. 
But the bits, mouthpieces, and stirrups are wanting, for which we 
have accordingly asked in a supplementary requisition, begging 
that they may be sent by first opportunity. 

Ships' arrivals from home between 28th March and 10th April 
(after the departure of the Return Fleet) seven all told. 

Together they did not leave 10 sick here, and lost only 74 men 
during the voyage, so that adding the men of the Enckhuiscn and 
*' Gravelande, they left with only 62 men less than the muster rolls 
compiled on their departure from home ; and if their hurried 
departure had not compelled them to leave some men behind, their 
number would have exceeded their original rolls. 

This having been brought so far, three commissioners arrived at 
the Fort on the 28th April from the Gbrachouquas or Tobacco 
thieves, and requested in the natne of their chief Choro, that they 
also might be included in the peace and allowed access to us, offer- 
ing to do as much as the Caepmen to see that other tribes brought 
us cattle from the Interior, so as to make up for the past troubles, 
&c. This was granted them for the reasons already mentioned 
(see journal). We hope thus to make ourselves more pleasant to 
the natives of the Interior, so that, their confidence in us increasing, 
they may come down to us with their cattle with a greater sense 



168 

lose. of security . Of this the interprets Eva, who is always staying 
th Ifar w ^ us gives us great hopes, saying, that as far as she could under- 
stand, we would this season be abundantly supplied with cattle, yea ! 
more than ever before ; but whether the Caepmen and Gourachou- 
quas will not again try to carry them off, should not be left out of 
account. However, we do not sit still, in order to prevent this, 
but have been considering how to keep our guards everywhere 
outside, and should the Natives once more begin, we hope so to 
seize the favourable opportunity, that they will have reason to 
commiserate themselves more than previously. An unremitting 
watch is therefore kept upon them, yea ! even upon all the 
aboriginals, who according to Eva's statements, are about to come 
down to us in great multitudes in order to supply us abundantly 
with cattle. Perhaps they may have a different purpose, namely, 
to reinstate by force and with their full strength the Caepmeu in 
their own pasture lands, but as we cannot obtain trustworthy 
information on these and other points from outside, we continue 
keeping a good watch over everything, so that, if it should so 
happen, we may with God's help give them a further taste of 
our arms, that in future they will avoid a similar attempt. Our 
hopes, however, are quite different, better in fact, than they have 
ever been before, and we are of opinion that only now our affairs 
are taking a turn for the best, as the horsemen with their riders 
have created among them a special fear of us. May the Almighty 
grant His merciful and generous blessing in all things for the 
benefit of the Company. Amen. 

Having seen how much importance you and the Batavia Council 
attach to another rendezvous instead of old St. Helena for the 
annual return fleet, our Resolutions of the 4th May last (see journal) 
will show how we decided to despatch the flute Loenen to search 
for St. Helena Nova, in order to find out what refreshments and 
drinkwater might be obtainable there, that their Honours at 
Batavia might be informed of the result before the departure of 
the return fleet. You had ordered that the galiot the Perkiet 
destined for the Cape was to be used for the purpose, but as she 
had not yet arrived and we feared that like the Mmquact and 
Nagelboom, she had been detained by the frost, and consequently 
might arrive too late to be in time for the search, or ready with 
her report before the fleet's departure, and thus a whole year would 
be lost, whilst, should any return ships be compelled by storms to 
pass the Cape they would be greatly embarrassed, as more fully 
explained in the Resolutions, we trust that we have properly 
carried out your intentions, as well as those of their honours at 
Batavia. This we shall be pleased to hear later on, and end, 
&c." 

In the Fort, the Good Hope, the 4th May, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VA:N RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



169 

To the Seventeen at Amsterdam. 

" Received yours of the 6th November ; and 10th and 16th 1 
December last. ... It was welcome to us that you were 4^ 
pleased to inform us of the exact number of ships and of their men, 
and also of the time when they left (? would leave) their respective 
harbours, as we can now feel sure about refreshments on their 
arrival. We accordingly request that this course may be continued 
as in the best interest of the Company, for as the spring ships 
leave a large quantity of ground fruit such as carrots, parsnips and 
beet in the garden beds (those vessels, like this year, being few in 
number) a greater abundance is left for the return autumn and 
Christmas ships, as the real sowing season here is from May to 
October, and after that month until December, of watermelons, 
melons and other Indian fruit, &c. These Fatherland and Indian 
sorts are thus on the arrival of the return fleet and the autumn 
ships, that is, in February, March and April, at their best and 
very abundant here, which suits exceedingly well, for during those 
three months all are employed digging up, plucking and distribu- 
ting, &o., the vegetables among all the vessels, so that as it is a 
very busy time, nothing is left for sowing or planting, &c., which can 
only be commenced in May, and ia taken in hand in that month 
as required. We have communicated your orders to the return 
fleet not to call at St. Helena this season. 

Regarding what you write in j our private letter, regarding the 
denial of Skipper Jan Idesz : de Vinck surnamed Van Campen, 
that he had any knowledge that any persons had stowed them- 
selves away on his board, the same had sufficiently often been told 
to him by us and the Fiscal, and if he had done what Mr. 
Sterthemius, Skipper Douwen Auckes, and all the other officers 
of the fleet did in a hurry, to have the stowaways searched for by 
the officers and brought on deck, those on his ship would have 
been found equally as well as those on the other vessels ; and 
presumably no one would have escaped if the ships had not so 
quickly weighed anchor and been blown to sea by the south-easter. 
There had already been good signs of success, but what can the 
Fiscal do, if the officers are unwilling to have a search made by 
their subordinates. Is this not something like connivance ? For 
what the skippers above mentioned could do, he also might have 
been able to perform, not that we desire to lay a charge against 
him, but we merely wish to show you the real state of the 
matter. 

And as regards the vile treatment meted out to the Fiscal, 
annexed are two declarations, one of the junior merchant Ifcoeloff 
de Man, who was present as one of the Commissioners, an 
honest upright young man, who would for no one's sake ever 
desire to accuse his worst enemy, and one of the assistant, Q-ysbert 
van Campen. It is, however, very difficult at once to support 



170 

1660. everything with documentary evidence, especially in matters 
4th May. which occur at the last moment before the departure of the vessels 
from the roadstead. We do not doubt, however, that the merchant 
Romanus who went home in the same ship will have a recollection 
of the occurrence, as well as ef the fact that Skipper van Campen 
was not inclined to make any effort to have a search made for the 
fugitives. This may also be affirmed by the junior merchant 
Croock, who also went home in the same ship, and if we had 
received the tidings with the 's Gravelande, we might have received 
some evidence from her skipper also who had been chief mate on 
van Campen's vessel on her homeward voyage, but as it is too late 
now, we must leave it here, with the hope that henceforth it will 
be better. 

Regarding the intentions of the Genoese, as mentioned in 
yours of the 16th December, 1659, we shall not refrain from 
promptly carrying out your orders should they appear here, that 
is, refusing them accommodation, and for the rest all other things 
as far a possible, even preventing them, if we have the opportunity. 
from obtaining water, until they have delivered to us all the 
Netherlander, &c. In all these matters we shall act as we can, 
and according to circumstanced and your orders for the benefit of 
the Company. 

Reynier Coenen, about whom you wrote on the 9th November, 
has long ago left this for Batavia in the Malacca (22nd Octo- 
ber, 1659). The hops sent us by you have arrived in a somewhat 
better condition than the first lot of plants. According to your 
instructions they have been planted in pits on different spots. 
"We hope to get at least some of them to grow, when no doubt we 
shall be able to rear some more. 

All the vines arrived in a good state, as well as about half of 
the mulberry trees. These also promise well, but the cornel-berry, 
melissa or balm-mint (confilij de greyn) and strawberries were all 
dead and rotten. 

Since the English ship Dolphin left on the 3rd May last, no 
others have been here. Perhaps they fear some trouble at Home 
and that we may have heard of it, so that they may fall into 
trouble here also. One, however, was seen on the 17th April last, 
passing the Cape and making for St. Helena, by one of the boats 
of the freemen, provided with permanent decks, and ssnt outside to 
look out for the return ships with our letters of warning that the 
English had taken possession of St. Helena. The Englishman sent 
out a boat towards ours, but was unable to overtake it, which is not a 
bad thing, as now they will understand that we have always vessels 
outside on the watch, and keep such a good look out, that we 
cannot be surprised unexpectedly. The less they call here the 
more secure the company will feel, as they are very importunate 



171 

and haughty (alsoo vry importuijn ende superbe vallen), so that 166 - 
often we have enough to do to keep things going with them in a 4thliay. 
friendly way. 

In the Fort " the Good Hope " this 4th day of May, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



To the Seventeen at Zealand. 

The Diemermcer brought us your pleasant letter of the 
28th November last, in which you mention one Jan Jansz. 
de Beer who left as trumpeter in the Prim Willem. 
He died suddenly here after a brief illness on the 25th March, 
1659. During life he had lived a more than usual dissipated life, 
so that we often wished that Mons. Bastincq had kept him on his 
vessel. His death you may notice in the list of deceased persons 
sent home with the first squadron, as well as from the statement 
in which his account is brought up for the satisfaction of his 
friends 

In the Fort " the Good Hope " this 4th day of May, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

Supplementary requisition for the Cape for the year 1661 : 

200 gross hair buttons, black and other colours. 

The bits, mouth-pieces (? bridles) and stirrups for the 12 

French saddles first sent. 

25 brown grass sieves (Draviok Zeven) in order to clear the 
wheat, especially the rye from that seed, which grows here 
among the corn. 

N.B. The tobacco pipes sent should have bowls twice the size 
of those sent last ; but instead of 50, only 8 or 10 gross 
need be sent, principally for the great men and 
Hottentoos as presents, &c. 

/ Red Copper plates \ asked for in our previous requisi- 

*r Tj ] Buck wheat f tion, may now be excused, as your 

j Mulberry trees I honours have with Het Wapen van 

\ Hop plants ) Amsterdam, &c., provided us so well 

with all these articles, that in 1661 nothing will need to be sent, 

and if the hops do not thrive now, they will never do so. How - 

ever we shall be glad to receive the hops dried i a the sun, in order 



172 

1660. to sift the seeds from them, to see whether better success will 
4th liar attend the sowing of the latter. 

List of annexures to preceding despatches, for the 17 at 
Amsterdam. 

No. 12. Description of the Embassy to China by Mons. Marriville, 
and a letter from the latter to the Amsterdam Chamber. 



Instructions for the officers of the flute Loenen lying ready to 
sail to St. Helena Nova. 

5th May. You know why this vessel has been selected to search for St. 
Helena Nova, viz. : that she may be able to report the discovery 
at JBatavia before the departure thence of the return fleet for the 
information of the latter, should any of the squadron happen to 
pass the Cape through storms or otherwise, so that that Island may 
be able to serve as a refuge and rendezvous instead of old St. 
Helena, and furnish the ships with water aud refreshments, &c. 
In this the Directors aud the High Government are so deeply 
interested that we could not refrain from seizing the first oppor- 
tunity as the best for the purpose. 

You shall therefore leave with the first favourable wind, and during 
the voyage carefully observe all lands and coasts, &c., especially shal- 
lows hitherto unknown ; yea ! in case you should fail in finding the 
Island, endeavour to discover whether between this aud Cabo Negro 
there are not any suitable bays or harbours where water and 
refreshments may be obtained, as the main object is to make 
provision for the return ships that might be blown past the 
Cape. For that purpose you shall, in going, keep the land in sight, 
in order the better to explore any openings, bays, or rivers that 
may be seen. You are also particularly warned to take care that 
you do not fall foul of the dangerous shallows under the Tropic 
and lower down, which extend far into the sea. Everything shall 
be carefully laid down five fold in charts by the Land Surveyor, 
Pieter Potter, who expressly accompanies you, and who shall also 
make as many sea charts (Zee spiegels), viz. : two for the Father- 
land, two for home, and one for the office here. 

And as the masters mention that the aforesaid Island is held in 
possession by the Portuguese, and perhaps also well fortified, you 
shall, when sighting it, be very careful in approaching, lest you 
should fall into any danger. This we leave, however, to your 
diligence and prudence. You shall follow the coast until you 
reach the latitude of the said Island, said to be the same as that 
of old St. Helena, so as to be to the east of it, and able to approach 
it with an in-breeze. Besides water and refreshment you shall 
also notice what facilities there may be for traffic at those places 
visited by you, in the shape of tusks, slaves, tortoise shell, &c., that 



173 

you may report to us as well as to India, and should you fall in i'660 
with any Portuguese vessel that you may think not too strong for 5 
you, you may endeavour to capture her, and bring her hither as a 
good prize, with such cargo and slaves as may be on board of her, 
making a proper invoice of the whole, and as much as possible, 
preventing all improper plundering by the men, that the Company 
be not defrauded in any way. 

For your further guidance we give you a copy of the Journal 
kept by the skipper of the yacht Maria in 1658, who sailed along 
the coast of Africa as far as St. Loango de Paulo. It may be of 
service to you. And that your crew may keep a good and careful 
look out for the said island, to find which you have been expressly 
despatched, you may offer a reward of 25 Eeals of Eight to him 
who first sights it, which God grant may happen. To His guidance 
we commend you collectively, with the hope that we may see you 
return in health and safety at the proper time." 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 5th May, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BJEBEECK. 
EOELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



To Batavia. 

" Our last to you was dated the 22nd April last 18th June. 

Decided by Resolution on the 1st May to despatch the flute 
Loenen to search for the island ' St. Helena Nova.' We also 
refer you to our Journal of the 27th April regarding the 
peace made with our worst enemies, the Gorachouquas or Tobacco 
thieves, and the re-opening of the cattle trade with them and the 
Goringhaiquas or Caepmen, mentioned on the 13th May. We 
trust to be able to communicate further successes by a following 
opportunity, which may the Almighty grant ! 

On the 6th April we inform ad you that we supplied the three 
return ships, Het Wapen van Hollant, &c., with two lasts of rice 
each out of the Cape cargo in the Loenen, and two more to the 
Vogelensangh, besides the 1,400 Ibs. bread and what more had been 
taken out of the Diemermeer for that vessel, according to Resolution 
of the first May. Add to this that the Loenen delivered us five 
lasts short and we had to supply her with one last for her voyage 
to ' St. Helena Nova,' whilst two-and-a-half lasts were completely 
spoilt. We also supplied the saloons of the aforesaid return ships 
with fully two-and-a-half lasts of wheat, rye and meal, as well as 
Turkish beans, &c.,all drawn from the Cape produce and supplies, 
or a total of 19 lasts, which we will have to do without and deduct 
as not having received, or having parted with, so that everything 



174 

i860. being deducted from the 63-^ lasts sent us, only 44 lasts remained 
isth 7un over f r tne Cape, with which and the grain won here we shall be 
able to make both ends meet, though the Frenchmen wrecked here 
also caused a considerable and unexpected additional consumption. 
This however is merely mentioned to point out to you how often 
the rice sent to us (for our own consumption) is not required 
by us, but also and especially under extraordinary circumstances, 
by the return fleets, in consequence of the complaints of Ihe 
skippers that they had been too poorly provided at Batavia, and if 
this were to continue, and no rice be sent to the Cape, seeing that 
we shall not require any more, and hope that this petition will be 
the last, the return ships, having been too scantily provided at 
Batavia, would not be able to find any succour here from the lands 
at present under the plough, for though the number of husbandmen 
increases, everything will depend upon their obtaining a sufficient 
number of plough oxen (which can only be collected gradually), 
so that two or three years will have to elapse before these people 
will be able to supply any grain, whilst all the time they will be 
also fellow consumers, whose mouths the Company will have to 
keep open. We therefore mention this matter that it may be 
pondered by you and such steps taken as you may deem good." 

Arrival of the French ship La Mareschal on the 9th May and 
her destruction during the storm of the 17th-19th May, &c. (See 
Journal of those dates.) This vessel was here four years ago 
(during the presence here of the Hon. Bogaerdts) with three other 
ships from France ; and three years ago, when the Hon. Mr. Yan 
Goens was here, its return cargo was only from Madagascar, and 
on the 20th January last, just like four years ago, she had been 
equipped by the same Governor of Nantes, Monsieur La Millerey, 
and sailed from that river towards Madagascar, to which place, as 
soon as she returned, another would be sent with many married 
families, in order to strengthen the Colony established there, and 
promote sericulture, for which purpose a free woman, who was 
versed in this industry, would also be on board in order to make 
a beginning, as silk is raised there, as appears from the silk upper 
garments and girdles worn by the great there. This had also 
been reported by the late junior merchant, Verburgh, who died 
there when the Tulp had on her second voyage been wrecked at 
that Island. It is also eaid that the vessel had been sent to take 
on board the guns of the three vessels that had been wrecked 
there four years ago, as well as 30,000 or 40,000 hides, which they 
said they would find there ready for them, with a quantity of wax, 
honey, sandal wood, aloes, citrons, ebony and tobacco, with which 
she would return at once, without the intention of proceeding to 
the .Red Sea. From the annexed list of the cargo saved here, it 
appears that they were soberly provided with supplies for their 
people there, and according to what Captain Vesron and a certain 



175 

Monsieur Gilton stated, the only object La Millerey had in view 166() 
was to recover the guns that had been left there and as much 
merchandise as could be recovered, which he has foregone this 
time, as the aforesaid vessel La Mareschal was during the night 
between the 18th and 19th May thrown on shore near the Salt 
River by a strong N.W. wind, in consequence of the want of 
anchors and cables, with 148 men on board, according to annexed 
muster-roll demanded of them, and delivered to us. 

" Now all the four ships of four years ago have been lost, viz , 
three at Madagascar, and the fourth here, besides two others 
named the Portuguese >, lost with 150 on the river of Nantes, and 
the Gf/spaer captured last year by the Spaniards. On the last 
mentioned were two of the French priests (papen) who have now 
been wrecked in this vessel. It will be a wonder if these disasters 
will not commence to be distasteful to the Marshal of France 
though the Bishop (the chief of the four priests) vaunts of con- 
tinuing Madagascar affairs, and that it is their intention to build a 
fort on the inner coast in Augustin Bay (this is true) for the pur- 
pose of trading with Mosambique and the neighbourhood ; and that 
besides another vessel would follow in six months' time, and that a 
certain great Lord (Groot Heer), who enjoys an income of fully 18 
'tons ' of gold, was prepared to proceed thither as Governor- General 
over the whole island, accompanied by a fleet of four ships carrying 
more than 1,000 men, with the intention of successively sending 
succour and keeping up a continuous and permanent navigation 
thither, making their refreshment station at Saldanha Bay. 

On this wreck was a certain Mons. Gilton (who had been Lieu- 
tenant on this same vessel four years ago, under Admiral Laros) 
well known to Mr. van iroens, who had enrolled between 30 and 
40 men at his own expense, and was privileged to travel overland 
at St. Augustiu Bay, and erect the said Fort there. He would 
act as Grovernor during the first three years and make a beginning 
of affairs there, and on that account be permitted to draw for 
himself during those first three years all profits derived from the 
trade, having been there already before and obtaiDed a thorough 
knowledge of all matters as a result of his travels through nearly 
the whole country. The wreck of his ship has however frustrated 
all this, at least postponed it for a long while, as he has decided to 
let his men enter the service of the Company, and personally to pro- 
ceed to Batavia as a passenger, in order to seek his fortune in India 
in the domain of the Company, and under such military conditions, 
iu the Company's service, as he hopes to be able to arrange with 
you on his arrival in Batavia. We believe that if an ensign's com- 
mission were given to him, he would without doubt, reveal all 
secrets, as he seems to be a good, plain-spoken German (Duytser) 
of Prussia or Poland. He speaks fairly good Dutch (Duyts), a 
clever (gauw) fellow, very much inclined to enter our service, 



176 

1660. an( j having a knowledge of the 'Jus velatie ' (? Jus fetiale), 
isth J an< ^ m ftn y other matters of convenience, &c. He has promised, 
as he has already commenced to do here, to open to you all 
secrets regarding Madagascar. He has therefore asked us to write 
in favour of the aforesaid conditions. And if the affairs of the 
Island are as described by him, they will be worth considering, for 
he says that he will readily give his own personage as a hostage to 
you for what he intends to reveal, if only a trial be made, which 
would richly deserve the expenditure, for he would not have 
wasted his money in recruiting for men, and with a vain hope 
hurled it away with the hand, thus making himself destitute, as he 
has now become in consequence of the loss of his ship. 

This does not seem to be in a less degree the imagination of the 
Bishop, for he stated that the Marshal intended to send 2,000 men 
thither, and spoke big of gold, silver and silk which were obtain- 
able there, but hides and wax especially. With these articles they 
would for the present cover the expenses of their return voyages, 
besides the tobacco which was very good and would also be used 
as return cargo. In consequence of the wreck, the people of 
the aforesaid large island (according toMons. Gilton's revelations), 
much less than 100 in number, will now in vain look forward to 
their relief from Europe. The priests have accordingly urgently 
requested to be granted a passage to Madagascar in one of our 
outward bound ships, especially the Loenen, when, on her return 
from St. Helena Nova, she might en passant call at Madagascar ; 
but we in the most civil terms explained that we were unable to 
comply with their request ; so that, when they saw no chance, 
they decided, after having stored their goods saved from the wreck, 
to discharge their men, and permit them to enter our service, into 
which they were accepted, and we now by this vessel, the Phenix, 
send you 58 of them. The rest will follow, distributed amongst 
the next ships, that we may get rid of them without delay, and 
not be exposed to any inconvenience or evil pranks such, as 
they mentioned to us had happened shortly before their arrival 
at Nantes at Cape Verde, where a French vessel from Dieppe had 
plundered the fort of the West India Company there. (For the 
details of this narrative see Precis of the Journal, May 10th, 
1660.) Whether these people would treat us better when 
their provisions ran out, the Omniscient knows best; how- 
ever, we provided against such a contingency without delay, for 
as soon as their vessel had been wrecked we took charge of all 
their powder, lead and fire-arms before we permitted them to save 
anything except the unarmed men ('t bloote volck), in which we 
assisted them with all our means ; and as they had no boat (theirs 
having been smashed on the beach, we assisted their men with 
an old whale-boat (bischayse sloep) and lines through the surf in 
order to save life ; we also permitted them to hire one of the boats 



177 

of the free Saldanhars with which to save their cargo after, as 166 - 
already said, their arms had been taken from them, excepting six igthTu 
muskets and the side-arms of the officers, which were allowed to 
the latter, that they might the better keep their men under control 
whilst busy saving and storing the cargo, but that control was of 
such a doubtful nature that they were often compelled to ask for 
the assistance of the Company, and finally resolved to offer a 
portion of their men for our service, which offer we accepted, for 
the reasons mentioned in our Resolution of the 24th May last, 
partly the better to secure ourselves, and partly that we might have 
the less to fear from hypocritical friends. And as we are of opinion 
that it is the maxim of the Company as much as possible to obstruct 
the navigation by foreign nations of the seas to the East of the 
Cape, we readily conceded a passage to Batavia to the aforesaid 
Mons. Gilton, &c., that, experienced and well acquainted with 
Madagascar as he is, he might not, when again in his fatherland, 
be induced to return to that island. We trust you will approve of 
our conduct in this, which it will please us to hear. 

But now that this misfortune has befallen Mons. Gilton, the 
latter does not seem inclined to return to France, but rather to 
seek his fortune in the service of the Company, for he plainly states 
that the only object of the Marshal was to recover the brass guns 
of the vessels wrecked at Madagascar four years ago, as well as 
such merchandize as might in the meanwhile have been collected 
there. Two or three years later he might send another vessel to 
see whether it would then still be worth while to continue the 
voyages ; but this being the sixth vessel which the Marshal had 
lost, Gilton did not think that he would ever again think of sending 
out another, though the priests talk differently, which however 
Gilton calls brag (blasen), but if there were among the French 
such good order kept there as by the Company, and if the natives 
there were treated in as friendly a way as is customary with the 
Company, instead of the French endeavouring to obtain everything 
with the musket and with violence, the natives would be attracted 
to them, and they would be able to establish a fine trade in wax, 
silk and gold. Of this he could assure us, and, as already said, 
was prepared to pledge his own person at Batavia as a hostage. 
For the rest of what concerns these Frenchmen, we refer you to 
our journals 

The fury of the Hottentoo war is, thank God, not only over, 
but we have made a new peace with all our late enemies ; but as 
regards our opinion regarding them, and the necessity of being 
continually on our guard against them, we need not mention these 
matters here as we have already referred to them in our letters of 
the 4th May last. 

And as with you we understand that since the English have 
taken possession of St. Helena, the Cape has become of even more 

N 



ITS 

i860. importance to the Company, we shall not refrain, during our stay 
it8h~June ^ iere ' ^ rom t!are f u Uy attending to everything connected with the 
accommodation of the ships, their comfort and refreshment, as 
well as strengthening the place in the event of possible trouble from 
the English on St. Helena (which may God prevent). The Hon. 
Sterthemius did not discuss the question of making an inspection 
of the Island and obtaining news from there, because the orders of 
the Masters were that the fleet was not to call there this year ; 
however, as it was their wish, as well as your own, that another 
rendezvous should be searched for for the return fleet, blown past 
the Cape by the S.E. gales, and as their Honours desired us on the 
~>th September to despatch the Perkyt in search of St. Helena Nova, 
which however had been detained by the frost at home, and as you 
have mentioned in your letter that the Loenen, on her way to St. 
Helena in company with Mr. Sterthemius, might not uselessly 
spend her time, we decided to despatch her in search of St. Helena 
Nova, that you might have information regarding that island 
before the departure of the fleet. We, however, did not dare to 
send that little flute alone to St. Helena, and trust that we have 
thus carried out the wishes of the masters 

We carefully carry out your instructions that, as in India, 
military persons employed at the pen are to serve a term of five 
years before they may expect promotion, but should anyone have 
performed any extra service meriting such promotion, we will not 
grant it ourselves, but will refer the case to you or to the Commis- 
sioners annually arriving here, as lately when Mr. Sterthemius 
was here. 

As you did not in your first letters reply to the request of 
Fiscal Grabberna, His Honour (Sterthemius), being Commissioner, 
granted him the requested increase, provided that he re-engaged 
himself for another five years, as his first contract would expire 
next year. We trust that this action of the Commissioner will 
not be disapproved of, as the person mentioned deserves his pro- 
motion. Moreover, it was granted before the receipt of your 
orders, which have accordingly not been disobeyed, &c. 

The exiled Chinaman sent hither in the Anthem feels himself very 
lonely ; accordingly we would like to refresh your memory by asking 
whether not more delinquents of that nation might be sent over ; 
they would thus be company to each other, and becoming recon- 
ciled to their lot, be able to do good service. We also request you 
to send us a Chinese sampan with oars, masts, and sails, &e., 
to be used for fishing in the bay, as well as to serve as a model 
from which others may be made. They would be very handy 
here, and we have accordingly mentioned them in the duplicate 
copy of our requisition. 

The horses obtained from you we more and more find to be very 
old. They can hardly be ridden half an hour when they fall 



179 

down, and when they have been out once only they remain 166 - 
three or four days lying on the floor of the stables. Moreover, isthTui 
there are only four mares among them ; the rest are all old worn- 
out stallions and geldings, except a small black horse with the tail 
cut off, which is fairly strong and able. We accordingly believe 
that those who have charge of the stables (in Batavia) have, 
contrary to your plain orders and intentions, as in the case of the 
saddles, selected the worst of all , otherwise they are of a fairly 
large size. If they had been mostly all mares that were able still 
to bring forth a foal each, matters would have gone excellently, 
and we would soon have had an Abundance, which, however, will 
now be a slow process, thanks to the perverseness of the persons 
mentioned (door die luyden haer contrarie sinnelyckheyt). More- 
over, we shall be able to do nothing with them as riding horses, so 
important a matter as regards these savages, among whom they 
would otherwise spread terror. However, we shall try and get on 
with them the best way we can, as we dare not importune you with 
a request for other and younger mares. 

Regarding the French, we forgot to mention that a vessel of 
that nation would follow to Tonquin and Japan, and was already 
lying ready for sea at Dieppe in December last. She would 
refresh in Saldanha Bay, and was being waited for by the Bishop 
and his priests that en passant she might land them on Madagascar. 
But Captain Vesron and Mons. Gilton say that they will be as 
disappointed in that man (who is sailing for other gentlemen) as 
they have been here and in Holland, where, as Mr. Gilton says, 
the Marshal had endeavoured to hire two flutes, which, however, 
were refused to him, so that he had been obliged to send the vessel 
that was wrecked here, and is at present already in that condition 
that the fish are swimming in and out of it. The men, however, 
are still busy lauding the guns, which are of iron. The Bishop 
has also requested us that, in case he missed the Tonquin trader, 
we may be pleased to write a letter in their favour to you, that a 
small space may be allowed them on the return ships in which to 
proceed to Patria. The party consists of the Bishop, 3 priests, 1 
layman (their surgeon), and two servants, or altogether seven per- 
sons. Whether the two captains will also decide to remain here 
so long we do not know, but Mons. Giltcn will personally submit 
to you the request of the priests, also, if possible, to hire a small 
vessel from you to take them hence to Madagascar, but we gav<> 
them very little hope of success. ..." 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 1.8th June, 

(Signed) JOHA: 
ROEL 

List of annexures to the preceding despatch. 



(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 



180 

To Batavia. 

" . . . . We send you a list of the names of the Frenchmen sent 
>2nd~Junc * vou ^ n ^ 8 vessel, the Mage/boom. We would have embarked 
less of that nation in the Nagelboom and Pheni.r, but, as the 
Zealand ships are ordinarily mostly manned with French soldiers, 
we could not venture to put any more on the Proviniie, so that the 

rest will have to leave in the Muxcaet Boom We take it that 

not too many men can be sent to you .... 

For a further trial we send you with this vessel (Nagelboom} two 
cases with artichoke plants, trusting that they will thrive, as we 
have been supplied by a new gardener, who has treated them 
differently to they were before. We hope in good time to hear of 
their success. 

As most of your liking lies in cabbage seed, we send you six 
pounds of all kinds of drum heads (sluit kool), among them there 
may possibly be a few imperfect plants (cruyff cooltjen), but not 
so many as previously, as more attention is paid to this, and now 
every effort is made to obtain seed from each sort separately, in 
order as much as possible to give you satisfaction. 

The French woman of whom we made mention in our previous 
letter, and who was to start silk culture at Madagascar, is a 
passenger on board this vessel (Nagelboom). Her husband is an 
expert gardener, but, as we cannot understand him, we have for- 
warded him also to Batavia. The chief captain of the French 
ship, Mons. Vesron, seems to be an elderly honest man, inclined to 
depart in the first vessel arriving here, but what the intentions are 
of the second captain, Mons. Carquedion, these he keeps to himself, 
being a man of a surly temper (synde dat een misselyck humeur) 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 22nd June, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BJEBEECK. 

KiOELOFF DE MAIS. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 
List of Annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

loth July. " On the 28th of last month (July) the Loencn returned, not 
having discovered the slightest trace of St. Helena Nova (see her 
journal). This is the third futile attempt, so that the saying of 
gome that the island is fictitious, or has been laid down in a wrong 
latitude, deserves credence, and that the Portuguese from India 
have made their refreshment and water station under Loango St. 
Poulo, on the Angola Coast (according to the Journal and Notes 
of the Haswlt), or in the Bay ' de toto la Sanctos ' on the Brazil 



181 

coast, or that, perhaps, they sail from Mozambique (having 

refreshed there) right through to Lisbon. What the facts maybe i5th~July. 

we do not know. One thing is certain, that hitherto no St. Helena 

Nova has been discoverable, and that on this African coast no 

other or lower harbour has been found for the return ships than 

Saldanha Bay, where, during the dry season, when the return 

fleet arrives here, there is no good water, so that the ships, if only 

for the water, will be obliged to call here, even if driven to sea (by 

the S.E. winds), or in their worst need at Saldanha Bay, where 

they may be succoured from here to the best of our ability, and 

then leave together (gecombineert) ; that is, if, as during this 

season, they are not to call at St. Helena. On this point we must 

abide by the orders annually received from the Masters. In the 

meanwhile we are doing our very best to grow all kinds of produce 

as necessary refreshments, &c., the abundance of which, with Grod 

in the van, we hope, there will be no cause to doubt. 

We wish that with this new peace a number of cattle may be 
brought down to us, and it will be pleasant news to us if during 
the dry season as many are brought in as these natives have 
promised, for the husbandmen are so short of cattle that much of 
their lands will have to remain uncultivated this year, so that 
hardly 140 or 150 morgen, of the company and the agriculturists, 
will be brought under seed (see Journal 7th May) . 

Since the Loenen'x return, her men were almost daily busy, 
fishing for the anchors of the wrecked Frenchman, but as in spite 
of every effort they have not been able to recover any, we did not 
dare to detain that vessel any longer, or send her for an uncertain 
cattle barter to Saldanha Bay. On the 10th inst., we accordingly 
decided to send her on to Batavia (see journal). We trust that 
the Perkyt, destined for this place, will soon arrive (opdondeien 
zal) in order to be employed here. 

The French priests are again sending you a letter with the 
Locnen^ begging that you may be pleased to order that a place 
mny be provided for them together (seven in number) in one vessel. 

The aforesaid Bishop, a man of a particularly high family, and 
very wealthy, has for the third time been disappointed in his 
voyage to Madagascar. Now however his property has been saved, 
but he lost everything in the two previous voyages. The ship Gaspar 
was captured by the Spaniards, and his second vessel, the Portu- 
guese, was lost in the river of Nantes. His third disaster overtook 
him here, but he declares that for all that, he did not intend to 
desist, even if the Marshal le Maljerey and the French Company 
of Paris abandoned the work, as he would in that case per- 
sonally equip one or more ships, not for the purpose of living 
there always, but temporarily for a year or two, in order to 
establish churches there in an orderly manner, for which, 
according to his own statement and those of the other Frenchmen, 



182 



1660. 
15th July. 



ho had in his will devoted half of his capital consisting of tons of 
gold (ton = 10,000). He had already spent more than 50,000 
(? guilders) in men and many (church) ornaments which he has 
with him here ; he also says that he might have proceeded to 
Toaquin in the ship that was lying ready in Dieppe in October 
last, in order to become Bishop of that Kingdom, escorted by all 
his priests, but that, as there were so many Portuguese clergy 
there, he had completely set his mind on Madagascar, which he 
did not intend to give up, even if he had ten more lost voyages 
and sacrificed everything that he had in this world. You may 
imagine what the means of this man are, as his brother not long 
ago bought a palace from Cardinal Biohelju for 12 tons of gold. 
He himself had been a military Commander of a brigade in 
France, yea ! he had been such a " dominateur " and gambler, 
staking from 20 to 30,000 guilders at once, that one evening he 
gambled away his carriage and horses, as he told us himself, 
but having become melancholy through his losses ho had recovered 
his self-control, and devoted himself to spiritual matters, with the 
principal object of establishing churches at Madagascar, and 
perhaps travelling to and from that Island, &c. 

He also mentioned that besides 30 or 40,000 hides in their Fort, 
they also had fully three ships' loads of wax there, which is cheaply 
obtained there " 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 15th July, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 
KOELOFF BE MAN. 
ABRAHAM (JABBEMA. 

P.S. The firelocks and carbines taken last year from the ships on 
account of the war, we send you in the Lorn en, as we have been 
sufficiently provided from home. 

List of annexures to the preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

27th July. Arrival of the Perkiet in Houtbay, having been overtaken by a 
storm on the 22nd instant. The ProvinUe mn Zetland anxiously 
awaited. The French clergy have decided to leave in her for 
Batavia. The French captain Symon Vesron, leaves in this vessel, 
(the Muscaet Boom] taking with him all the goods saved, on con- 
dition that he will pay such freight and other expenses for himself 
and goods as he may agree with you at Batavia. Five other 
persons, including his late mate, accompany him. They intend to 
enter the Company's service. This the captain would also like to 
do, if he only understood the Dutch language ; he is an upright 



183 

man, judging from his conduct here, hence at his request we have 1S6C - 
not been able to refuse this testimony. 27thTuly 

Annexed is a deed of declaration in French and Dutch, in which 
the French declare that they have abandoned the wreck and every- 
thing it contained. We send it expressly in order to know from 
you whether we shall now take it for ourselves and break it up, as 
the woodwork will come in handy for very many things, especially 
for extending the jetty more than 150 feet further into the sea, 
which is highly necessary ; but without your special orders we dare 
not put a hand on it (the wreck) , as we do not know the laws on 
the subject (zee of strandt rechten). We accordingly ask for your 
special orders, as a year would pass, if we had to refer the matter to 
Patria, whilst during that time the jetty and many other things might 
bo made out of that wood. Moreover it is to be feared that during 
such a long interval the vessel might perish completely and become 
useless. She is lying conveniently close to us, and we would get 
more timber from her than we would be able to obtain in ten 
years from the forests." 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 27th July, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELFF DK MAN. 
ABKAHAM GABBEMA. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 

No. 7. A private letter of the Bishop, Mons. Estienne. 



To Batavia. 

" Our last was dated the 7th July. Have since looked out with 27th Oct. 
anxiety for the Provintie, which, we trust, God the Lord has 
safely conducted to Batavia. This will be brought you by the 
Vollenhoven. Our journals will show how excellently the cattle 
trade is progressing. A certain new tribe, which had -never before 
seen our people or ships, came down to us ; their language, but 
not their clothing, differs somewhat from the Hottentoos dwelling 
in our neighbourhood. They are called the Ohainouquas, whose 
king or chief, Sousa, has been twice at the Fort (on the 30th Sep- 
tember and 9th instant) and entertained with presents and good 
treatment, in order to allure not only himself but also other tribes 
from the far inland to us, as this man states that he has inter- 
course with the Ohobonas, among whom he has seen gold 
and white stones. He promised to prove to us the truth of what 
he communicated, and to endeavour to bring one of that tribe to 
the Fort (see journal of 30th September). He also intended to 
visit us again with another large nation named the Hessequas, as 



184 

i860. powerful as the Chainouquas. May God grant a successful 
27th"oct issue - Thanks to Him, it goes well with the cattle trade, 
and our late enemies are hitherto keeping very quiet and obedient. 
Oedasoa off and on permits his people, the Chochoquas, to bring in a 
few small sheep, but he had to give way to the Chainouquas, whose 
king he and all the others had to salute and meet with presents, 
&c. But they seem to dread the Hessaquas even more (see Journal 
for the reason) . The Caepmen regret it exceedingly that they are 
no longer able to prevent other tribes from obtaining a knowledge 
of us, and that we are more and more obtaining access to the 
interior, so that as a first result the cattle trade has been assuming 
much larger dimensions. Beads are mostly wanted, which these 
stranger tribes seem to like very much. They come from the 
East and also display a great liking for a certain kind of red copper 
beads, made by a certain nation in the far interior, of which they 
showed us specimens. The latter were made by a nation living 
towards the North-west, and called Namaqnas, already mentioned 
ere this. They wear plaited hair and are clothed in prepared white 
skins, &c. They also trade with cowries (Jtem oocq in de Caurijs), 
so that we have sent you some of the beads as a sample, hoping 
that you will receive it before the departure of the last return ships. 
The Chinese in Batavia make a large quantity of these beads, and 
as they can be sent from India a year sooner than from home, we, 
would also wish you to send us, if possible, a thousand chains as 
long as the annexed samples, which might be easily made in Japan, 
where copper does not cost half as much as it does at home, and 
where there are good workmen for the purpose. We give you 
this early notice that with our other requisitions it may not arrive 
too late for ordering the beads from Japan, namely, at least 2,000 
chains as per annexed sample, so that if possible we may receive 
with the late ships 1,000 previously made by the Chinese or the 
workmen in Batavia, and 200 Ibs. cowries in order to make a 
beginning with them. More may te sent later on should in the 
meanwhile more new nations be discovered (mochten opdonderen) . 
For the same purpose we shall also have to order various kinds of 
glass and other beads from home, as the new tribes are commenc- 
ing to get a liking for different kinds of them. And as the cattle 
trade is progressing so favourably, it may happen that we may run 
out of tobacco, hence we hope that the case of Brazilian tobacco, 
concerning which we wrote you on the 14th April, has been found 
and sent back to us, in case what we have asked from Patria arrives 
too late or is carried past. 

And as the Masters have specially ordained that what we can 
obtain from India should not be asked for from them, we have 
accordingly written to you for the copper chains, which cannot be 
made here, as we have neither the workmen nor the tools, nor any 
red copper. In order, therefore, to keep the trade going we 



humbly request that by your orders we may be supplied according 

to annexed lists and samples. 27th Oct. 

Of the 4 or 5 copper plates which we still have in stock we 
certainly had a few made, as the sample will show, but as they 
are made by a freeman who knows how to do the work, but who 
takes a whole day to make one, and whose labour is paid for 
sufficiently high, it is not possible to keep him continually at the 
work as if he were a Company's servant, so that it will hardly 
profit to make a commencement of the trade with them ; and there- 
fore as these natives seem to be mad on them (ende schynen dit 
voleq daernae to dollen) we are the more urged to ask you for 
them. At the same time you may think of sending us some new 
Japan Paddy of 2 kinds, the one sort growing in dry soil and the 
other in the water, to see whether they will grow here, as the 
climate is very similar to that of Japan 

Annexed is a request from the skipper of the Pcrkyt, who asks 
for permission to proceed to Batavia, hoping to obtain better 
employment there, as in Patria he had served as a military captain 
(Capn ten Oorlogh), &c. At his urgent request we have consented 
to let him leave in the Vollenhoven, as the first officer of the said 
galiot is quite sufficient, as well as an able, sober, old man, who 
will take the command, besides an under steersman, for a less 
amount than f75 (the salary earned by the said van Bancken), 
which would create a saving here, &c., for in their letter of the 
15th September last, the Directors have ordered that as few men 
as possible should be stationed on the galiot ; hence with an eye to 
saving some pay we permitted the skipper to leave. 

In the Vollenhoven we have shipped 4 casks containing 10 half 
aums of train oil ; 2 tubs with young artichoke plants, and 3 young 
ostriches. 

We trust the latter will arrive safely, as we are no longer 
obtaining any from the Hottentoos, as we did previously, because 
they manage to sell the eggs among the freemen, as they are good 
eating. 

We have also rid ourselves of 233 pairs of shoes packed in a case 
marked No. 1 (see invoice), as none were large enough for the men 
here, and we believe that they may be of use in Batavia, whilst 
here they would just perish. We trust that we have done well in 
this. 

Contrary to our expectation the cabbage seeds sent to you and 
which we deemed to be the best, have turned out to be the worst. 
This has caused us no small regret, as you were justly dissatisfied, 
but as most of what we sent was of the other sort, and we lately 
sent you 6 Ibs. more, we trust that you have been served to your 
satisfaction. We trust, therefore, that you will forgive us this 
time, as we trust in future, under the better care of our new 
gardener, to send you seed at present maturing and so give you 



186 

1660. more satisfaction than was previously the case. The previous 

2 >T th~Oct gardener has become a freeman, and for three years we had trouble 

enough with him through his slovenliness, &c. Nor could we during 

all that time secure the services of another. And as we find the 

seed, of which we sent yon 6 Ibs. lately, to be the best, we now 

send you 4 Ibs. more in a small bag (as much as we can spare), to 

be of service to you until the new seed has been gathered. 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 27th October, 1660. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

Requisition for articles urgently required here (see preceding 
despatch). To be sent to us if possible by the late return ships : 

2,000 red copper chains, to be made by Chinamen or others, 
of copper beads strung on thick cords and in length not 
otherwise than the annexed sample. 

Note. The copper and iron beads are to be cut or 
filed smooth, and the ends of each bead have to be 
hammered together so closely as if they have been 
cast. 

1,200 large, and \ , . 

800 small j copper chains. 

300 iron do., according to the sample of the annexed 3 
beads, of the same length as the above mentioned 
copper ones. 

200 Ibs. cowries as a trial for the present. 
Some Chinese aniseed to be sown as a trial (to be sent in the 

return fleet which leaves in December 1661). 
3,000 large copper chains which will very likely be better 
made and cheaper in J apan than in China or Patria ; 
according to the sample sent with the Oliphant. 
2,000 small ones. 

1,000 iron ones according to sample sent by the Oliphant. 
A quantity of Japan paddy of two kinds, viz. : 

That which grows in dry soil and ) in order to make a 
that which thrives in water ) further trial. 

List of annexures to preceding despatch. 



To Batavia. 

,'rttb Nov. Since our last, the Oliphant and Loosdut/nen arrived, with which 
we send you this letter and our Journal. The only news of in- 
terest is that Oedasoa, chief of the Coohoquas, has visited us in the 
Fort, where every possible attention was shown to him in order to 



187 

induce him to maintain friendship with us, which he promised on 

his part. The cattle barter also continues uninterrupted, so that 2 6th Nor. 

we are on amicable terms with him, the Ohainoquas and nearly all 

the Hottentoo tribes. The roads through the country having in con- 

sequence been made much safer, we sent on the 12th instant, 13 

volunteers into the interior, to see whether they might not discover 

some permanent cities of Monomotapa (see our Journal of the 10th 

November). What God the Lord may be pleased to reveal to us, 

we shall be able to communicate to you on the return of the 

travellers. The Caepmen and others, from whom no cattle can be 

obtained, are in the meanwhile urged to do their beat to bring us 

wax in its wild state. Their promises in that direction are big, 

but whether they will fulfil them, we shall only be able to find out 

later on. 

From the annexed letter, received from Amsterdam, you will 
gather the wonderful change of government and the restoration of 
the King of England, &c ...... 

Having on further investigation found that the copper and iron 
bead chains are the most acceptable to the natives, we send you a 
further sample, to be manufactured in Japan or elsewhere and 
sent to us with the return fleet of 1661." 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 26th November, 1660. 



(Signed) JOHAN VAN 

ROELOFF DE MAN, 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 



List of annexures to the preceding despatches. 



To the Seventeen. l ^- 

" The arrival of the English vessel Depesche on the 24th Dec. JstJan. 
last from Indrapoura and Sillebar, &c., with pepper, and on her 
way to Leghorn, enables us to write you a few lines." 

Ships' arrivals and departures since the 4th May, 1660. 

" In reply to yours of the 5th June, we may state that we have 
placed everything on a proper footing in accordance with your 
instructions, and that every care is taken to keep it so. The state 
of affairs here at present is better than ever before, both as regards 
the flourishing cattle trade, and the very good understanding 
existing between us and these native tribes, which is increasing 
daily, so that everywhere travelling is fairly safe. On the 12th of 
November last, 13 volunteers made a journey into the interior 
with renewed pleasure, resolved, if possible, not to turn back until 
they had discovered the cities Monomotapa, Davagul and some 
others, on which may God grant His blessing. Hitherto we have 
received nothing but good news from thorn, and that they were 



188 



i*6i. advancing nicely. These things were told us by the kings and 
1st Jan cniefs of tlie Hottentoos who visit us daily to offer us friendship 
and alliance. Thus, thank God ! all goes as well as can be wished, 
and consequently fresh agriculturists will offer themselves for the 
development of agriculture. The olive tree is already bearing 
fruit, but further news we shall send you with the next return 
fleet." 

Wreck of the French ship Le Marewhal on the 19th 
May, 1660. 

140 of her men entered our service and were seut on to Batavia, 
so that only a Prior, who has himself called Bishop, three priests, 
one layman, one monastery surgeon and servant of the missionary 
order, as well as the second captain and six others remained here. 
The seven clergymen intended to leave in this little vessel, but 
could not come to terms with the English, so that they are still 
resolved to proceed to Europe in the return fleet. The Marshal 
has accordingly lost since 1657 on his Madagascar voyages six 
ships. (See previous despatches on the subject). In consequence 
French affairs are in a very wretched condition on that large 
Island, and it will not be surprising if the settlement there (reduced 
to a small number through want of success) be killed by the 
natives, who have always endeavoured, whenever an opportunity 
offered, to rid themselves of the French, whose dominion over 
them they resent, according to certain information received on the 
subject ; but we shall write fuller particulars by the next fleet, as 
well as our deduction how and why traffic with that Island from 
here with a fast and armed galiot once a year, would be the pro- 
gress and prosperity of the Cape, independent of the trade there in 
rice, cattle, hides and slaves which is certain, and that in silks, <kc., 
which is probable. But as the Perkytjen is too small for the pur- 
pose we did not decide on a voyage this season, besides we had to 
follow the Company's rules in this matter, as will be pointed out 
more fully afterwards, when we shall describe the condition, &c., 
of that Island obtained from the descriptions and charts of the 
French. 

Regarding the wreck and its cargo (which was nothing) we 
mentioned to you that we did not exactly know how far to proceed 
in the matter, in order not to make a mistake, and, as much as we 
could, keep the Company free from troubles with the Duke de la 
Maillery. We accordingly decided to wait for your orders telling 
us what to do. We would be glad to receive those orders by first 
ship, as we desire the timber for the jetty and other works, for 
which it is beautifully suited, and to avoid six years of hard forest 
labour, &c. Ten iron eight-pounders have been landed, and 14 
others are still in the wreck, which is lying below the Redoubt 
4 Duynhoop ' at the Salt River and very much in the way as 
regards the defence of the beach and the entrance to the river. 



189 

We have asked for an additional 2,000 Ibs. of tobacco as, in 166L 
consequence of the expanding cattle trade, we fear that we may i s t~Jan 
run short of that indispensable articte ; but we have not mentioned 
copper (which is not required at present). Beads are beginning 
to be liked, but as we bought from the French priests their whole 
cargo of beads intended for Madagascar, which consisted of various 
kinds and amounted to between 3 and 400 guilders, we shall at 
present avail ourselves of them for a trial. Besides we also 
obtained a knowledge of the whole of their cargo assorted for 
Madagascar, but there really was no cargo in the vessel except 
these beads, and such scanty supplies that it was surprising. 

We also request you to supply us by first opportunity with : 

Some strawberry seeds, as the plants sent over perished during 
the voyage. Also whole stools of old hop plants, as the young 
ones died in the same way in consequence of their delicate natures, 
and because the cases had not been provided with a sufficient depth 
of earth. The officers of the vessels should u!so be advised to 
water the hop plants well, and not to cut off the young shoots for 
salad, as some have done, so that the plants were too much injured. 

Some mulberrry trees have also died, i f is supposed because they 
were too young and not sufficiently rooted when transferred to the 
oases. 

Also elder trees, brier seed that is fresh, in order to obtain more 
stems, on which to graft quinces which seem to thrive well. 

Turkish wheat that grows low. 

Horse beans, which in some places are succeeding better than 
before. 

Twelve good mole traps, as those rodents are more and more 
troubling us among the ground fruit ; also to serve for models 
from which more may be made here. 

The white wheat (especially), rye, barley and oats are thriving 
well, and have again been fairly successful this year. At present 
the end of December we are busy harvesting, an especially 
pleasant and delightful sight, as well as the rest of the planta- 
tions which are more and more succeeding better and better. 

The above is briefly what we intend to write you more 
circumstantially with the return fleet, trusting that the reading 
will be as pleasant to you as the events recorded have been to us 
whilst serving the Company and making our notes, especially in 
connection with the good understanding between ourselves and the 
natives and our greater knowledge of those of the interior. 

Those English could tell us nothing about India, only that but 
little pepper would be obtained in Sumatra this season, so that 
accordingly they had not obtained their full cargo, but how far 
this is to be believed it is difficult to guess. 

They also mentioned that Commander Balthasar Bort and the 
Atchinese Ambassador Sibidi Indra, had been there with three 



190 

661 - ships from Batavia, had refused them and another Englishman the 
1st Tan right to obtain pepper, and made them leave the 'exclusive' 
places. The name of the vessel was the Adccntor, Captain Thomas 
Tendel, from Bengal. She had more than 6,000 reals in money 
and goods on board for delivery to the Panglima of Priaman, but 
was unable to obtain any pepper for it. She therefore carried off 
six men, whom she again landed on Indrapoura by the advice of 
Mr. Nieuman, merchant on her, who intended to complain to the 
Court of Atchin, as otherwise no English would any more be 
tolerated, or trusted there, &c. From Bengal they had had no 
news. 

Of the Genoese nothing has been heard here or in India according 
to the Englishmen." 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 1st day of January, 1661. 



To Amsterdam. (Private letter of Commander Van Biebeeck to 
that Chamber.) 

After closing our letter sent by the English ship Depescfa 
we are reminded that a certain Cornelis Jansz : Jongeboer of 
Medembiik, who arrived here in the Per/>//t, was said to have 
been appointed to the office of one Dirck Gerritsz : Larp of 
Amsterdam, who had remained behind, and been accepted on the 
said galiot as chief carpenter. And as, according to the muster 
roll the said Larp has been granted by you a salary of f42 per 
month, and the said Jongeboer's name is not mentioned as 
having succeeded in the place of the other, and the skipper cannot 
tell us more than that Jongeboer had come from Amsterdam, 
and had personally told him that he had been accepted in the place 
and with the pay of the said Larp, we did not, as the salary was 
such a large one, dare to take his word for it, before we had 
heard from you. Please, therefore, inform us of the facts. The 
officers believe that Mr. Duyvese must have forgotten to put him 
on the roll in the place of Larp, whilst he states he had received 
two months' pay (f84) in advance. Hence, in order to be sure, 
this will serve the express purpose of obtaining certain information 
and instructions by which to regulate ourselves without hesitation. 

Enclosed is a private note addressed to Preceptor Uuerelerius in 
the Latin schools at Rotterdam, where our two sons, sent home 
last year in the Peerl have been put to school, and as no surer 
opportunity offers itself, I respectfully request you to have 1 it 
delivered at its address by one of your humblest servants. The 
favour I will endeavour to repay by faithful service." 

In the Fort " the Good Hope," the 1st January, 1661. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 



191 

To the Admiral and officers of the Return Fleet, to be met at sea 

by the Galiot 't Perky t. isei. 

" As no autumn ships have as yet arrived, we can only say that 1st Feb. 
affairs here are favourably situated, and that we are provided with 
sufficient garden produce and cattle for the return and other 
Company's ships, which we hope will goon arrive. Should the 
Perkytjen be able to board you, the skipper will point out to you 
the marks of a certain outer roadstead, on which you may anchor 
in case of a S. Easter. If those marks are attended to there will be 
no danger of any vessel missing the bay, or being blown out to sea, 
as has happened more than once in former years. We have 
accordingly sent this galiot out to you thus early, that you may 
thorougly depend on her communications to you." 

In the Fort "the Good Hope," the 1st February, 1661. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIKBEECK. 

(Here ends the Volume marked 1652-1661.) 



VOLUME MARKED 1662-1667. 

To the Seventeen. 

" Our last was dated the llth March last, with the return fleet tth May. 
under command of the Hon Andries Frisius, who, as Commissioner, 
inspected affairs here, &c. 

On the 24th March arrived from Home the yacht Anckeveen, 
with two private letters, dated 14th October and llth November, 
1660, from the Amsterdam Chamber. Afterwards, on the 17th (?) 
the flute Hilvermm reached us with a letter dated the 28th October, 
1660, addressed to the Commander alone and containing their 
Honours' secret orders in connection with the affairs of the French, 
&c. We also received copy of the general despatch to us from the 
Seventeen, dated 21st August last, mentioning the safe arrival of 
the first and second return squadrons and the receipt of our letter 
of the 19th March and 4th May, 1660, with your preliminary reply 
to them, &c. In reply we may mention that the condition of affairs 
here has been fully explained in our letter despatched with the 
first squadron, to which Ave refer you. 

Regarding your anxiety about Kerry, neither the Caapmen nor 
the others have taken his condition so much to heart, as for that 
to declare war against us, they did so for being abused by our 
common people everywhere outside as dirty dogs (which they can 



192 

1061. understand) and for suffering many other annoyances and 
h ~ ar troubles, which do not always occur in our presence, so that iii 
aj " spite of our kindly treatment of them every day, we have not been 
able to prevent them from becoming madbrained, and believing 
it possible to rid themselves of us (we being at the time very few 
in number). And not alone in the case of Herry, but also in that 
of all the tribes we have acted with such patience, that hardly 
anyone, even if My Lords were to enquire from a thousand 
persons about it, would say otherwise than that we have borne 
with and tolerated them too long, as well as the Caapmen, who for 
the reasons above mentioned gave us the unexpected blow. We 
say " for the reasons above mentioned," as it has appeared to us 
that a certain Jan Keyniersz : a free burgher, and some other free- 
men, then resident in the country, had previously at the house 
of the first mentioned, hung up by the neck with a halter from 
one of the beams, their chief Gk>gosoa, and made him tell what had 
become of some cattle lost by him and others, and which thereupon 
came back. Therefore, My Lords ! It is not our impatience, 
but that of the aforesaid freemen, as well as their unmannerly 
treatment of the Natives which have been the cause ; but at the 
sametime the first fault lies with the Caapmen themselves, as from 
the commencement they envied the Company, and in a covert 
manner endeavoured to rob it of its cattle. But this the com- 
mon people could not suffer, much less overlook in any way, 
so that at last these brutal savages burst out as above mentioned, 
with the object of expelling us from this place. But this wound, 
God be praised ! is at present EO far healed, that all enmity has 
been doubly allayed by the peace which they themselves asked 
for and made last year, whilst their lands which tbs Company 
had marked off for its establishment here were willingly 
surrendered and ceded by them as compensation for the cattle 
which they had stolen, so that the Company has, so to say bought 
them, and need not think of any other payment, except always 
treating and entertaining them well and kindly. This has been 
done since the war and has been continued until now. It is kept 
in continual observance until now, in order to accustom them more 
and more to us and thus remove the memory of their vile treat- 
ment by the common people, which as before, continually recur- 
ring, causes many unpleasant squabbles and troubles which 
require to be every time smoothed over in a civil way. 

Your Lordships have well and rightly understood that one has 
to be continually on his guard againSv them, for they are sufficiently 
brutal and malignant, and cannot leave anything alone and will 
Bi-i/e every opportunity of robbing the freemen of their cattle 
behind our backs, whilst through intercourse with our Nation 
they are becoming more subtle in evil doing. 



193 

Further how affairs stand with the Natives of the interior, who 
are more and more coming down to us with cattle in abundance, 4^ jy- a 
and how desirable this is for the Company, we have described in 
detail in our previous despatch. In consequence of the present 
rich cattle trade, the mortality among the latter has been very 
much checked, so that as a result the Cape Residency has not 
retrograded, but praise be to Grod! advanced with double 
strides. The agriculturists who had gone backward, have not only 
recovered, but many others have been added to their number, so 
that within the boundaries marked off by the Company, hardly 
50 morgens of suitable cultivable land have been left over for 
ploughing purposes, as we have fully explained in our previous 
despatch. 

We also mentioned how the lands are being cultivated more and 
more, and that contrary to expectations they were found to be very 
unfit for producing corn in the way we had hoped, and that there- 
fore more rice and bread than the Cape is able to produce will 
have to be imported from outside in order to have an ampler 
depot, and be able to accommodate the people, who besides their 
own corn (which they have always used themselves notwithstand- 
ing the complaints that have reached you on the subject from 
them) know how to sell, with great profit to themselves, twice as 
much as the Cape requires, especially to the outward bound ships, 
and principally rice to those who have never been in India before 
and are very fond of it, and also of fresh bread after which they 
are very greedy and hardly mind what they pay for it. 

And this is the reason why, in order to have enough to last from 
season to season, we are still obliged to allow every one a monthly 
allowance of not more than 50 Ibs. or 1| bushels of wheat or rice 
out of our Depot ; and to continue this, we at present require 
annually 72 lasts for the people, independent of the food for the 
horses, pigs, and other smaller animals. 

It has never happened that all the corn has been taken 
from the growers who were afterwards compelled to buy back 
what they required from the Company at 25 per cent, more than 
what they sold it for. On the contrary, every one was left to 
retain his corn for his own use, and this is still the custom. 

And those who start wheat growing for the first time are 
given their seed on credit, which they are to repay with good 
corn raised by them if they have once advanced so far, and 
at no higher price than has been agreed to, the Company having 
liberally promised to buy it of them, as you will be able to 
gather more fully from the conditions on which they became 
free, and the annexed memorandum which will show how 
from the commencement they have received many more pre- 
vileges and accommodations, and how they have been treated 
further. All these documents are mentioned in the lists of 



194 

186K papers sent over in the Wapen van Amsterdam under No. 26, 
th^ifav the duplicate forwarded with the Amertfoort, and the triplicate, 
No. 14, addressed to the Chamber Zealand. 

In our letter of the 4th May last we proved the falseness of 
the complaint mentioned in your latest despatch, and which has been 
made to you, viz. : that the corn growers are not only deprived 
of their corn at a fixed price, but also that nothing is left to 
them for their own use, and that accoidingly they are com- 
pelled to buy back their own cereals with an advance of 5 per 
cent on what they had been obliged to sell them for. It will 
therefore be superfluous to refer to it again, as we hope that 
our reply has removed your anxiety on this point, and that 
we shall be informed of your better satisfaction after a re- 
perusal of our last letter to you, to which you have merely sent a 
pi elimmary reply. This letter, therefore, is respectfully penned to 
give you further explanation, viz., that continually the cows that 
are without calf are taken off the hands of the agriculturists by 
us, in order, when they nave picked up flesh, to supply them to 
the ships, and in their stead they receive cows in calf in order 
that we may help them on in cattle breeding. This has been 
done until now, and is without question a great accommodation 
and assistance. 

And as regards those who complain about the corn above men- 
tioned, we can assure you, sirs, that they have not been agricul- 
turists, or that they are persons who ever have had so much that 
they were able to supply any (cereals) to the company, for those 
who have by their industry contributed so much, that they have 
been able to advance so far, would not consent to remain in 
hiding, for they are too well settled, and according to their oppor- 
tunities in too great a prosperity. And they might even do better 
if they could manage better with their Dutch servants, who are 
very burdensome to them, as we have fully explained in our 
former letter. It is such malevolent servants principally who 
complain of hunger. Some of them, however, do not do so with- 
out reason, as some masters sell to the ships their provisions which 
they obtain on credit from the company in sufficient quantities for 
their maintenance, and thus let their servants suffer want, and 
moreover treat them badly by beating and thumping them, &c., 
so that many complaints on the subject reach us daily (may God 
better it !) and thus cause us great trouble, so much so that you have 
with reason expressed your displeasure at it. There are also others 
(among the freemen) who, after having had their European servants 
for a year or more, often request to be excused from paying their 
hire. And it should be borne in mind that the frequent stowing 
away of the free (loan) servants (among whom there also are some 
clever guests and instigators) on board the homeward bound ships, 
i.a crused by the instigation of the homeward bound crews, as well 



as by their aforesaid evil treatment by their masters ; but we 

have never in the slightest degree censured or corrected them in 4th~May. 

the least, merely admonishing them to do better in future. In 

the same way, when last year some freemen thoughtlessly allowed 

themselves to be led astray and take part in the treason, we took 

no steps against them here, and merely sent them away as 

prisoners to Batavia. 

The principal thing was, that most of the conspirators were 
foreigners, at the time in the company's service, who could 
have the least reason to complain of hunger, because of the ample 
rations supplied to the company's servants here. We, therefore, 
do not consider it strange that your favourable disposition towards 
the Cape has in consequence of so many (untrue) complaints been 
somewhat weakened, but that is no reason why we should give up 
hope in spite of so many reports which traverse our advices, and 
state that the facilities here are not so many. We trust, however, 
that the reports of those who left with the last ships, and who 
have seen and tasted the fruit of the grape and the olive, and 
seen the oranges on the trees in the company's orchard, and in 
great abundance in (other) well-cultivated gardens, will lead you 
to a better opinion regarding the abundance of refreshments and 
cattle obtainable here. And regarding the planting of trees, it 
must be remembered that generally the planter is dead before the 
tree has come to full perfection (dat den planter ordinaris doodt is 
eer de boom ter degen groot is), and that time is required before 
they can accustom themselves to the nature of such a wild, 
desolate, and strange country, into whose soil they have been 
planted. But we have no doubt of final success, for all kinds of 
trees have been planted here and are growing well. But one 
must evidently wait longer for their fruit than for cabbages, 
carrots, and many other kinds of vegetables so abundant here as 
refreshments, so that there is no ground for complaint except 
against the leanness of the cattle, at which one might reasonably 
have grumbled. However, there is no doubt that the refresh- 
ments will increase still more ; above all, ground and garden 
fruit and vegetables, which we have been having here in abun- 
dance for a long while, and for the purpose intended. The 
orange, apple, lemon, and olive trees, as well as the vines, would 
also have already produced fruit, if Commander Riebeeck had not 
in the first instance planted them too high and dry on the moun- 
tain slopes, where the soil was similar to that in the company's 
gardens, where those trees stood behind sheltering hedges to 
protect them from the violent winds. Had he, however, planted 
them, as he did last season, at the foot of the hills, he would cer- 
tainly at present have already had some fine fruit from them. 
This, no doubt, will be confirmed by the Hon. Commissioner, 
Andries Frisius, who has examined this and all other matters 

o2 



196 

1661. } iere most carefully, so that we refer you not only to the contents 
4th Mav oi: re P rt > but also to those of the other Commissioners and the 
memoranda left by them here, in order to refute statements which 
are contradictory to them, and that it may be made plain that we 
have always done our very best in accordance with your successively 
issued orders. 

The skippers who complain of the narrow waterway when 
putting into the baj, observing this from outside at sea, have the 
best knowledge of it, and therefore we have done our best, as we 
have done in every other matter, to discover suitable anchorages 
and refuge havens. For that purpose, therefore, we asked the 
skipper of the Anckevecn how he found the facilities under the 
Dassen Island, where he had been anchored for a while, whose 
reply, as further information, we annex to this, that it may serve 
principally for the first return squadrons, which reach this bay 
annually about the month of February, (when the south-east gales 
are at their worst) and are often blown away. Such ship?, how- 
ever, as have reached the proper roadstead have never in our time 
been blown from their anchors to sea, or drifted on the rocks, 
except in one case only during the night and in very fine weather 
through carelessness of the watch, when in the month of April, 
1656, the ship Oliphant, which had been riding at one anchor only, 
but, praise be to God ! was saved In time ; her other cable 
having, as we believe, been chafed through by anoth-.r anchor. 
The latter and two others lost by the French ship wrecked here 
had made the roadstead dirty, but they have been recovered by 
the Loenen and Perkyt. This we mentioned in our last, and 
added how we believed the roadstead could be completely cleared. 
We shall, however, when the Hon. Commander van Harn arrives, 
further consider this and other matters with him, so that we may 
receive your orders and decisions thereon, with the hope that, as 
under God's Providence during the 9 or 10 years of our stay here, 
the company has suffered no loss from shipwrecks here, it may 
please (rod's omnipotence to save her always from that. And as 
regards drifting on the rocks, we Believe that the Bay 
is wide enough, and the S S. East winds, which would cause it, 
would always leave so much sea room, that even should a cable be 
chafed through, a vessel which is always properly berthed, or 
should lie to, would always find sufficient time to make some sail 
and thus keep away from the rocks, or receive a third anchor. But 
as these are seamen's affairs, we shall say no more, only hoping 
that God the Lori will preserve the Company from such a heavy 
blow. 

It is true that the fleet of the Hon. Sterthemius has been here 
continuously last year in heavy winds, and also that the fleet the 
year before could not all reach this bay, but this year and some 
other years previously we had the finest weather in the world, and 



197 

so few South-Easters, that mostly every day the boats could sail to 

and fro. But as the heavy S.S.E. winds principally hinder the 4th Mar. 

return ships annually, so that they may possibly miss this Bay, 

we have for the third time issued instructions to search for the 

Island St. Helena Nova ; but hitherto the search has been fruitless, 

as you will be able to gather from our last. 

Nor did we neglect, when the Perky t was ready, to further 
investigate the opportunities at Saldanha Bay. This we have also 
mentioned in our previous despatch, as well as that Commander 
Van Riebeeck personally visited the place in the Perkyt during 
the month of December last for that purpose, so that he had 
carried out your orders on that point before their arrival. 

Regarding the signs of possession by the Company, these have 
long before this been cut out on largo rocks here and there with 
the Company's marks, as will more clearly appear from the grants 
to the Saldanha traders, who were permitted to frequent that Bay, 
and from our transfer book of 1657 transmitted to you, which we 
hope will be sufficient evidence for you. In consequence of this 
frequentation of the Bay, foreign nations seldom arrive there 
without being reported, often even by the Hottentoos, who often 
are the first to bring us the news for some tobacco and brandy, 
should they have sighted a vessel any where. For the same enjoy- 
ment they know how to carry letters to and fro overland to our 
great convenience on such pressing occasions. We also refer you 
to a certain document entitled " Further Exploration of Saldauha 
Bay," transmitted to the Amsterdam and Zealand Cha:nbers, in 
our last but one despatch, for your further enlightenment, and in 
which the best refuge harbours are described as being no nearer 
than under Dassen Island, for the reasons fully stated in it. We 
also mentioned the little (drink) water to be had in that Bay, 
which is by no means good, and that not the smallest bit of 
garden or corn-land can be found anywhere there ; or any fuel, 
excepting small twigs, so that, in our humble opinion, it would be 
labour and expense in vain to throw up a redoubt or any other 
kind of fort there, unless the object be to secure a firmer right 
of possession, and keep away all others, who might be 
inclined to nestle there in order to cause trouble to the Company 
by inciting tho natives in her Colony against her. Otherwise 
there is not much to be done there, as the land is as poor as any 
that may be found anywhere in the world, as may be seen from 
our previous despatches and the aforesaid " Further Exploration 
of Saldanha Bay." In spite of all our efforts hitherto, we found 
that we could barter but little cattle there, and generally none in 
the dry season, in consequence of the poor grass and the unservice- 
able and sober supply of water. You have, therefore, not without 
reason been anxious about the water, for we have already 
experienced as much as may hereafter -be more clearly done there, 



198 

1661. to say nothing of our explorations and the trouble unceasingly 
, ~j^ taken by us to entice more natives from the interior to come to us 
with their cattle, so that, praise be to God ! we have obtained so 
many this season that we hope that the homeward bound skippers 
will have no reason to complain of the quantity. And as regurds 
the cause of the leanness of the cattle, we have fully explained it, 
as well as the means adopted for the present to have the cattle 
fattened by the freemen, who are bound under reasonable con- 
ditions to supply them to the ships. All this you will read in our 
Resolution of the 21st February, 1661, specially adopted for that 
purpose, and embodied in our Journal of the same date, trans- 
mitted to Amsterdam and Zealand. 

In our last we also mooted the question, " In how far the Cape 
would be able to feed herself with about 70 or 80 lasts of corn, 
which we are sure the lands will be able to produce those already 
given out, and the few that are still to be granted when fully 
cultivated ? " The lands ought to produce more than they have 
produced compared with those of other countries ; but this not 
being the case, there will be enough won to feed the garrison, but 
not to enable the freemen to have an abundant supply for them- 
selves ; and this is the chief cause of their dissatisfaction, as they, 
as already mentioned, wish from their corn to bake fresh bread 
and biscuit, and sell the same without hindrance to the people of 
the passing ships for the hitter's recreation, and fcr inutual con- 
venience, the one for his own profit and the other to ensure a 
pleasant and dainty bit. The new comers from home are also 
very partial to rice, for which the freemen readily pay 1| stivers 
per lb., retailing it, in the form of porridge, &c., at from 3 to 
4 stivers p.f-r lb. Hence, to satisfy them, rice must necessarily be 
imported, as what the Cape will be able to produce will not be 
sufficient for supplying what is required ; hence in our previous 
letter we calculated that if the Company were to sell her rice here 
at 1^ stivers per lb., the costs of transport incurred by her would 
be covered, should the voyages be safely concluded ; yea, even a 
profit would be secured, as we have demonstrated in our last. 

We have no doubt about the success of the vineyards and grapes, 
if they are only properly attended to. They will in due course 
tell their own tale, and belie the half-hearted statements of out- 
siders. The same may be said of oranges, apples, lemons, and 
ruauy kinds of Dutch fruit. A large number of them has Lecu 
planted, and is growing well, though still small. Among them 
are the olive trees, one of the two sent us four years ago having 
been full of fruit this season, which we expressly allowed to ripen 
and carefully gathered, in order to bo able to plant the pits and 
thus obtain more olive trees. We also found, as we think, various 
kinds of wild olive trees in the forests, some of which we intend 
to transplant into cultivated soil, in order afterwards to graft on 



199 

them, to see whether it would be successful, and to secure the l661 - 
quicker a large abundance. This and much more we hope to leave 4fh May 
to the care of our successor, with the hope that we shall also receive 
your approval of what we have done. 

But it seems that some people cannot, or will not understand 
perhaps, that the planter seldom enjoys fruit of the tree which he 
has planted. For that reason those calling here should also at 
first remain with him satisfied with an abundance of water and 
other melons, vegetables and other garden produce as means of 
refreshment; which cannot all be used up for that purpose, for 
the gardens are at present still so well provided as if the return 
fleet (which enjoyed more than it wanted) had not yet arrived. 
Hence, my Lords ! you need not be anxious about an abundance 
of refreshments of that class, or about the quantity of cattle (at 
our disposal), even if twice as many ships of the company as we 
are expecting were suddenly to arrive. Moreover, the freemen 
bring down in their wagons to the jetty thousands of watermelons 
(especially) and sell them to the seamen ; and when the latter 
have no more to buy, we take the rest over to the satisfaction of 
both parties by paying the freemen half a stiver per Ib. for the 
melons, which are sent on board to be distributed by the oilicers 
among the crews, with large quantities of salt and dried fish as 
extra nourishment for the homeward voyage. And whatever the 
freemen deliver is immediately paid for in cash out of the Com- 
pany's Treasury, excepting such corn as they may not require for 
their own use, which is taken over from them to cover their 
existing and future debts. From this it may be seen what truth 
there is in the statement that they are suffering from exaction, or 
that for the sake of the company we are endeavouring to oppress 
the agriculturists. Mostly all our previous letters are full of 
solicitations for their benefit, so that this fact would naturally 
belie the accusation, whilst it would go against our conscience to 
treat them unfairly, as the agriculturists especially should be given 
a helping hand if they are to become independent. But we do 
not doubt that according to your previous letters it will be approved 
of by you that we had to keep our eyes carefully on some 
niggardly lazy fellows, that they did not make their debt to the 
company too large and thus cause her loss. We trust that in your 
further reply we shall also find special reference made to Com- 
mander van Riebeeck, and that you have a slightly better opinion 
of his services now performed during nearly ten years, and there- 
fore long after the expiration of his second contract, in which 
time he had to struggle with so many great difficulties, and did 
everything possible to carry out your orders. 

In accordance with your latest commands, he is preparing him- 
self for departure after the arrival of the Hon. Commander Van 
Harn, to whom he will by your orders give verbal and written 



200 

l6i. instructions regarding everything here, and after that transfer his 

4th Mav trust > 8O tnat ' g 1 " 8 ^^ for being relieved, he hopes to depart for 

Batavia by the first opportunity, and, if possible, by the same 

vessel that will bring Mr. Van Harn, for the purpose mentioned 

in your general despatch. 

That St. Helena Nova cannot be found appears to be caused by 
ignorance of the right or true latitude. But according to Skipper 
Jacob Enten, who returned home this year in command of the 
Offtnyien, of Zealand, the information might be obtained from 
some privateersmen at Flushing, who, when cruising before 
Loango St. Paolo, are said to have often called at that island. We 
mention this by the way that you may further think over the 
matter, and take such steps as you may deem necessary or service- 
able for the company. 

Since last year we have, by order of Commissioner Sterthemius, 
arranged a secret signal to be changed every year, as described in 
the Commander's own handwriting, and at present again sent in 
duplicate to the Governor-General and Councillors of India, in 
order to be of service for the return ships annually arriving here, 
that they may know whether everything is safe here. 

And as we depend on it that the said signal code will arrive in 
time in the Fatherland, it may also be of service to the Spring 
and Autumn outward bound vessels, the May ships included. 
Accordingly we could not refrain from annexing it to this, to see 
whether you deem it good to impart it to the outward bound 
ships, and alter it every year, as in the case of the return ships 
from India, for which two or more sets have been sent home, so 
that all may know from the same signal how matters are situated 
here. And as the return ships will only arrive here about the 
months of February and March next, and the outward bound of 
next year not earlier, we beg to remind you of it, that you may 
come to a decision at your pleasure. 

It has been said above that if viticulture be only looked after it 
will promise a good success, but it must also be mentioned that we 
have observed that the poorer class of freemen ' are unwilling to 
take it in hand, as for the present they are still planting and sowing 
that from which they may derive immediate profit, such as wheat 
and all kinds of garden produce, so that vine and treeplanting must 
be done almost wholly by the Company, unless, if they have means 
to do so, the matter be further taken in hand by the Company's 
officials stationed here, just as Commander Van lliebeeck did, who 
went to considerable expense, and succeeded in planting more than 
4W) orange, lernoii, shaddock and apple trees from seeds gradually 
collected by him out of fruit obtained from the Batavia and some 
foreign ships. All are growing well, besides many vine stocks at 
the foot of the mountains, which were thriving- this season verv 
beautifully, indeed, six times better than those planted by him 
previously on the mountain summits. 



201 

He has also growing some pisang and two young olive and some 
Dutch fruit trees of various kinds. 4th 

What has been plinted for the Company and is in full growth 
consists of 832 vine stocks, of which 2 inside the fort against the 
house and 80 in the Company's garden are already bearing ; 
750 rooted plants, independent of the cuttings, which in 
September next will certainly number not less than 100. They 
will be from the Company's garden. 

1003 orange, apple, shaddock, and lemon trees, planted from 
seeds obtained from Batavia, St. Helena, Spain, Amboiua, 
Madagascar, and Italy, The St. Helena plants have, however, 
been obtained direct from that island. They consrst of 1613 trees 
already large and fit to bear (one having already two oranges on 
it as large as half a fist), and 30 others that are smaller. 

450 rooted layers (sinckelinge) ) These will also be ready for trans- 

460 young sprouts ( planting in September next. 

402 Dutch fruit trees, thriving beautifully, but not yet bearing, 
viz. : 

38 Dutch apple trees, of various kinds ; 3 do. pear trees ; 7 do. 
quince do. ; 12 do. peach do. ; 2 do. apricot do. ; 121 do. cherry 
do. ; 2 do. Morello do. (N.B. The latter have been bearing the 
last 2 years in succession, but very little). 64 do. plums do. ; 6 
do. medlar do. ; 1 do. barberry do. ; 55 do. buckthorn do. ; 26 do. 
black currant do ; 22 do. white and red do. ; (which have also 
produced one little berry) ; 12 do. laurel do. ; 31 do. rose do. ; 78 
Dutch thorn and 1,375 ash trees, growing finely round the Com- 
pany's gardens. 

The alder trees are also growing well from the seeds sent us, 
better than before. They are in the Company's orchard, behind 
Table Mountain, and grow excellently there, right in the midst of 
the agriculturists, though they are not yet bearing. 

Then there are 187 more fruit trees consisting of: 26 old 
Dutch pear trees of various kinds; 48 do, apple do.; 14 do cherry 
do. ; 10 do. medlar do. ; 4 do. chestnut do. ; 6 do. wild 
pear do., and 50 do. apple trees for grafting ; 2 lemon trees, 2 
excellent olive trees, one of which is at present as full of fruit as it 
can carry ; 24 rooted young olive tree layers, and about 100 old 
and young vine stocks, around which are planted oak trees, which 
are also beginning to grow nicely, better than before. It seems 
that all these plants are only now commencing to accommodate 
themselves to the soil and the climate. In this orchard between 
the trees the ground is planted with vegetables and cabbages, to 
serve as additional refreshments for the ships, as well as French 
beans for the recreation of the saloon, so as to enable the 
arborists to earn their wages out of them. 

For the first time now we have described in detail to your 
Honours what the present condition of the plantations is, as regards 



W' 1 - quantity and quality, and how the never to be sufficiently praised 
garden of the Company, Glory be to God ! is so excellently fur- 
nished with cabbages, roots and all kinds of other vegetables 
that the ships can with no possibility consume the whole, and we 
have therefore, in order to economise our provisions, been supply- 
ing a large quantity of it every evening to the men and the slaves 
here ; hence those who tell you otherwise, are not we should 
say inclined to speak the truth. Ilowever we take it for granted 
that they do not know better, and had no inclination to make a 
thorough inspection of our work and the establishment at. the 
Cape ; much less to take the trouble to count, in order thus to be 
able to speak with authority. For, as we have already pointed 
out above, the Company has besides her beautiful corn culture, 
and excellent garden, an orchard growing consisting of 1,000 fruit 
trees of various kinds, and about 1,000 vine stocks, independent of 
the ash, alder and oak trees, which in course of time will be found 
very convenient, when once full grown, so that we may adhere to 
our statement that in these matters we have never exaggerated. 
Nor is it incredible that the majority would rather proceed direct 
to Batavia than touch at the Cape, so that naturally they do not 
endeavour to say much in praise of the latter, fearing that other- 
wise too severe a penalty would be inflicted in the case of not 
calling here. This, therefore, we consider the great cause of 
their running the Cape down ; so that, in order to convince them 
in this respect, we shall us before continue to refer to the Instruc- 
tions and Memoranda left here by the Commissioners above men- 
tioned, who have since 1657 successively and thoroughly examined 
the establishment here. 

In none of those instructions it will be found otherwise than 
that, next to Gcd, the settlement here has been continually grow- 
ing in consequence of the zeal and diligence displayed by us until 
this present moment, so that those same Commissioners have con- 
sidered affairs here as more promising every day, especially as 
regards the plantations, for the refreshment and recreation of the 
passing ships' crews. But as it was a desirable matter for the 
Company, as, according to the statements of seamen that it is not 
only difficult to call at the Cape, but also that it makes the voyage 
ranch longer, that a more suitable refreshment station should be 
found, we have, during the period of our administration here, done 
our best to search for one as has been proved after receipt of your 
orders received per Nac/ifglas, when Tristan d' Acunha was exam- 
ined on behalf of the outward bound, and a search made for St. 
Helena Nova for the return fleet ; and Saldanha Bay, &c., were 
explored for the same purpose. If ever, it was then, that we dis- 
played our zeal so much in our efforts that ships might never 
arrive here at an unseasonable time, but that, when they did come, 
they might be well refreshed. This has always been the 



203 

prevailing custom in accordance with the evidence contained in the 1 
instructions of the respective Commissioners already referred to, 4tll ~ 
which testify to our previous and further efforts and. tireless zeal 
in the interests of the Company, and to which we have the honour 
to refer you, not doubting that you will comprehend it in the same 
pleasant light, and that we have built up not a slovenly work but 
one in every way properly done, and ready to be handed over to 
our successor, so that, thank Grod ! Commander Riebeeck (speak- 
ing now for himself) will take leave of his work with pleasure and 
joy work successfully done between the 9 and 10 years passed by 
him here and depart to a place where he hopes no longer to be 
subject to so many various discontented tempers which are never 
satisfied, and under the eyes of our High Government in India 
further earn and enjoy the latter 's and your Honours' favour by 
means of his good services. 

We have already mentioned that it would have been desirable 
if a more suitable refreshment station could have been found for 
the outward bound vessels. For that purpose we interrogated 
many skippers regarding the facilities on the islands Martin Vaes, 
because they are situated mostly in the direct route and so con- 
venient for calling at, that no ships would need to go out of their 
course, as has to be done now in the case of the Cape, but we could 
never obtain auy trustworthy replies from them. Nor did we 
venture to touch at all on this subject, except now, when we 
observed from your latest despatch that the skippers complain of so 
many difficulties in their way in order to reach the Cape ; but the 
contrary in our opinion would be of more weight, viz. : that by 
not calling here the outward voyage would be so much longer, so 
that the northern merchandise (de Noortse Coopmau) would often 
arrive much too late for Japan. Having therefore con- 
sidered according to our humble lights one thing and another 
we did not dare any longer to pass by, for the purpose 
desired, the Islands of Martyn Vaes, however little the information 
we possess about them, and so draw your attention to them, that 
more knowledge of them may be obtained, or such other steps 
may be taken as you may deem best. 

This we hope to send you with the flute Vencnbui-g and the 
yacht Ca(jf\ the last return ships from Batavia, under command of 
the Hon. Boucheljon, which arrived here on the 18th instant 
(April). His Honour will be able to tell you how our explorers 
(lantreysers) returned on the 23rd instant from the newly- 
discovered Namaquas, after an absence of 33 days, and reported 
that they had not found the king at the former place, and had 
accordingly travelled 5 days further, when they reached the great 
Chariguriquae, among whom they found some of the king's people. 
The chief of the Chariguriquas had there sent word to them that if 
our people caine there (to him?) with Oedasoa's emissaries, he 



204 

1661. would, in the king's name (in sijn naam) accept the peace with 
4th~MaT them (Oedasoa's people). This was effected, the Soaquas, or the 
mountain tribes, who had shortly before been conquered by the 
Namaquas, being included in the terms and brought to subjection ; 
so that there was peaceful travelling in every direction everywhere. 
He had now proceeded against a certain nation named Brigouay, 
ere this wrongly named Bryckjs, in order to bring them once more 
to their former devotion, and after that to endeavour to obtain 
everything from the tribes with which he traded, in ordtr to show 
it to the Dutch. With that object he would, about the end of the 
present rainy season, arrive at the place whera the Chariguriquas 
were encamped, whose chief had orders to tell this to our people, 
so that, if we wished it, we would find him there, prepared to 
accompany Oedasoa's ordinary emissaries, named Kerrari and 
Hactona who had also been with our people on their return to 
the Cape ; and to bring with him some of the Brigoudys wh > 
formerly brought gold from the other tribes named Kerry jKyqua, 
and called by the Hottentoos living here Choy Eyqua, that is 
gold nation. He would also bring elephants' tusks and other 
things more which the newly discovered Nam aquas brought over- 
land from the very distant north to a nation like the Dutch, where 
ships call. This may perhaps be the Portuguese in Angola. As 
the way was very long and difficult, and he had now heard that 
there were Dutch settled at the Cape, from whom also everything 
might be obtained, lie seemed inclined to choose the shortest way 
to them, and bring with him samples of everything that was 
obtainable among the interior tribes, so that he might show them 
to us and we might select what pleased us best. After a very 
strict examination, we concluded that the Namaquas have com- 
munication with those of Monomotapa, and sometimes meet the 
latter in the cities mentioned iu Linschoten's charts as Vigiti 
Magua, Mossatae Samot, Cumissa, Souros and neighbourhood. 
You can therefore see how far we, unto the last moment, have 
endeavoured to discover for the Company, with all possible 
diligence, the hidden things of this land, and how we have 
already succeeded so far that in consequence of the peace estab- 
lished with the tribes in every direction (and which has also been 
brought about by us), there is no doubt that in time more trade 
will follow, such as in cattle ; and we would also come into con- 
tact with the north eastern natives, who traffic with those of 
Mosambique. The evidence of this the Chaiuouquas also promised 
to bring with them when they came down next year, when they 
will also bring with them the natives. Further information must 
therefore be waited for, and we hope, which Grod grant, that our 
successor may be so fortunate as to discover something for the 
Company. And regarding the Namaquas residing mostly to the 
north and north by east (? west) from this toward Angola, wt 



205 

refer you to our daily notes of the 23rd instant, which also contain 
the journal of the land travellers, which has been embodied in 
them for the sake of more clearness. 

We have also found certain kinds of red and yellow pigments, 
as well as white clay, which is supposed to be porcelain earth. 
The pigments have been seen by the Hon. Joan iSoucheljon, who 
judged them to be good, so that we are sending samples of each in 
a box to the Fatherland, that, should they be found of use to the 
Company, we may expect your further orders about them. We 
have also sent some to Batavia. Mr. Boucheljon thinks that the 
red pigment will find a good market in Japan, as well as the 
yellow kind, and that the supposed porcelain earth should be sent 
to Batavia, to the porcelain factory there, in order that trials 
might be made with it, and he added that their Honours there 
would gladly help to further the effort. 

Annexed is a list of all the papers, books, manuscripts and 
letters successively received from the Fatherland and India, which 
will be found deposited in the office here at the departure of 
Commander van Kieb -eck, and will be delivered in proper order 
by him to his successor, Commander Grerrit van Harn, so that you 
may know what documents have been left here, and how the office 
has been put into proper order. 

And though Mr. van Harn has not yet arrived as we cannot 
delay the two flutes, which are ready to leave we have added to 
this the information and instructions which we have drawn up for 
him, to which very little of importance will be added. As the 
whole was already prepared, we decided to send you a copy, so 
that it would not be necessary to leave you without them for a full 
year, but that your orders might the sooner be sent out regarding 
them. 

The annexed list will give you to date the vessels that have 
arrived and left. None of the French, who have been talked 
about, have as yet arrived ; nevertheless we have placed ourselves 
in a posture of defence, with good guards in the Fort and good 
lookouts in every direction, in order not to be attacked too suddenly. 

The Vogelesanyh and Erasmun, which arrived here on the 25th 
April with only two dead, have been lying ready for sea since the 
day before yesterday on their way to Batavia. They are waiting 
for a good wind. On the 26th of the same month the Dordrecht 
also arrived with five dead, and will leave on Thursday or Friday 
next, all with fine fresh and well refreshed healthy crews. We 
hope that the Maerssereen may also arrive here in the same good 
condition, or that she has already passed by for Batavia, in order 
not to make too long a voyage. May the Almighty provide 
everything for the best, and soon send us the rest of the ships 
which left the Texel, Meuse, and Wieringen in the beginning of 
January last, as refreshments will then, praise be to God ! still be 



206 

1661. in abundance here. Having no more to say, we respectfully end, 
,T^ and with our humblest greeting and services, commend you to the 
grace of God the Supreme Ruler, and ourselves to your most 
powerful favour. . . . 

(Signed) J. v. RIEBEECK. 

ROELOFF DE MAN AND 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

P.S. This letter having been closed and lying ready to be 
delivered to the Commander Johan Boucheljou, and whilst still 
busy with it, the Haerxseeeen arrives from the sea with a stiff 
N. West breeze, and in a very desolate state. On the 2nd 
February the chief merchant, Van de Graeff, had died, and 
shortly before, his eldest daughter. The day before yesterday, the 
skipper, Pieter Barckhout, had also departed this life (1st May), 
besides 69 others during the voyage, including the chief and 
junior surgeons. Eighty were still prostrate in their beds and the 
rebt so weak that they were unable to berth the vessel. Fresh 
men out of the Dort and other vessels were accordingly sent on 
board of her to berth her, and orders were at the same time issued 
for refreshing her and nursing her crew, who, because of the 
healthy climate here, will soon be themselves again, so that, with 
God's blessing and our care, we hope they will soon be fit to 
proceed to Batavia, and carry with them the orders which we have 
deemed necessary to issue in the best interests of the Company, for 
the preservation of the ship and those on board of her. You need 
therefore feel no anxiety, as, thank God, we have her now safely 
in harbour, and will not neglect to take that care of her, that with 
Goc's help, everything will soon come right again. We always 
remain 

My Lords and Masters, 
Your most humble and obedient servants, 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 



1662. To the Seventeen. 

9th April. In our last, dated 4th May last year, we replied in full to your 
general despatch of the 21st August, 1660, received here on the 
27th March, 1661, and added a list of the vessels that had arrived 
to that date. Afterwards, on the 9th June, the Prince Willem 
arrived with 15 dead, and the Honinyen and Nieuicenhoven on 
the 13th do. with 4 and 6 dead; the Zeepaert also arrived on the 
16th following with two dead, but did not bring us the letters of 



207 

the Amsterdam Chamber dated the 26th February, 1661. The 16 <>2- 
same day the Am kern arrived with 36 dead ; on the 18th June, 9th 
Set Wapen van Holland reached us with 26 dead; and the Ooerceen 
with none. Among the dead was Skipper Renst of the Arnhem, 
which was brought into port in good order by the first mate Dercq 
Gerritz : . As we found him of good behaviour and very careful, 
we have left him in the vacancy caused by his skipper's death, as 
had also previously been done in the case of the Maersseveen, that 
their appointments might be confirmed or otherwise by the 
Governor-General and Councillors in Batavia. 

In the very beginning of the voyage of Set Waptn v&n Holland, 
viz., on the 17th March, 1661, Commander Gerrit van Harn died 
on board of her, whose widow, at her own request, continued with 
her children the voyage to Batavia, so that Commander Biebeeck 
(being at the time already serving the second year after the 
expiration of his second contract) was by the death of his successor 
(verlosser) obliged to remain here, as he did not dare to take it 
upon himself to transfer the trust to another. The vessels named 
brought us your letters of the 7th January (from the Hague), of 
the 2nd and 24th December, 1660, and 12th January, 1661. In 
accordance with the orders they contained, we at once despatched 
your closed instructions to Batavia with the fastest vessels that 
were lying ready, viz., the Zeepaert and Nieutcenhoven, which 
left this on the 21st and 23rd of June, taking with them all your 
letters and papers addressed to their Honours in Batavia, whilst 
the Perky t and Hilversum left with your despatches for Ceylon on 
the 17th and 23rd June, the former with 45 men, including 25 
soldiers, and the latter with 75 men, 35 of whom were also 
soldiers, or a total of 60 soldiers taken out of the Prim Willem. 
The contents of the despatches taken away with them you will 
gather from the annexed secret letter book addressed to the 
Zealand and Amsterdam Chambers ; also what we wrote to the 
Governor, as well as the list of the abundance of provisions and 
the sailing orders issued, according to your instructions, to the 
ships' officers. We therefore do not doubt that we have well 
understood your intentions, and carried out your orders ; 
excepting those sent us with the Zeepaert, for only when 
the Beurs arrived on the 25th July, we found that the 
Zeepaert was supposed to have brought us a letter from the 
Amsterdam Chamber, dated t.he 26th February, which, however, 
never reached us. Nor could the officers give us any 
information about it, so that we concluded that it must have 
reached Zealand after the departure of the Zeepaert. We gathered, 
however, from the letters received from Batavia that the officers 
had by mistake forgotten to inform us. For the rest your orders 
contained in your despatches have been properly forwarded with 
the 5 ships of the Extraordinary Equipment of the Amsterdam 



2C8 

1662. Chamber . . . which left this with 1,433 select and well 
9th April refreshed men, as well as your despatches for India, in accordance 
with instructions received from the Amsterdam Chamber, dated 
19th April, received here on the 2nd September. The others, 
received on the 6th following with the Princesw Roi/ael, we 
despatched on the 28th January this year with the NaclitegaaUjen, 
which, in addition to her ordinary crew, took away 52 men. She 
and the West Vrieslant only arrived here on the 17th and 18th of 
the same mouth, bringing respectively 4 and 34 dead. The latter 
vessel left on the 2nd Feb. for Batavia with 301 men. On the 
26th September the flute Claver&kercke arrived from Zealand in 
good condition, but brought no letters. On the 17th September 
the PaarJ and Princess? Royacl left for Batavia, the one with 300 
and the other with 301 men, 36 having died. The Claverskcrcke 
had 5 dead, and left on the 5th October with 93 -men see the 
lists of arrivals and departures, transmitted to you as usual so 
that it will be observed that all the ships of the last year had 
passed this well. 

We now proceed to answer your general missive of the 7th May, 
1061, as well as two letters from the Amsterdam Chamber of the 
19th May and 1st June, received per ffaektegaattjen on the 17th 
January last. . . . 

In reply to your letter of the 7th May, 1661, we respectfully 
state that we ha7e briefly, via Leghorn, mentioned our peaceful 
relations with the aboriginals, and afterwards in detail, per the 
squadrons under command of the Honourables Frisius and 
Boucheljon, 'also mentioning the doings of the travellers into the 
interior, and circumstantially narrating the affairs of Madagascar. 
To these we refer you. ' 

We also mentioned the wreck of the French ship Mareschal, and 
how, long before her (? intended) departure, she had already been 
abandoned, and been used for fuel, tents, &c.; so that by authority 
of their Honours in Batavia, she was taken possession of by us for 
the benefit of the Company, after the departure of the crew, as 
will be seen from our Resolution of the 5th April last year, sent to 
you per the Hon. Boucheljon. The remainder of her woodwork 
was used, when required, for the ii^Cr;ssary repairs to the jetty, 
&c., however, only after the wreck had completely broken up. 
What was left caught fire during the night of the 6th March last, 
and was completely destroyed before we were able to reach it to 
put out the fire. We do not know whether this has not been done 
by the Hottentoos during the night, to enable them to get posses- 
sion of the iron, as they might, by drinking tobacco, have dropt 
some sparks in it. It might also have b^en caused by the carpenters 
who were on board to select wood for the jetty. However, what 
the cause may have been, a great loss has been sustained as regards 
the rest of the timber, but as the wreck was very much in the way, 



209 

it has thus been unexpectedly removed, having only been kept 

where it was for the accommodation it afforded, as already men- 9^ April. 

tioned. Otherwise it was in the way, as mentioned in our letters 

of last year. According to the statements of the French, there 

would still be lying in its bottom 14 iron pieces, which, according 

to your orders, we have left where they are, as well as whatever 

may still be there. 

The 10 iron pieces, saved by them, we have brought to the Fort 
for preservation. The other things they managed among them- 
selves as they best knew how. Some they took away with them 
home, and others to Batavia, but whether it has been of any 
advantage to them, we have mentioned in our letter last year. 
Their sails, used for tents, &c., were found to be completely rotten, 
even those left in the wreck, and stowed away in their tent, even 
when w they were still here. The rudder and other woodwork 
washed on shore, were burnt by the Hottentoos, who took the iron 
from them. Much of the meat and pork the officers sold among 
the freemen ; yea ! even pieces of their sails, old rope and many 
other articles, so that they must have made much money out of 
them among the people here ; and seemed to be as rich when they 
left as when they stranded. 

The iron obtained by breaking up the vessel, and which was not 
immediately required, is being well taken care of, but many of the 
bolts, &c., had already previously been extracted by the crews, and 
squandered among the Hottentoos and others. 

We shall hardly be able to manage with the 120 men allowed 
us for a garrison, as has already been pointed out in our annual 
notice, which shows how and where the men are employed. The 
needlessness for the Company to garrison Saldamha Bay we have 
also pointed out fully last year, and that the 12 or 14 men, 
authorised by you for the purpose, would be much more usefully 
employed on land journeys, which have often to be undertaken 
independent of the long expeditions to the Saldanhars, as it has been 
found that more cattle can be obtained from the latter inland, than 
near, as they manage to obtain too much tobacco from the men 
here for the trifles which they bring for sale, as well as by begging. 
This we have some times experienced when travelling with 
merchandise in their company, as mentioned in our journal of the 
23rd and 27th December, 1661, and the 4th and 13th January 
this year, when the Fiscal Grabbema was fairly successful. But 
from our nearest neighbours, the Caapmen and tobacco thieves, 
hardly anything worth having is obtainable, as we have often 
mentioned, and lately again in our journal of the 1 9th January, 
1662, notwithstanding they are becoming rich in cattle. 

Also under the dates 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th November, 
1661, it will be seen how Commander van Biebeeck once personally 
and with 21 horses went out to greet them under the Leopard 



210 

1662. Mountains, and how a great joy seemed to have been among them 
,~ ril all, and bow a most binding peace was then made with them. 
Nevertheless they are to be carefully watched because of the little 
authority which the Chiefs have over their people, from which 
often troubles and disputes with our people who live in the country, 
result. All ruptures with these natives should therefore be care- 
fully avoided, for when they live near us they cause much annoy- 
ance, especially to those who live far away and alone in the 
country. This we have often mentioned, so that we merely refer 
you to our previous communications on the subject. 

See also our journal of the 21st and 22nd November, as far as 
the 8th December, inclusive, from which it will appear that the 
Saldanhars wished to oppress the Caapmen and tobacco thieves, 
and keep them so closely confined that they have not left the 
smallest approach to us open to them. But it has always been 
running in our head that perhaps they had agreed among each 
other to drive ua away, for they lay right against our boundaries, 
just a little beyond the lands, and with their camps spread in 
such a manner, that we were enclosed by them as in a crescent, and 
could go nowhere except right through their camps. But this they 
permitted without anxiety and in a friendly way as mutual friends. 
Nevertheless we made our guards watch so carefully that no 
favourable opportunity could occur to them for mischief, whilst 
we entertained their Chiefs daily and heartily and in a friendly 
and liberal manner, and sometimes even visited them. Finally on 
the 8th December, 1661, they retired into the interior, after 
having, as it seems, forced some tribute from the Caapmen and 
Tobacco thieves without even a blow or thump, which however 
seemed likely, we feared, if indeed it had not been their intention 
to attack us. But they explained their visit and proceedings as a 
proof that two friends had made a permanent peace, it being the 
custom after that to live near and among each other for a time, 
without any quarrels whatever, thus proving their brotherly and 
confiding friendship ; so that it would appear that there will no 
more be a breaking of friendship ; yea ! that should any other nations 
arrive here in ships, and we only called for their aid to ward on 
a hostile attack, they would gladly help us. This seemed somewhat 
true when the French were wrecked here, as they requested us not 
to permit tha: nation also to settle here, alleging that they had 
enough in us, and should any more nations arrive, they would lose 
all their pastures, so that they proposed that they would rather 
help us in keeping away others than permit more to come. This 
would in case of need not be inconvenient, for if they remained 
steadfast, and as the number of the Company's horses is increasing, 
we might drive back from the beach a good many (that might 
endeavour to land in order to attack us) . 

We have had no reason to complain of any wantonness or 
insolence on the part of the men of the last squadron, though some 



211 

stowaways did manage to escape, notwithstanding the closest watch 1 ^ 2> 
kept to prevent it. But no doubt the orders of my Lords gth April. 
promulgated on this point will go far to remedy the evil, for if 
the first offenders were only prosecuted and kept in dread of being 
punished for the offence, a fear would be created among the rest, 
who would perforce keep quiet. 

You have no doubt seen and read in our despatches of last year 
how not only the charts of Table and Saldanha Bays, but also 
the depths and bottoms between both, have been corrected by 
Commander van Riebeeok himself. All further experience will be 
carefully attended to and noted. 

The prices fixed by us by our Resolution of the 27th August, 
1659, and examined by you, yon found to be much too high in 
many cases, especially in those of fresh meat and pork, butter, 
milk, fish, vegetables and such things, as they would fall too hard 
on the freemen. This would be the case if they had to buy those 
things of the Company, as you seem to think, but the contrary is 
the fact, as we have acted directly according to your intentions 
and orders for the benefit of the Company. 

For not only have the fisheries everywhere been always left free 
to everyone, but he may also grow as many vegetables and ground 
and garden fruit for himself as he likes, and to such an unlimited 
extent, that he is able to sell the surplus to the ships' companies, and 
make a large profit for himself. This we have fully explained last 
year in our despatches and annexures, as they (the cultivators) would 
otherwise have it too hard. Accordingly the prices have been so 
fixed, not because the articles were to be obtained from the Com- 
pany, which has never offered any of its garden produce for sale 
to any one, but for the benefit of some poor free agriculturists 
with a plot of roots given them at their first starting, as a sort of 
help, as well as many other things allowed for their convenience. 
But when these people had become well stocked with all kinds of 
garden produce, and begun to sell it much too dear, to the great 
prejudice of the Company's ordinary servants, the prices, com- 
plained of, were fixed, beyond which no one was allowed to go, 
so that the Company's boarders might be able to come out with 
their allowances, who, during their leisure hours, have a right to use 
the Company's seine in the sea and rivers for their further benefit. 

It will not be very practicable to grant the freemen a piece of 
ground, so that each one may be able to graze his own cattle on 
it (as on a common). Nor could such a piece of ground be enclosed 
as at home in consequence of the mountainous character of the 
country and many other hindrances. 

But besides their cultivable lands and gardens, the whole 
country everywhere is left to them in common for grazing pur- 
poses, and everyone is permitted to keep as many cattle as he 
likes, so that we wish that they will only keep more, that from 



212 

1662. their abundance (which is already beginning among some of the 
9th April diligent) they may be able to supply the Company's ships with 
better cattle than those obtained from the Hottentoos, as was fully 
pointed out last year in our despatches and annexures. 

And as regards butter and milk (seeing that the cows give very 
little milk here, and during the dry season hardly any) these were 
sold at double the present prices, and kept back for the ships for 
the most money, so that in consequence the garrison and others 
here were left without any. For these reasons the prices were 
fixed, that dearer rates might be prevented, as may be observed 
from the Resolution of the 27th August before mentioned, which 
fixes the prices, and is as follows: "With express warning and 
interdiction, as above said in the case of the milk and butter, that 
no one shall be allowed to receive more for the victuals mentioned, 
whether from the people of the arriving ships or of this garrison 
and Dutch residents, &c." You will therefore bs pleased to see 
that no higher prices have been fixed on anything for the freemen, 
but that, on the contrary, they are permitted to sell their own thus 
(at the prices fixed), and often, as regards vegetables and salted 
and dried fish, to sell them also to the men of the ships at the 
fixed price and in great abundance ; whilst they can also deliver 
to the Company large quantities, but at lower rates, from which 
last year's fleet had derived great benefit, as will appear from the 
ships' accounts. Moreover, when the freemen had sometimes 
whole boats full of fish, and asked us, they were allowed to bring 
them to the ships and sell them for cash. This they are also per- 
mitted to do with their water-melons. We have accordingly from 
the commencement seized every opportunity for their advancement 
and continued to do so until this day, as far as we believed it to 
be in accordance with the intentions of your Honours. All this 
we entered into fully last year, so that it will be unnecessary to 
say more now, if we are not to hinder you in your other work, 
otherwise we might adduce other examples and prove them with 
good evidence. 

Haying now fully answered your despatch of the 7th May, 1661, 
you will be able to understand perfectly how all our acts have in 
every sense been carried out according to your intentions and 
without any neglect, and where we have made a mistake in such a 
new work as that undertaken here, and which may easily occur, 
we have at once, as soon as we became aware of it, endeavoured to 
nend it. 

Coming now to your further general despatch of the 23rd 
August, 1661, received here on the 30th January last per the 
Wapen van Amsterdam, we did not see how to reply any further 
to it, after our letters of last year, which for the most part refer 
to its contents. 



213 

You will be pleased not to doubt that we have wished with our lt562 
whole heart to be so fortunate for the Company as to discover as 9th " 
much land fit for wheat growing as is necessary for supplying our 
own wants and more than that. Our hopes in this direction were 
very great, but since we began to put the plough thoroughly into 
the ground, we only found that we had become better judges of 
the Cape cultivable lands than we had been before, so that having 
carefully exploited in every direction, we discovered that there was 
but little available. This we pointed out fully in our communica- 
tions last year, to which we beg to refer you. And yet, Sirs ! if 
the wheat raised were not sold and squandered by the freemen, it 
would for this residency alone come very near the quantity required. 

The poor harvest of 1660 has been as follows, according to the 
entries in the books, dated 31st May, 30th June, and 31st 
December, 1661, viz. : 

From the Company's lands. 

144 muids wheat ; 76j rnuids rye ; 59J muids barley ; 30| 
muids oats. (The barley and oats mostly for the horses and other 
cattle.) 

From the Commander's lands. 

196 muids wheat ; 14| muids rye ; 94 muids barley ; 16| muids 
oats. 

From the Freemen, exclusive of what they required for their 
own use, no more than 21 5 muids wheat were obtained. 

The whole amounts to more than 19 lasts of wheat and 4^ do. 
rye, 8 do. barley, and almost 3 lasts oats for the horses. A portion 
of the whole was used for sowing, and the rest for consumption, 
before the new wheat of 1661 came in. 

The year 1661 however yielded mostly everywhere a better 
harvest, for in the Company's granaries, we calculate, according 
to the number of sheaves, exclusive of what is every day threshed 
for consumption, that there cannct be less than 26 or 28 lasts of 
wheat, 6 do. rye (nearly), 5 do. barley, and 3 lasts oats. 

This is exclusive of the crops of the freemen, which with what is 
raised by the Commander will all fall into the hands of the Com- 
pany, so that all the Company's men and horses will be able to 
subsist on it completely, and therefore, duiing the period of our 
administration we have completely realized the object of your 
Honours, by having the cultivation of grain in our own hands, as 
well as that of the gardens for the purposes of refreshment; and where 
there are still any good lands more are being gradually cultivated 
for the Company, whilst those of the burghers, who are no agricul- 
turists, are also beginning to profit from the agricultural produce 
of the freemen, if the latter would only more carefully till and 
manure their farms as the Company does, and instead of squander- 
ing away what they have over of their grain, deliver it all to the 



214 

1662. Company. But it is not possible to persuade them to do this, as 
9th T ril we mentioned in detail last year. We hope, however, that what 
is further required to secure an abundant depot for the burghers, 
as well as to entertain the Hottentoos liberally, who require 
a great deal, will be obtainable from Madagascar, that, according 
to your intentions, the Cape wheat may be preserved for fresh 
bread for the annual return fleet, which will be an excellent thing 
because of its strong nourishing powers, so that it will afford a 
pleasant refreshment to the homeward bound crews. 

We have, however, never heard that there was anything more 
than an abundance of cattle in Augustiu Bay, whilst always no 
rice, or at least, very little was obtainable there, which would 
accordingly have to be obtained on the Eastern side from the 
Autongil Bay and the rivers of Calamboelo, opposite the island 
St. Maria, and will have to be fetched even thence, in accordance 
with the proofs and reports which we have always obtained from 
that quarter. But for the purpose of exploiting for trading pur- 
poses the places on the coast of Africa lying opposite to it, and 
to keep beyond the limits of the French possessions, we con- 
sider the Augustin Bay suitable and at the same time distant 
enough from the French, who prof ess to have the right of possession 
mostly everywhere on the Eastern side, though this is 'not the case 
everywhere, for in Antongil the Company herself gave, ere this, 
a place of the King to the Hon. van der Stel, and when our people 
called there in the Tulp with the consent and friendly dispositions 
of the same King they occupied and made use of a spot there, 
which the natives consider as ours, and point it out as soon as any 
of our people arrive there, that they may pitch their tents or build 
their huts on it, &c. But this Bay is too far for the purpose of 
looking for trade on the continent, whilst Augustin is much more 
favourably situated for the purpose, and much nearer at hand. In 
our opinion, however, Pierre Gilton speaks too highly of its 
situation, &c., but according to your orders we shall not refrain 
from doing our best to add our share to the investigation, &c. 

Our idea of laying out a town here has always been very little, 
as will be observed from our despatch on the llth March last year, 
in which we mentioned that we no longer allowed any freemen to 
reside near the Fort, except those who had previously accepted a 
good sized piece of ground for raising wheat, as we can very well 
feel the burden of freemen, exclusive of agriculturists, and therefore 
will allow no more than there are already, for whom, should they 
build any houses here, we have, that they might be erected in proper 
order, as an incipient town, marked off 50 roods outside the Fort's 
walls, so that at present it seems to have more the name than the 
reality ; but if we had not opposed it, all the freemen would have 
left the country and come to live near the Fort. This has, how- 
ever, been quietly provided against, so that we are very little 
pestered about it any more. 



215 

The cattle trade remains in a fairly good state. We had, how- 
ever, hoped for a larger supply, but it seems that the new 
Hottentoos, called the Chainouquas and their friends, about whom 
we fully wrote last year, living a great way off, and obliged to 
move slowly with their cattle, cannot reach us so quickly as we 
thought and were made to understand, so that this season our trade 
was confined to the Saldanhars mostly in sheep and very little in 
cattle, hence not much was obtained from them ; however, what 
we got went a good way as refreshment, besides the garden produce, 
of which there was more than enough, praise ba to God ! The 
reasons why the cattle are so dry and lean, principally in the dry 
season, we have ere this fully mentioned. We hope, however, 
that by the freemen breeding Dutch stock, very fat sheep will be 
obtained, as we shall more and more improve the breed. This 
also we have already mentioned fully last time. 

In order to discover whether anything more than cattle trading 
could be established with the Namaqua tribes, discovered last year, 
and if possible, with others beyond, the Sergeant of the Fort, Pieter 
Everard and his 13 active companions, once more left for the 
interior on the 14th November last, as you will see from our 
journal of the 10th and 14th of that month, which also contains 
our Resolutions on the subject. Their return we mention below. 
We would have also sent an expedition towards the East, but we 
were kept back too much by sick men from the passing ships, whom 
we exchanged for healthy ones ; but as you seem to be in earnest 
in this matter, it will be vigilantly attended to next year, just as 
we have always done to the utmost of our power. We, therefore, 
hope that the clue was found last year, when the Nainaquas were 
discovered. 

We more and more experience how our mounted guards are 
inspiring the greatest awe among our sneaking neighbours, the 
Caapmen, and especially the Tobacco thieves, and not less among 
the Saldanhars and others. We hope a year hence to have as many 
as 20, out of our increase (a fine breed of horses). This we think 
will suffice for the present, as we have that number already in 
hand, independent of the old horses which are giving way, and the 
mares used for breeding purposes, which are somewhat indulged 
and never ridden, being gently used, according to their strength 
in the manure wagons for the Company's gardens, in which and 
in other matters they do excellent service. At present, all told, 
old and young, according to the lists of the Company and the 
freemen, make a total of 44, besides an ass, whose female died last 
year when giving birth to her foal. The ass, however, having 
been placed among the mares, two fine young mules were born this 
year, a male and a female. Two other mares will foal in the same 
way, so that in time fine serviceable animals will be had for various 
uses, especially for service on the land expeditions, for which they 
will be better than pack oxen, &c., when travelling. 



216 

1662. yfe shall not neglect to attend to it that the secret signals are 

9th April. e verv vear renewed and sent in time to Batavia to serve the Keturn 
Fleet, according to the orders of their Honours in Batavia, in the 
first case verbally received from the Hon. Commissioner Ster- 
theraius. And as they might also be of service to the outward 
bound, we also sent them home last year, to be used or not, as the 
Directors might think fit. 

We are particularly pleased that we find that we have, in the 
case of the wretched Frenchmen, acted as you would have wished, 
as intercourse with them caused some anxiety, and we suffered 
from their very pressing importunities to be transferred to the 
Perkyt. We hope to continue to attend carefully, in these 
matters, to your orders, and in every way to beware of rendering 
any accommodation which we may deem in any way to be injurious 
to the Company. 

Thus we shall, until further orders have been received, send no 
further expedition to discover St. Helena Nova. What we have 
understood regarding the statements of the Master Carpenter of 
the roadstead (at Batavia} regarding that island, we have already 
communicated to the Hon. Governor-General and Councillors of 
India. 

In consequence of the services of the Perkyt not being available, 
we have not been able to do anything in connection with clearing 
the roadstead (of lost anchors) ; but as soon as we can find the 
means and the time, we hope that our efforts in that direction will 
not be fruitless, and bearing this duty continually in mind, will 
miss no opportunity to carry it out to the best of our powers. 

Nor shall we neglect to pay more and more attention to the 
gradual strengthening of the Fort, over whose canal a wooden 
bridge has now been laid, which is drawn up at night as a draw- 
bridge, which strengthens the Fort so much more, so that it has 
to be attacked with cannon, as fully mentioned last year. And as 
regards the crumbling away of the walls, we hope that this will be 
better prevented than formerly, as it has been all round protected 
with stakes, and the packing together of branches in layers, beaten 
down on each other and filled in with sods ; the whole surrounded 
with a strong pallisade on the side of the berm, &c., a much 
stronger lot, and much thicker than those formerly used. This 
we also mentioned fully last year, when we also sent you the exact 
drawings. 

At the same time we transmitted to you the charts and detailed 
description of the facilities of Saldanha Bay ; the Commander Van 
Kiebeeck having personally examined everything inland there 
carefully, does not think that any wells can be dug any- 
where except at the common water pool, for in consequence of the 
saltpeterish stone, even when in the rainy season some pools are 
found here and there, they are as brackish as the rest, so that no 



further discoveries of better water will ever be made. And because 1662< 
the soil is quite unfit for sowing, for the reasons fully stated last 9^ 
year, there will be little fear that anyone will settle there, which 
certainly is a source of great comfort ; and as, notwithstanding its 
good harbourage, it is very difficult for the ships to leave it, those 
which may, in consequence of the heavy S. Easters, be blown back 
from Table Bay or Robben Island, can do no better than as a last 
refuge, anchor under Dassen Island, which is a good roadstead, 
and can be left with all winds, so that they will be able to reach 
this with the first favourable breeze in one day, whilst they would 
take that time to get out of Saldanha Bay before reaching the 
open sea, as is being experienced more and more, and has been 
most amply mentioned last year in our despatches and accurately 
laid down in the charts sent over at the same time. We therefore 
think that it will never be necessary to amend the latter, but merely 
to add to them what may more and more be experienced, so that 
we trust, that according to your orders, this will be borne in mind 
on every suitable occasion. 

As since our January despatch of last year left, no English have 
been here, we have not been able to ascertain how they are doing 
on St. Helena. The stowaways who have been sent back, will, 
according to their sentences, be made to serve out their time here. 

We hope that the 15 ships which are expected from home this 
year, will have as few complaints of insufficient refreshments, as 
this present return fleet, which we are confident will be readily 
acknowledged by the Officers. 

Having now fully replied to your despatch of the 23rd August, 
1661, and mentioned mostly everything connected with this 
Residency, we now proceed to answer your latest missive of the 
30th September of the same year, received per Amersfoort on the 
13th Febr. last, which arrived with 16 dead. The rest however 
were fine healthy men. She left for Batavia on the 21st of the 
same month with 328 men, who had been well refreshed here. On 
the 9th and 14th of the same month Het Wapen van Amsterdam 
with 345 men and the Malacca with 325 men, left for the same 
destination. These three vessels together did not have six sick 
in bed on their arrival here. 

In reply, therefore, to your despatches, we have respectfully to 
state that we have always done our very best to prevent the evil 
treatment of the natives by our people, and hope not to neglect to 
do so in future, in accordance with your further necessary orders, 
in order to make the aboriginals more and more inclined towards us, 
and thus keep the roads open for travel and the trade safe and open. 

We have already mentioned the unfitness of Saldanha Bay, and 
the fine accommodation afforded by the roadstead under Dassen 
Island ; and for further elucidation we have annexed a statement 
of the skipper of the Amersfoort, showing how he found and praised 



218 

1662. jt because of its good sand and holding bottom, &c. It is daily 
T~ -i more and more found that one can very easily sail from that road- 
stead to Table Bay, where, thanks be to God, there is always an 
abundance of fruit on hand for refreshing the ships. Nor need 
we fear that there will be less abundance now, as the work here 
has been kept hitherto in that order, and on that good footing, as 
we observed to our joy, from their Honours' last despatch, 
on which they consider it to have been brought. 

We shall also do our best for the propagation of the olive tree, 
looking upon it as very useful and necessary, as well as the vine, 
from which we expected already this year to obtain a fair quantity 
of wine, but as soon as the grapes commenced to ripen, the birds 
attacked them in such multitudes and committed such havoc, that 
in 2 or 3 days whole bunches and vineyards were eaten completely 
bare, so that what was left was taken as it was, some in the hurry 
cut off half ripe, and unfit for wine, and used as refreshments for 
the ships West Vrieslant, Hct Wapcn van Amsterdam, Malacca 
and Amersfoort, which happened to be here just in time. We 
however managed to make a small cask of wine, to be tested by the 
Admiral and other friends of the .Return Fleet, that they might be 
able to report to you. 

It would be a pity if the grapes were every year exposed to the 
ravages of the birds, for the stocks, planted from slips, and only 3 
years old, were fairly full, and the older ones fuller in proportion ; 
so that, if there be no other mischief than that caused by the birds 
they could be propagated in great abundance. But if it be im- 
possible on account of the birds for the grapes to reach their full 
ripeness for wine-making, they will have to be plucked sooner, in 
order to be converted into brandy and vinegar (as we think) . Time 
however will teach us more, and we would gladly receive some 
information on this subject, as well as on the question whether no 
way can be found by which the birds can be prevented from doing 
such mischief, &c- 

Passing by the matter of the Islands of Martyn Vaes, until your 
further orders have been received, we shall now mention the 
Namaquas. During this season, as already mentioned, an expedi- 
tion was again sent to them, and in order to secure better success, 
the Sergeant of the Fort accompanied it as Chief. They travelled 
more than 48 Dutch miles beyond the spot which they had reached 
last year, but they were unable to meet or reach that nation, as the 
Namaquas had retired beyond a large area of 4 or 5 days journey, 
a dry, salt and sandy country, without even th- least drop of water, 
excepting hero and there a small, dirty, stinkirgj mud-hole, and so 
salt that more saline matter was obtainable from its sides than any 
drink water. This the Sergeant investigated with 2 men who 
accompanied him (the others having boon loft by him at a large 
fresh water called the Oliphaut's JLvivier). They explored the 



219 

country beyond 4 days lung, but seeing no chance of advancing lfi62 - 
further, and being half faint with thirst, they were obliged to return ^ h April 
to their people at the river, and there decide to bend their steps 
homeward. He is, however, of opinion that this arid territory, 
where there is neither leaf nor grass, might be traversed at the 
beginning or the end of the rainy season, by those at the 
Olifant's liivier, as may be deduced from the many foot- 
marks of cattle and human beings as it were imprinted in the 
aforesaid hard salt ground, as if in clay, whilst a hut was 
found built here and there. But during the rainy season it must 
be remembered that the Olifant's Bivier is so high that there 
would be no way of getting any laden oxen across. This river 
discharges itself into an inland sea, which, according to the 
annexed chart, drawn from their observations as they travelled 
along, has been found to be in 30 $- degrees of latitude, and to 
be situated fully from 40 to 50 miles (Dutch) across from the 
ocean or the interior. According to their statement, it was 
navigable 4 Dutch miles up, all fresh water. They would have 
to be at that river in order to start trom it on their journey (as 
soon as the rains have fallen), and so continue their explorations. 
We hope that, according to your instructions, every diligence will 
be shown by them ; but it is our opinion that Oedasoa, the chief 
of the Saldanhars, is endeavouring to draw away from us the 
aforesaid nation (Namaquas) as well as all the other tribes, for in 
case the latter came hither, he feared that the pastures would 
become too scanty for him, and that he would also become less 
respected. This the great Chariguriquas, who have seceded from the 
Saldauhars, gave us to understand. They reside at the aforesaid 
Oliphant'e Bivier, between which and the Namaquas lies the afore- 
said dry and salt territory. The Sonquas, also, or mountain tribe, 
who, like the Chariguriquas, are allied to the Namaquas, mentioned 
this plainly to our people, saying that Oedasoa had advised 
the Namaquas not to come to the place agreed upon last year, 
making them believe that it was our intention to injure them 
with a hidden force of men, &c. ; so that, according to them 
(Sonquas), they (Namaquas) had retired through fear. Our men 
had, however, employed the chief of the Chariguriquas and some 
of his men, and sent them, as if postrunners, with a few presents 
across the dry salty region towards the Namaquas. Their journey 
to and fro lasted 10 days. They had informed the Namaquas of 
the arrival of our people at the appointed place, but the former 
had sent word back that at present it was impossible for them to 
meet us, so that our men had to turn back. We find, now if the 
distances travelled by our men had been added up, that they had 
reached to within 18 or 20 Dutch miles of the city mentioned in 
Linsohoten's map as Vigiti Magna, situated at, beyond, or on the 
N. side of a large river, called by us now the River of Vigiti 



220 

1G62. Magna, which, according to the aforesaid chart, passes through 
9th Tiril tne Lake of Gale, between which and the Oliphant's River, 
according to the annexed charts, may be seen marked the dry 
region which is so difficult to cross. But if once it has been 
crossed, we shall, no doubt, not only find the Namaquas having 
their residences at and along the River of Vigiti Magna, but also 
many other nations. But the difficulty will be to cross the river 
at Vigiti Magna ; however, further exploration may give us more 
knowledge ; and when once we have obtained that, we shall have 
to see to get further ; for there is no longer any difficulty connected 
with the journey hence to the furthest point of the Oliphant's 
River, a distance of 110 Dutch miles, but the 40 miles distance 
thence to the river Vigiti Magua seems to create all the difficulty, 
the country being without water, dry and salt. At some future 
time, however, some smart dare-devils will no doubt make further 
investigations, whilst a rendezvous with the cattle and provisions 
may be established at the Oliphant's River. The last travellers 
do not seem averse to this proposal, and only regret it that they 
did not know that they had been so near. They therefore hope 
that their next journey will secure them a further and a better 
success. 

They also declared further that nowhere where they came had 
they found such good land as this little point of the Cape still is. 
Everywhere they found the ground to be stony and sandy, and 
therefore consider this spot the best they have ever found in the 
Continent. They had also found very little bush in the interior, 
or land fit for agriculture, as will be seen from their journal 
inserted in the Cape one, under the date 13th February, 1662. 
They knew not what the cattle of the Hottentoos lived on, 
excepting the grass here and there on the high mountains, still 
growing among the rocks in dales and small valleys, in the same 
manner as we are compelled to let our cattle search for their 
pasturage in front of and behind the Table and "Bos" Mountains, 
as all the rest of the ground into which a plough can enter has 
been given out as land for cultivation, with the exception of 
about 20 morgen, which seem to be fairly good. But because 
they are the most distant of all (though within the circle and 
within sight of the watchhouse " Hout den Bui," (Hold the Bull), 
no one has as yet been found willing to take them. 

The red and yellow pigments, of which samples were sent last 
year, will only be taken out of stony hills and kloofs without 
detriment to cultivable lands or pastures as soon as your instruc- 
tions have been received. 

We have already mentioned that we have care Lily attended to 
the annual changing of the signals, which we have also always 
annually sent home with the second squadron in quadruple, 
according to your orders, to be of service to such vessels as you 
may consider they would benefit. 



Having observed in the last paragraph of your latest despatch, 
dated the 30th September, 1661, your Eesolutions regarding the 
Madagascar trade, we shall endeavour to carry out the Company's 
intentions according to instructions, and to the best of our ability. 
We shall also furnish the expedition with the experiences of the 
Tulp, as well as the charts copied from the French descriptions. 
We have already above fully discussed Madagascar, and thus 
answered your last letter in detail, which, as well as previous 
ones, contained your orders on the subject. We trust that we 
shall not be found negligent in carefully attending to them. 

The expenses for refreshments and other accommodations 
provided for the Company's ships last year (1661), including 
those of the Hospital as the sick of the vessels are treated there 
&c., amounted, according to the respective accounts kept of the 
same and the books, to f 9,920. 19.4. for 33 ships and the hospital. 

The expenses of this Residency, including the ordinary rations 
and subsidies advanced to the men on account, in settlement 
of their wages who, after they have left the hospital and 
returned to their ships, nevertheless remain included in the Cape 
expenditure for the services rendered by them after recovery and 
during their stay here make a total of . . . . f!8,837 17 2 
which has been exceeded by the profit amounting 

to 22,276 2 4 



Or a credit balance of 



f3,438 5 2 



Subtract this from the loans or advances to the 
men on account, both in goods and cash in 
payment of wages, amounting to . , . . f9,618 14 8 



Which leaves a debit balance of 



6,180 9 6 



But it is to be hoped that, hereafter, with rice from Mauritius, all 
this will be surmounted completely. 

Whereas Commander Q-errit van Harn, as already mentioned, 
died in the early commencement of the voyage, and Commander 
Van Riebeeck has thus been disappointed in his long-expected 
removal, granted him kindly in accordance with your pleasant 
letters of the 21st August, 1660, but nevertheless did not dare to 
resign his post or his uomraand here to anyone else, though both 
could have been held by the secunde, the junior merchant, Roeloff 
de Man, and the Fiscal, Abraham Grabbema, until further orders ; 
and whereas he was unable last year, in consequence of the 
departure of the last return squadron, to advise you of this, and 
persist in his solicitation to be relieved by you, which he would 
have been able to do only after the expiration of another full 
year ; and as he had been in his third year of service after the 



1662.. 
9th April. 



222 

1882. expiration of his second contract, he requested, in order the sooner 
9th April t reacn Batavia, to ask the Governor- General and Councillors of 
India to ue relieved, in order, immediately after having transferred 
his trust to whomsoever their Honours might be pleased to send as 
his successor, to arise and proceed thither. Accordingly, their 
Honours sent hither with the last squadrom from Batavia the 
Hon. Zacharias Wagenaar as his successor, in order to administer 
the Company's establishment here instead of Eiebeeck, and with 
the rank of Commander ; to whom, therefore, after the despatch of 
this, proper transfer, &c., shall be made. 

And whereas the aforesaid Commander Riebeeck has now entered 
into the third year beyond his second contract, so that it will bethe 
eleventh year of service here, and converted the aspect of the Cape, 
which was so barren, but at present, next to God, been evolved by 
him out of nothing, he having during the term of his administration 
here, with the labour of his own hands, advanced it so far that it has 
become a desirable refreshment place where always sufficient fruit 
can be found with which your out and homeward bound ships can be 
properly refreshed, besides the cattle, after the latter has sometimes 
been bartered in abundance from the natives, with whom we are 
at present living nicely in peace your further object, viz. : the 
raising of wheat, has, in consequence, been so far advanced, 
that from the Company's lands, &c., as above pointed out, the 
Company's servants may already be supplied ; which wheat (should 
we be supplied here with rice) will be a great boon for the 
men of the return ships (who have become dropsical and weak 
through the rice) and during their stay here, being converted into 
fresh bread, will very much strengthen and refresh the voyagers, 
independent of other refreshment, a commencement having already 
been made this year, as far as we have been able to keep the 
oven going ; we may also expect further good service and 
refreshment from the lemon, orange and apple trees, which have 
already given proofs of success. At present they have already 
been planted in great abundance, and can be increased year after 
year with thousands more. The very useful and fruit-bearing 
olive tree is already flourishing to a great extent, as well as the 
Dutch apple and pear. The officers of the present return fleet 
have been shown in the Company's small nursery many other 
kinds of Fatherland fruit trees, which can be planted out, and 
whose fruit will fortunately just be ripe when the annual return 
and outward bound ships, especially the autumn and winter ships, 
arrive here. The same is the case with all ground and garden 
fruit and water melons, melons, &c., which also ripen so excellently 
in a season of the year when, exclusive of our plantations, nothing 
can be found anywhere, in consequence of the drought, than a 
barren, poor heath, so that nothing better could be desired from 
God the Lord. The breeding of horses and mules for various 



223 

useful purposes is prospering beautifully, so that we do not know 
that we have left anything conceivable untried, but believe that 9th 
we have placed matters on such a good footing and in such good 
order, that everything will advance from year to year, with God's 
blessing, more rapidly than before, to the great improvement of 
the settlement, and be developed much more than Commander 
Van Eiebeeck, as far as in him lay, was able to accomplish for the 
benefit of the Company during the nearly eleven years in which 
he devoted himself to the task, the last three of which he has 
served without any promotion. But as we have seen to our 
great satisfaction that in your general despatches of the 
30th September last year, you consider the work here to be 
in order and placed on a good footing, your most humble 
and obedient servant, Commander Riebeeck, most respect- 
fully requests your Honours that, taking into consideration 
his former and very long- continued services dutifully rendered 
here, you may at last be pleased to benefit him with such an 
appreciable promotion, especially as regards rank and pay, by 
which he may be more and more encouraged dutifully to continue 
his services, and show his gratitude by binding himself further to 
the Company, and dutifully do his best for the same. Hence he 
again offers himself for service in India, and anxiously expects a 
favourable reply. 

And as the three ships, Macassar, Princesse Royael and Phcemx, 
with the Hon. Van der Laan as Rear-Admiral, arrived here 
separately on the 14th and 15th of last month (March), and the 
other four ships of the first squadron, under the Hon. De Vlamingh, 
have not yet made their appearance, which had together in the 
latitude of St. Brandon encountered such a vehement storm that 
they were completely separated from each other, and we fear that 
some misfortune may have befallen the four that are still absent, 
but may have proceeded to Mauritius or Madagascar for repairs, 
the aforesaid three vessels decided to leave on the 3rd instant, but 
on the 2nd (just the day before) the Angelier and Oyevaer of the 
second squadron arrived, under command of the Hon. Zacharias 
Wagenaar, who is to relieve Commander Van Riebeeck, and had 
been despatched from Batavia on the 30th January last, so that the 
Hon. Van der Laan and the broad council of the five ships 
in consequence decided to wait for the Hon. De Vlamingh until the 
10th instant, and should he not have arrived within that time to 
continue the homeward voyage with the five vessels, calling at St. 
Helena to see whether the Admiral might not be lying there ; and 
should he obtain no tidings there of the missing ships, then to pro- 
ceed straight home in company ; and as in consequence of the 
remaining away of the four vessels we have remained without the 
letters entrusted by the Governor- General and Councillors of India 
to the Hon. de Vlamingh, we have been obliged to close this ancl 



224 

1862. despatch it with the ships Marseveen, Princesse JRoyael, Phoenix, 
9th April. AiWfar and Ot/evaer. . . 

In the Fort Good Hope at Cabo de Boa Esperanee, the 9th 
April, 1662. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK, 

ZACHARIAS WAGENAAR, 
KOELOFF DE MAN, and 
ABRAHAM GTABBEMA. 



To the Amsterdam Chamber. 

How far we have answered yours of last year with the return 

flute Venenburgh an3. the yacht Cal/f, under command of the Hon. 

Joan Boucheljon, may be gathered from the annexed copy of our 

despatch to the Seventeen, which will also tell you what ships 

successively arrived here and to what Chambers they belonged. 

Besides those of the 7th January, written from the Hague, we also 

received yours of the 2nd and 24th December, 1660, and 12th 

January, 1661 , all which arrived in the month of June, Thereupon 

we used every diligence to despatch on the 17th and 23rd June, 

according to your orders, the little vessels Perkyt and ffilversum, 

with men and an abundant supply of provisions to the destined 

spot, so that your orders have been implicitly obeyed, except as 

regards the Zeepaert, whose officers forgot or neglected to deliver 

to us your letter of the 26th February, and to show us their papers. 

It was only after their departure (we remaining in ignorance 

of the said letter) they left on the 21st June straight for Batavia 

that on the 25th July, with the arrival of the ship De Beurs, 

we were for the first time informed of the extraordinary equipment 

explained in your letters of the 18th and 29th March last year, 

and addressed to the Commander alone. The originals the Zee- 

pnert had on board, but as they were not delivered to us we were 

prevented from carrying out the instructions they contained. 

We concluded that your letter of the 26th February had arrived 

too late in Zealand, as the Zccpacrt had left Zealand on the 28th 

of that month. Nor did we hear anything from that Chamber, 

either general or private ; not even with the flute Claverskercken, 

which called here on the 26th September Only from 

your private letter of the 19th April, 1661, addressed to Com- 
mander Van Harn and Council, we have at last been informed, 
when the return fleet arrived and brought us our letters from 
Batavia, that the officers of the Zeepaert had by mistake neglected 
to deliver the letter or inform us of it, notwithstanding we 
had very pressingly asked them for secret communications and 
letters. Otherwise all the orders contained in the lately received 



225 

and previous letters per the five ships of the extraordinary equip- 1662 - 
ment, have been completely carried out. We also received in time g ' tll ^L r 
the closed packet of letters per the Paarl, which left this on the 
4th September with the Wassende Maan, after we had previously 
taken some men out of the five ships, namely 24 out of the May- 
boom and 80 out of the Jonge Prins, a choice selection of soldiers, 
besides those out of the Prins Willem, who had been despatched in 
the Perky t and Hilversum, in order as nearly as possible to supple- 
ment the military, who, on account of the too late arrival of the 
letter per the Zeepaert, were missed at their destined haven. For 
the same purpose the Naclitegaaltje was also sent to the same place 
with 30 additional men taken out of the West Vriesland, which 
arrived here on the 17th and 18th January last. Ail this 
we did in compliance with your order contained in your letters 
of the 1st June and 19th May, 1661, received by the said 
two vessels, and accompanied by the general despatch of the 17, 
dated the 7th May, 1661, to which we have written a separate 
reply, so that we need only mention here that the following 
vessels left this, viz. : 

The Perkyt on the 17th June with . . . . 45 men 
Hilversum 23rd . . . . 75 
Beurs, after lying here 8 days, on the 

3rd August with . . . . . . 235 

Raethuys, after lying here 8 days, on the 

3rd August with 238 

Huys te Swieten, after lying here 13 days, 

on the 18th August with . . . . 330 
Ry&ende Son, after lying here 9 days, on 

the 25th August with . . " . . 248 
Wassende Maan, after lying here 12 days, 

on the 4th September with . . 262 ,, 

Nachtegael, after lying here 14 days, on 

the 2nd February with . . . . 52 



(N.B. The last mentioned vessel detained by 
contrary winds.) 

Total . . . . 1,485 men. 



All well refreshed men, the best being selected from the crews 
of other ships, and the loss sustained by deaths made good, whilst 
for the reasons already mentioned more than the actual number 
required were added besides, about which we wrote to their 
Honours in Batavia, as will be more fully seen from the 
annexed secret letter book, so that we trust that in all respects 
we have arranged matters in accordance with the intentions of 
my Lords. 



226 

1062. I n the same maiiner, in accordance with their orders of the 2nd 

9th A" ril December, 1660, we reduced the number of the garrison here, 
though in such a way as to be always on our guard, as we could 
never know what attempt might at one time or another be made 
on this place ; the more so as in June last we obtained news from 
Cabo Verde, per Honingen, that five large English King's ships 
had there demanded from the Commander Cops (as the latter had 
already notified to their Honours at Batavia) the surrender of the 
Fort of the West India Company to their king within six months' 
time, arid that they had instructions to do the same thing all along 
the whole coast of Africa, as far as Cabo de Bona Esperance 
included, which information was confirmed by those of the Nachte- 
(jarltjc, which had also called there. Hitherto, however, none of 
them have been seen here ; nor any of the supposed 8 or 9 French 
ships. But as we understand from your private letter of the 2nd 
December, 1660, that equipment is but advancing slowly, and as 
you believe that the ship 'St. Louys, destined to China, will also 
not leave, though we afterwards were informed that she was lost 
near Staveren, and that the other vessels had been shot on fire by 
the Turks near the entrance to the Straits of Gibraltar, 
they have already lost 8 ships equipped since 1656 for their East 
India ventures, besides others of which we as yet know nothing. 
Add to this the dissensions between those of the Company and the 
Marshal de la Mesleraye (mentioned in our general despatch of 
the 15th March last year), and it may be readily believed that one 
thing and another will cool their courage more than raise it, and 
that, in consequence, their affairs there are making but little 
progress, but, on the contrary, are very bad on the island 
(Madagascar ?), as through want of succour their men are melting 
away, many of whom being murdered by the natives from time to 
time. Moreover, a short time ago they massacred each other in 
great numbers, as no doubt you have been informed from Batavia 
per this return fleet, as their Governor of Madagascar and the 
guns of their vessels lost there are being conveyed to Europe in it. 

.Regarding refreshments for the ships, mentioned in your 
despatch of the 12th January, 1661, which urged us to provide 
even a greater abundance than was supplied to the equipment first 
decided upon, there has been no want of a sufficiency of cattle, 
much less of vegetables and garden fruit. Nor would there have 
been any, even if more ships had arrived, as the Company's 
gnrdens are kept continuously so well provided, that at all times a 
Considerable number of ships may expect an abundant and 
unlimited supply for their accommodation, as no doubt the friends 
on the return ships that have arrived will have reported, and thoso 
if thv, present squadron will, we hope, also do, especially as regards 
the iruit, which we have under our control, and can supply as the 
work of our own hands. 



227 

As the result of an opulent trade in cattle, we have been able 16( >2. 
always to supply the vessels abundantly, as was shown in the case 9th T ril 
of the return fleet of the Hon. Demmer already in the first year, 
viz., 1653 ; that of the Hon. Bogaerd in 1656 ; that of the Hon. 
'Ooedyok in 1659 ; and that of the Hon. Frisius in 1661, as well 
as in that of this present squadron under the Hon. de Vlamingh 
of Outshoorn, this year 1662. The fleets which passed this during 
the periods mentioned received as follows : 

That under the Hon. van Q-oens in 1655, ten cattle and thirteen 
sheep ; that under the Hon. Crab in 1657, seven cattle and 66 
sheep; that under the Hon. Ouneus in 1658, including the 
Arnhem and Honingen, 52 cattle and 135^ sheep ; and that under 
the Hon. Sterthemius in 1660, including the Erasmus, 46 1 cattle 
and 150 sheep, as well as 6 pigs. All this, exclusive of what 
everyone freely bought from the freemen for his own money. 
The annexed accounts will confirm the above summary. 

But as the cattle trade is one year more successful than another, 
it has happened that the vessels were able one year to obtain more 
cattle than another ; but for many years there have always been 
more vegetables and varieties of garden produce than some have 
often been willing to take on board. 

From the increase of the freemen's sheep, which are mostly all 
becoming of the Dutch kind, very fine results maybe expected; 
and as each oiie depastures his troop separately, the latter thrive 
much better than the sheep bartered by the Company. This 
causes great satisfaction, as they will more and more increase in 
numbers and become abundant. 

We have already mentioned that the Nachtegaettjen and Went 
Vrieslant only arrived here on the 17th and 18th of January last, 
the former with 4 and the latter with 34 dead. Also that the 
latter left for Batavia on the 2nd February with 301 men, 34 of 
her crew having been transferred to the Nachtegaelljen, which took 
with her not only the sealed letters brought by her, but also those 
sent with the Princesse Royael and received on the 6th September 
last, after the Wassende Maen, the last of the five extraordinary 
ships, had on the 4th of the same month taken with her, just in 
time, the packet received with the Paerl; so that we know no 
better than that we have .properly attended to and carried out 
your orders. 

We did the same as regards the packet on board the Nachtegael 
and addressed to their Honours at Batavia, as ordered by you in 
your letter of the 19th May, sending it not with the West Vrieslant, 
but with LLd Wapen van Amsterdam, which arrived hero with only 
5 dead and no sick, and left for Batavia on the 9th February, 1662. 

And in order fully to reply to everything contained in your 
letter of the 19th September, 1661, and the despatch of the 17, 
dated the 23rd August last, we may mention that for tho present 



228 

LOG2. we have debited Jan Coenraet Visser for the 125 advanced to his 
wife bv vour Chamber, that he may afterwards pay it off with 

9th April. * jr. . , .. . , i A -\ i i_ i. 

gram, which is as easy as it is pleasant to him, as cash as yet but 
little overflows him. 

The hop plants sent with Het Wapen van Amsterdam and 
Malacca have arrived here in good condition, but those on board 
the Amernfoort had during the voyage, perhaps through ignorance, 
been cut up for salad. We hope, however, that we shall at last 
be successful with the contents of the two cases received. 

The iron shipped in the Nachtegaeltjen we left in her in order to 
facilitate her early departure and keep her well ballasted. Other- 
wise a mighty deal of time would have been lost in discharging 
and reballasting her with stone. Moreover, she had a long 
voyage. We are for the present well provided with iron obtained 
from the Malacca. 

This has principally been intended as a reply to your secret 
letter addressed to the Commander alone, which, however, fell into 
our hands, as our designated successor, the Hon. Gerard van Ham, 
had already died early during the voyage, viz., on the \lth March, 
1661, and teas buried on the Island St. Vincent. 

This has delayed our release which we had expected for so long 
a time, and which had been so graciously granted by the Lords 
Seventeen in their general despatch of the 2ist August, 1660, and 
gratefully accepted by us ; for without further orders, we did not 
consider that we would be justified in leaving our post, not- 
withstanding the pleasant release granted by you, and we were 
debarred from informing the Directors of the circumstance as the 
return fleet of last year had already left, so that we were unable to 
refer the matter to you, and once more ask for our discharge, as a 
whole year would have elapsed before we would have been able to 
do so, so that we would have had to wait at least to the year 1663 
for your answer, that is to say, two years longer, so that thre^ full 
years would have expired beyond the end of our present contract. 
Accordingly, in order to be a year sooner in India, we wrote for 
our release to their Honours in Batavia, both in our general and 
special letters, the result of which was that with the last ships 
their Honours sent us, as our successor, the Hon. Zacharias 
Wagenaar, with permission to leave for Batavia after the trans- 
ference of our trust. I therefore in this once more, with all rev- 
erence and most humbly request you, after such a long service, at 
present entering into its eleventh year in this place, including the 
years 1660 and 1661, as well as this newly entered year 1662, 
during which I have served without contract, or promotion, to be 
for once pleased to benefit your never unwilling, but always 
(according to duty) ever willing and obedient servant, with such 
an augmentation of rank and pay in India, in which he may find 
some cause for rejoicing after his lengthy Cape service, for which 



229 

he would feel deeply grateful and the more obliged, hoping to 1662 - 
be employed in India, and doing his duty there not less than 9th ^ 
ever before. 

Some persons, beginning to discover that they are prospering 
better here than they would be doing at home, have requested us to 
send home, some for their nieces and others for their daughters, and 
though we have only found it an inconvenience for the Oape, that 
more women should arrive than those who have their own husbands 
here, we have not been able to rid ourselves of the petitioners, and 
have accordingly obliged them with a small postcript to their 
memorials, leaving the matter entirely at your disposal. Should 
however any agriculturist order out his wife, permission might be 
granted to him for the purpose. This we mention, so that you 
may be able to understand the difference. . . . 

In the Fort, the Good Hope, the 9th April, 1662. 

(Signed) JAN VAN EIEBEECK. 

Petition for the Cape from Patria for the year 1663. 

2,000 Ibs. good Virginia tobacco in canisters. 
J ,000 pairs of shoes, viz. : 

600 pairs of dry leather ones, of at least 12 or 14 stitches. 
100 of women's shoes, half Spanish and dry leather. 
300 children' shoes, viz. : 

20 pairs first number yellow and grey. 
20 second number ,, 

30 third number 

60 ,, fourth number 

80 fifth number 

90 sixth number 

400 pairs stockings, viz. : 
200 pairs worsted and 
200 woollen. 
2,000 sail needles. 

Tin that has not been turned but beaten, like what has been 
lately received, viz. : 

24 dozen table plates. 
4 dishes of 4 Ibs. 

> >5 " 

>> ^ JJ 

>> >j -"-a >5 

8 dozen basins such as the burghers use (Commekens), 

with flat ears. 

2 dozen chamber pots (water potten). 
2 dozen mustard pots and spoons. 
24 dozen tin spoons with square handle*. 
2 dozen salt cellars. 



230 

1662. TOOLS, viz. : 

200 shod shovels. 

9th April. , 

200 spades. 

200 iron garden spades. 



AMMUNITION. 

20 kegs musket balls. 

FOR THE HORSES. 
12 saddles \ 

21 dozen bits With their belongings. 
5 dozen stirrups ) 

MEDICINES. 

Such as those received in 1662 with Het Wapen van Am- 
sterdam, and which cost, according to invoice, f961'8. 



List of papers directed to the Hon. Board of Seventeen and 
despatched with the ship Marsevcen : 

No. 6. Cape Secret Letter Book. 

No. 13. Protocol. 

No. 14. Confessions and Interrogatories. 

No. 15. Criminal and Civil Roll. 

No. 16. Sentences. 

No. 17. Decrees (keuren), Placcaten and Ordinances for 

1661. 

No. 18. Title Deeds. 
No. 19. Freemen's Passes (vrybrieven) . 
No. 22. Lists of the Deceased Servants of the Company, 

and the Freemen. 
No. 23. Muster Roll of the paid Servants of the Company 

at the Cape. 
No. 24. Muster Roll of all the Freemens' wives, children, 

cattle, lands, ammunition, &c. 
No. 25. Chart of the Travellers into the Interior. 
No. 26. Memorandum regarding the roadstead at Dassen 

Island. 

List of Papers sent to the Chamber Zealand per the ship 
Royacl. 

No. 5. Cape Secret Letter Book. 

No. 10. List of the deceased servants of the Company, and 

of the freemen. 
No. 11. Muster roll of all the paid servants of the 

Company at the Cape. 



231 

No. 12. Muster roll of the wives and children of all the 

freemen. 9th April . 

No. 13. Chart of the Travellers into the Interior. 

No. 14. Memorandum regarding the roadstead at Dassen 
Island. 

Lost of papers sent to the Chamber Delft per the ship Vocjel 
Phenix. 

No. 4. Same as No. 10 above. 
No. 5. Same as No. 14 above. 

List of papers sent to the Chamber Rotterdam per the ship 
Phenix. 

No. 4. Same as No. 10 above. 
No. 5. Same as No. 14 above. 

List of papers sent to the Chamber Hoorn per the yacht 
Angelier. 

No. 4. Same as No. 10 above. 
No. 5. Same as No. 14 above. 

List of papers sent to the Chamber Enckhuysen per the Oyevaer. 
No. 4. Same as No. 10 above. 
No. 5. Same as No. 14 above. 

List of papers sent to the Chamber Amsterdam per the Phenix. 
No. 5. Same as No. 14 above. 



Instructions for Skipper Steven Foran, proceeding to St. 
Helena. 

" As you have now been sufficiently supplied with provisions nth April. 
and ballast for a voyage to St. Helena, you shall at once make 
sail and do your best to get outside, whether by towing, tacking 
or such other means as you may deem best, that you may still be 
able to come up with the Fleet and in company with it reach St. 
Helena, that you may be able on your return to inform us whether 
Admiral Arnold de Vlamingh has been, or is still there with the 
four vessels, Het Wapen van Holland, Print Willem, Arnhem and 
De Gecroonde Leemv, carrying out such instructions as the Admiral 
or the Hon. van der Laen may communicate to you. Should it, 
however, happen that you do not come up with the squadron under 
the Hon. Van der Laan, between this and St. Helena, or reach- 
ing that island in 24 days' time, do not find it there, or the ships 
of the Hon. De Ylamingh, which will be suificiently distinguishable, 
you shall throw out a light anchor and at once inquire from the 
English on shore or on board their vessels, whether and when they 
were there, and when thev left. For that purpose you shall with 



232 

1662. your little boat only send away a smart quartermaster and two 
ntb~April smart sailors with orders to make careful inquiry. And you are 
expressly ordered not to venture one single man more of all the 
crew, or let any one board any ship or go on shore anywhere, much 
less your steersmen. Nor shall you hoist out your longboat, but 
merely pretend before the English, as well as your o\vn men, that 
you are in want of water and would like to have or fetch some. But 
as soon as you have got your boat back with the required information 
you shall make sail again the same night, should you have arrived 
there in daytime, or towards evening, leaving quietly and without 
the least noise and returning hither as fast as you can. This you 
shall carefully attend 1o, as you and your mates will be held 
personally responsible." 

In the Fort " Good Hope," the llth April, 1662. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



St. Helena. 

To the Commander, the Bear- Admiral of the five separated 
return ships. Sent per the Zeeridderken. 

" Though we believed that the Zeeridderken had left with you, 
we saw it still lying, in the roadstead this morning, the men not 
being very willing to leave, whilst the skipper also came to com- 
plain of want of sufficient supplies. We accordingly at once 
provided it with some iron for ballast and some additional food- 
stuffs and after that despatched her at once, hoping that she will 
soon come up with you and also find the five vessels under the 
Hon. De "Vlamingh. In the meanwhile we wish you a prosperous 
and safe voyage, and remain your friends at your service." 

In the Fort the Good Hope this llth day of April, 1662. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 
ROELOFF DE MAN. 
ABRAHAM GTABBEMA. 



To Batavia. 

27sh April " As in our general despatch to the Masters we have written 
very circumstantially regarding Cape affairs, and according to 
annual custom are now sending you the duplicate, which will give 
you all the information, we respectfully refer you to it; only 
mentioning that on the 15th February last, we received in good 
order per the Zeeridderken, your pleasant letter of the 17th 
November last. We remain very thankful for your care in 
provisioning us with rice, &o., obtained with her. But on account 



of her late arrival she was obliged to proceed outside again in 

order to cruize about for the fleet, without having been previously 27th~April. 

discharged, witli the result that we received seven lasts less than 

we should have had. 

The order contained in your letter regarding the orphans of the 
late Ensign van Herwerden has been carried out. 

On the 14th March the Hon. Van der Laen arrived here as 
Hear- Admiral with the Pkenix, Harseeeen and Princess f Royael. 
They were overtaken in the latitude of St. Brandon by a vehement 
storm with the rest of the Fleet under command of the Hon. 
De Vlamingh. This occurred on the llth February last, 
with the result that the vessels were separated, so that not 
only the above mentioned seven arrived separately, but 
the other four, viz. : Het Wapen van Hollant, Prim Willem, 
Arnhem and De Gecroonde Leeuw under command of the 
Hon. De Vlamingh, have hitherto not put in an appearance. 
What disasters may have befallen them, or for what harbour they 
may have made to repair damages, we do not as yet know. In 
the meanwhile we remain without the letters sent us with those 
vessels, to which we are accordingly unable to reply. Jn the 
meanwhile the Hon. Wagenaar arrived with the Angelier and 
Oyevaer on the 2nd instant, in the finest weather in the world. 
With these two vessels the Hon. Van der Laen waited here until the 
1 Oth April , when the five vessels left in company for the Father- 
land, with the intention of calling at St. Helena to see whether 
the Hon. Do Vlamingh might not have been there ; and in order 
to ascertain this for ourselves the squadron was accompanied by 
the Zearidder, according to Resolution of the 10th April, specially 
adopted for that purpose. We hope that God, the Lord, will let 
her return with the longed for news that the missing ships have 
been found. 

This is being made ready to leave with the Calff on the 21st, 
and the Bunschoten, which arrived hero, as well as the Vettenburglt 
and Mars, on the 22nd instant. Copies of the letters brought by 
them for us we annex to this for your information, so that you 
may know what their Honours at home have been ordering 
regarding this place. 

With the yacht Calff we also send you all the Cape closed books 
and papers of last year (1661). Commander Riebeeck is now busy 
transferring his trust, &c., hoping soon to follow, and on his arrival 
in Batavia to give you further detailed information regarding 
everything connected with Cape affairs. 

A secret signal for next j'ear's return fleet is also annexed to 
this. 

This day the flute Atn^cllant arrived with 146 men, of whom 
eight had died, among them the junior merchant, Dirck van 



234 

1662. Wyngaerden. The rest of the men are all fairly well. There are 
27th~April s ti\\. a few vessels in the offing, which will soon be in. 
In the Fort the Good Hope, the 27th April, 1662. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN HIEBEECK, 
EOELOFF DE MAN, and 
ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

List of papers sent to Batavia per Het Calff. 

No. 11. List of the freemen, their wives, children, men 
servants, slaves, lands, cattle and debts, &c. 

No. 12. Muster roll of the paid servants at the Cape. 

No. 13. Chart of the land travellers, conducted by Ser- 
geant Everard. 

List of papers sent to Batavia per the Bunschoten. 

This closes the series of " Letters Despatched " connected with 
the administration of Commander Johan van Riebeeck. 



RIEBEECK'S INSTRUCTIONS LEFT FOR 
COMMANDER Z. WAGENAER. 



Memorandum for the information and guidance of the Hon. 
Zacharias Wagenaer, successor of Commander Jan van 
Eiebeeck, who has drawn it up in accordance with orders con- 
tained in the despatch of the Governor-General and Councillors 
of India, dated the 29th January last. Said memorandum to 
serve Wagenaer (until further orders have been received from 
Home or Batavia) and his council for such guidance as they 
may require, until their experience from time to time shall 
have enabled them to take such further steps as may best 
serve the interests of the Company. 

What the object was in establishing this place you will find in 1662 - 
the general and particular instructions personally delivered to us 5th "MY 
by my Lords the Directors at Home, and the successive letters and 
orders received since that time, as well as the Instructions left here 
by the Hon. Van Goens, the first Councillor of India, who as Com- 
missioner inspected affairs here, those of the Commissioners Johan 
Cuneus, Pieler Sterthemius and Andries Frisius, besides all other 
papers and books deposited in proper order and properly indexed in 
the office here. All these we have shown and communicated to 
you, and with our "command" also transferred to you. Moreover 
we have had daily verbal communication with you, laying every- 
thing before you plainly and clearly. No doubt, therefore, that 
in consequence you have become acquainted with the character of 
the establishment here and learned to understand the good and 
right intentions of our lords and masters at Home, as well as those 
of their Honours in India, which agree with the former, and there- 
fore also the reasons which have induced the Company to take 
possession here and build this fort, &c. 

The first and principal object was, besides obtaining fresh water 
here for its passing ships, to breed cattle in order to be able to have 
the whole year through an abundant supply of meat, as well as to 
plant such field and garden produce as would serve a similar pur- 
pose, and would grow here. This object has, at present, with 
God's helping hand, been so far realised, that, praise be to God, we 
rather have too much than too little of it, whilst enough will 
always be obtainable if the Company's gardens at the fort, which 
at present cover 21 morgen of ground, are properly attended to 
and taken care of, so that everything is put into the ground in the 



236 

1662. proper season, in accordance with my memorandum expressly 
5th Mav written from the commencement with my own hand, and now 
delivered into your hands. It is entitled " The Cape Gardener's 
Almanac" (Caepsen Hoveniers Almanack \ Continuous further 
ohservations will, however, not be unnecessary, but most highly 
serviceable to it, as length of time will produce a better and still 
better knowledge of one thing and another by means of experience. 

Agriculture has been begun here and advanced so far, both on 
the part of the Company and the freemen, that already a con- 
siderable quantity of grain is raised; whilst if tree-planting is 
continued by the Company, it will become more successful every 
year, many Dutch fruits, as well as various kinds of Indian 
shaddocks, Madagascar, St. Helena, Italian and Spanish orange 
and lemon trees, already growing here in great numbers, some 
fruit of which we have shown you hanging on the trees, which 
will bear a greater abundance year after year. The vineyards, 
also, do not promise less ; and what the olive will do, one of the 
two trees, obtained four years ago, has shown the last two years in 
succession with its excellent and full crop of fruit. Last year we 
accordingly allowed the olives to get ripe and had the stones 
planted, in order the sooner to obtain an abundance of that 
valuable and useful fruit tree. Layers, as in the case of other 
trees, are, however, more successful, so that in time there will be 
no want of an abundance of this kind of refreshment as well as of 
others. 

It is estimated that the lands here will not produce so much corn 
that such a capacious depot may be formed of it as will be sufficient 
for the wants of the free colonists, that is to say that they will be able 
to sell any to the crews, &c , with any particular profit or satisfaction 
to themselves. therwise we might already at present have had suffi- 
cient for the garrison here, so that it will be necessary always to sup- 
plement this want from outside, which goes very much against the 
grain of their Honours, and therefore in our despatch of last year we 
proposed the Island Madagascar as a means for supplying that want 
in the least expensive manner possible, whence other commodities 
might also be obtainable for the residency by means of an annual 
voyage thither with a small flute or yacht, which must be kept here, 
and could well be spared for the purpose between July and December, 
without causing any inconvenience, and having a safe passage, 
could be back in sufficient time to cruize, as at present, for the 
return and outward bound autumn and winter ships ; all which we 
have fully detailed in our general despatch to the Seventeen, who 
thereupon decided to have a flute expressly built for the Madagas- 
car trade and send her hither in accordance with their despatch of 
the 30th September last, annexed to which was an open instruction 
that we might add to it what we might deem to be further neces- 
sary, which was then to be signed by the Commander, in order to 



237 

endeavour to fill up from that island the deficiency in the Cape 
produce, as may be more fully seen from their letter and Instruction. 5 

In the meanwhile we have arranged and made it a custom, as 
regards our own wheat and the rice from Batavia which we have 
on hand, or have landed from the ships without inconveniencing 
the latter, to allow the freemen every month out of the Company's 
stores 50 Ibs. of corn, meal or rice per head slaves and children 
included just as the stores may be provided, whilst the agricul- 
turists grind as much of their own corn as they have raised, the 
one a little more and the other a little less, so that on an average 
they are thus enabled to add to the stock, and some of them even 
to supply a portion to the Company in diminution of their debts 
(for which the agriculturists are not to be pressed) . The Company 
also might already have raised nearly sufficient grain for the 
garrison and its slaves, but the freemen who are no agriculturists 
and others who have become agriculturists this and last year, 
having become free, have to be fed from the starting point, and 
thus all fall on the Company's neck. For this reason their Honours 
in their despatch of 23rd August, 1661, ordered to make no more 
freemen, that is to say, here at the Fort or the Town that has 
been begun, but to get on with those who are such at present, 
without adding to their numbers, as fully mentioned in the 
despatch referred to. Corn-growers however may be multiplied. 
As far as lands can be found fit for the plough, I do not 
believe that there will be as many as 20 or 30 morgen for a grain 
farm, left between the Bosheuvel and the Forest of the free sawyers 
within the limits of the Company's circle, whilst outside it will be 
too hazardous by reason of the costliness of protection. No doubt 
some will a pply to you for some land here and there below and on 
the sides of the mountains, for vine and tree plantations, &c. , but 
in many cases we found that we had made a mistake, for they 
immediately come to the Company to fetch their bread corn, which 
reduces the supply considerably, whilst moreover many of that 
class annually abscond in the return ships with the sums which 
they owe the Company, so that nothing better will result from 
such plantations than that the Company itself shall keep them in 
hand. However hundreds of vineyards might annually be granted 
to some persons already permanently settled, just as we did, 
though few pay any attention to them, hence they produced very 
little. The same is the case with the small trees. 

All the free corn-growers, both the old and the new ones, have 
each been provided for his farm work with 12 draught oxen for 
their ploughs, and those, who had been the first to begin, have in 
addition received six, and where there was a wife, twelve cows at 
f 12 each, and also 25 sheep at f3 on credit, as breeding stock. 
The older farmers have however by breeding been more abund- 
antly provided, as will appear from the lists sent to Patria and 



238 

1662. India, the originals of which are in the office here. This has also 
5th May ^ een P om ted out to you on the farms everywhere, so that all these 
having, with the aforesaid 12 oxen, double spans for their ploughs, 
are well provided for cultivating their lands. It will, however, be 
necessary, should one of their beasts die, to accommodate them 
with another at the same price. This rule we always observed to 
give the agriculturists more encouragement, and put them on their 
legs the sooner. Moreover, whenever the Company required cattle 
for the ships, we took over from them all their dry cows, giving 
them in exchange others that were with calf, which promotes the 
increase and renders them a particularly beautiful help. 

And in order to get the cattle and sheep into better condition 
than they are when obtained from the natives, their leanness being 
so greatly complained of by the officers of the ships, it was decided, 
in order to improve this as much as possible, by our Resolution of 
the 21st February of last year adopted to the particular satis- 
faction of the freemen, and for the reasons fully mentioned in it 
sometimes to sell to all the freemen by public auction, and to the 
highest bidder, for cash, the ewes bartered by the Company, and to 
buy from them in turn for the ships the wethers which they have 
fattened, and to pay for them at 2 stivers per Ib. alive. This 
has already been put into practice, and we have, as a result, seen 
the satisfaction caused to the ships by the fatness of the sheep, 
whilst we are not less pleased with the willingness of the freemen 
to deliver the animals to the Company in that manner, instead of 
otherwise selling them secretly to one person or another, and 
preventing us from supplying a really good sheep to the ships- 
see our reasons, f ally given in the .Resolution mentioned, which 
also states that for the cows and the fatted animals one-third more 
would be paid to them than the sum for which they had bought 
them (at the sale) . We hope that you will be satisfied with this 
course, or arrange matters otherwise, in such a manner as 
you may deem to be better or more serviceable. 

In how far the freemen have been indulgently treated, you will 
see from the conditions which they have entered into with Mr. 
Commissioner Ryckloff van Groens, and in our marginals attached 
to them ; copies of which have been sent to Fatria and India for 
their information. They will also serve the same purpose for 
yourself, so that it will be unnecessary to say more about it here, 
a copy being filed here among the archives of last year (slapers) . 

Coming now to the trade with the natives, that is, thank 
God ! on a much better footing than it has ever been before, as the 
result of the knowledge and experience more and more obtained 
by us of many different tribes of the far interior, whose names, as 
well as the localities in which they are settled are briefly men- 
tioned here below, in order the better to understand their qualities, 
&o. 



239 

We therefore have 1662 - 

The Goringhaiconas, of whom Herry had himself called Captain, 5th May. 
being beach rangers or fishermen, and who, exclusive of their 
wives and children, do not number more than 18, and maintain 
themselves without the least cattle of any description by fishing on 
the rocks round about the Cape along the seashore, thus adding 
considerably to the food supply and furnishing a great accommo- 
dation to the Company's people and the freemen, and also render- 
ing good service by washing, cleaning, scouring and fetching fuel, 
and doing other kinds of housework for the householders. Some 
of them have even placed their little daughters dressed after our 
fashion, in the service of the married. They refuse however to be 
kept strict, and desire to be left with a slack rein, it being 
apparently contrary to their natures to suffer proper control. 
Some of them, however, are beginning to fashion themselves fairly 
in conduct, whilst the Dutch language is beginning to strike such 
deep roots in old and young, that nothing private can any longer 
be spoken before them, and just as little before the 

Gorinyhaiquas, whose chief is named Gogosoa and who are the 
Caapmen. Exclusive of wives and children they number about 
300 capable of bearing arms, and are fairly well provided with 
cattle for their own needs, but as they are beginning to be some- 
what merchantlike, their stock is increasing considerably, especially 
also because as they are sharp enough and continually play us the 
trick, when any stranger arrives from the interior with fairly 7ood 
cattle, to pretend to be brokers and conductors to us of that 
stranger, exchanging their leanest and worst cattle for the 
good animals of the latter, and after that, calling on us with the 
stranger, claim to have been the cause of his arrival and to have 
allured him hither from the far interior, &c. Thus they manage 
to enrich themselves more and more, and are becoming worse and 
more cunning every day. They are also those who pretend that 
this Cape land has during all the centuries been their own. and 
seeing that we had permanently established ourselves here as 
agriculturists, according to their own statement, made war 
against us in 1659, in consequence of the rude behaviour towards 
them of some of the freemen. But on seeing, contrary to their 
hopes, that we, when attacked at a time when we were at our 
weakest, were able to repulse them, and not to be driven away so 
easily, and that in the meanwhile the chief or king of the Saldan- 
hars had seized his opportunity in those troublesome times to ally 
himself to us (from wuom and from many other persons they had 
previously continually endeavoured by every means to divert us) 
they 2 years ago prayed once more for peace to be made with us. 
In this they were joined by the 

Goravhouquas, or tobacco thieves, so called because they had once 
stolen the tobacco of some of the freemen from the field. The 



240 

!662. mine of their Chief is Choro. Your Honour has visited the camps 
5th Ma ^ koth these tribes. Exclusive of women and children those 
Gorachouquas number from six to seven hundred men capable of 
bearing arms, and are about six times richer in cattle than the 
previously mentioned tribe. Sometimes a few animals are obtained 
from them, but that does not count for much. Since the war vatli 
the Caapmen they have been living near or among the latter, a 
day's journey's distance, mostly to the N.E. from this, behind the 
Leopard Mountain Range, not far from, and, as it seems, always 
under the wings of, the Saldanhars. During this month, however 
(April), both have again come to live at the foot of the " Bosheuvel," 
under our protection, because it seems that some dispute has arisen 
between them and the Saldanhars, who are the 

Cochoquas, consisting of two divisions under two Chiefs or 
Choequees, that is to say, Kings ; the first of whom is named 
Oedasoa, a quiet man, whose wife died last year. She was the 
sister of Eva the Interpretess, who is also a niece of Harry, and 
has been since her childhood educated by us in our house, and 
speaks the Dutch language almost as perfectly as a Dutch daughter, 
so that much service is obtained from her as interpretess, though 
sometimes she is inclined to pin an untruth to our sleeve, hence 
some things should be received even from her with caution. 

The second Chief of the Saldanhars or Cochoquas is named 
Q-onnoma, and is often a distance away from the first. Together 
the tribe consists of some thousands of men, and generally occupies 
the country in the middle, opposite to us, at the foot of the African 
Mountain Range, extending from about False Bay to Saldanha 
Bay. They, however, do not always remain in one spot, but move 
about from one place to another for a change of pasture. With 
this Oedasoa and Gronnoma we seem to have a permanent alliance, 
and a beautiful yea, a continuous ! cattle trade mostly in 
sheep, however, and, therefore not so many cattle so that we 
have never been able previously to afford such a continuous 
and abundant refreshment to the Company's ships out of them as 
we are being able to do now. Therefore, it has been a great help ; 
but we have never been able to obtain any cattle worthy of the 
name from the 

Little Chariguriquas, a tribe about as numerous as the Grorin- 
ghaiquas, who chiefly dwell between Saldanha Bay and midway 
between Robbeu and Dassen Islands, about four or five hours walk 
from the sea coast inland. They had been subjects of Oedasoa, 
but had rebelled against him. They used to be his catrle herds, 
but afterwards they appropriated all the animals to themselves. 
For that reason all the other tribes of Hottentoos refuse to 
acknowledge them as a people who have a Choeque or Hunque, 
that is, a hereditary King or Chief. However, their situation is 
such at all times that they can take care of themselves, as the 
result of the fear which Oedasoa is said to have of the 



241 

Namaquas y from whom the great Chariguriquas have sought and 
obtained intercourse and alliance. This tribe has lately, after a 
long journey, been discovered by our people. It is mightily rich 
in cattle. The men and women are of very tall stature, almost like 
half giants. They are dressed in beautifully prepared skins. 
Further particulars regarding them will be found in our Journal 
of the llth March, 1661, in which are inserted the notes of the 
travellers. It will, therefore, not be necessary to make a long 
story of it here. The narrative will also show the tribe's very 
favourable disposition towards ourselves, and that it seems to be 
one that has trading connections with other tribes still further 
inland ; so that, through it, we have the course so far open, that 
only now we shall be able thoroughly to begin to discover something 
better than cattle only. Of these people, more will be coming 
down to all appearance than will be desired. Thus, after having 
laboured for ten long years, we hope that we have opened for you 
a happy path towards the North of this Africa. About the end of 
September another expedition must be despatched in that direction, 
in order to be able to cross the waterless region, about that time 
probably still moist from the rains, and so reach the river where 
there is a city, mentioned in Linschoten's Map as Vigiti Magna, 
and where there is quite a different people from the Hottentoos, 
which we have already referred to above, and to which we now 
again refer, namely, the people found by us to be the richest, and 
dwelling mostly in an Easterly direction from this, along the East 
coast of Africa, where they sometimes visit some of the bays, as we 
have discovered from their own statements. We have only com- 
menced to know them thoroughly for two years. They are the 

Chainouquax, whose Choque or King is called Sousoa, with whom 
we have made a very good and fairly permanent friendship, and 
from whom we have since already bartered a considerable number 
of cattle as well as a fair quantity of sheep. These are the people 
who will be able to supply us abundantly. They took their leave 
from us last year in order to return again later on (according to 
their promise) with a larger quantity of cattle, the happy success 
of which we heartily wish you in the interest of the Company, as 
well as that, from the accounts of all the Hottentoos, you may 
shortly also reach the 

Heumquas, from whom an emissary had last year already arrived 
at the Fort with news from his lord that the latter also intended to 
pay a visit to the Sourt/e (that is to say, ''Lord of the Land") of 
the Dutch (for thus we are mostly called here), with much cattle, 
in order to obtain, just as his friends, the Chainouquas, a portion 
of our merchandise. This would be a most desirable thing, as 
these people are mightily rich in cattle, and have a particular 
liking for that perishable article, tobacco, as well as certain red 
beads in the Company's stores, for which cattle is bartered 



242 

10>2 - remarkably cheaply, from these tribes. Of these people, the 
h MIV. Hottentoos, living in this neighbourhood speak so highly, as if, 
now that Sousoa has left, they will come down with such largo 
troops, that we will run short of merchandise. But there need be 
no fear of this ; on the contrary we should hope that they will 
come, as well as the 

Hancumqttas, according to the hopes given us about them. 
These Sancumquas, as we have always been able to under- 
stand, must be the greatest and most powerful of all the 
dirty Hottentoo tribes, living like all the others in huts of 
matting, but of a much larger size. They live permanently on the 
same spots, where they plant and dry a certain plant which they 
call " dacha," which they bruise and eat, and which makes them 
very silly, just as in India is done by opium, which is the reason 
that they long for the very strongest tobacco. The chief of the 
tribe seems to be the Paramount Chief over all the Choequees or 
Kings, and is called Choebaha. which seems to mean Emperor or 
at least Chief King or Lord over all the others. 

Those who are residing even still further than this supreme Lord 
of the Hottentoos, and of the same race, but richer even than all 
those dwelling on this side of this Paramount Chief are named 
first the 
Cbamaqitns, then follow the * all like the Hamumquan subsisting, 



Omar/lias, 
Atiquas, 
Jfoutuiiquas, and 



besides their numberless herds of 
cattle, on their dacha plantations, 
dwelling in permanent plaoes, in 



Chauquas J large mat huts, dressed like all 

other Hottentoos in skins, and equally dirty, &c. 

After these, is said to begin, but beyond the River Vigiti Hagna, 
and in an Easterly direction, another race of men, called by all 
the above-mentioned Hottentoos 

Choboqua or Cobot/a, who live in permanent dwellings made of 
wood, clay and other material, and also subsist on cattle and wear 
clothes. (Note that the Hottentoo terminations of qua and na in 
the names of tribes, have the same meaning, e.g.. Choboqua or Oobona, 
Namaqua or Namana, and so forth. We conjecture that they are the 
people of Monomotapa, as Eva, the interpretess, often tried to make 
us believe, for according to the translation of Sousoa's statement, 
there was Chory, that is, gold among the Choboquas, as well as 
white stones, proofs of which he has promised to bring with him 
when he returns ; as well as one of that nation ) We hope that 




Lions so tame and use them as we do dogs, and that among them 
also will be found chory or gold and white stones. We trust that 
in course of time further knowledge will be obtained on all these 



243 

matters as the result of diligent inquiry either through themselves 
or through some adventurous spirits of our own who may be 
sufficiently willing to search for them, as the roads have, in 
consequence of the alliance and friendship made with the said 
Hottentoo tribe, become at present so safe, that our people will 
everywhere meet with particularly friendly treatment from them. 
Hence we intended, if we remained here, to send thither, when the 
rainy season was over, and in the commencement of the dry days, 
a party of volunteers, to see whether it would be possible to find 
the aforesaid Choboquas also, just as last season we found the long 
sought for Namaquas, mentioned above. 

But it is needless to doubt that the Saldanhar, Oedasoa, being the 
greatest chief among those in the neighbourhood of the Cape, as 
already pointed out, is as jealous on this subject, as the Caapmen 
used to be, when we endeavoured to become more closely 
acquainted with Oedasoa, fearing that as a result of further 
discoveries on our part, they would be less esteemed. On 
the contrary this may be taken for granted, as we have already 
begun to observe it in him. We have, however, endeavoured to 
keep it out of his head by means of friendly and affable treatment, 
and this course it will be highly necessary to pursue, for should we 
show want of faith in him, no profit for the Company can be 
looked forward to, hence the maintenance of friendship is the 
best course, though he, as well as the Goringhaiquas or Caapmen 
(who for a long while succeeded in keeping us in ignorance 
concerning him) have precisely the same object in view, viz. . to 
keep us in the dark regarding the above-mentioned other tribes, 
and make us suppose and believe that he was the very greatest 
Lord of this country. But seeing now that we have at last found 
the Namaquas (another and more active sort of people than the 
Hottentoos, as already observed) ; and having been told that we 
had been entertained by them so well, and that they had promised 
to come hither, whether he liked it or not, but that beforehand 
they had shown their willingness to be reconciled to him, and for 
that purpose they would let two or three accompany our people 
hither, in order to show their willingness to come to an agreement 
and make peace with him, and so end their long standing dispute 
(as the aforesaid Namaquas had not dared to follow him hither, 
through fear of our coming to his assistance), the aforesaid Oedasoa 
allowed himself to be so far persuaded by us, that on the 21st 
March last year he sent three of his people, in company of our 
men, as commissioners to the Namaquas, in order to establish a 
good peace as mediators between them. This succeeded according 
to our wishes, so that in travelling and trading the one not only 
leaves the other unmolested, but they act and associate among them- 
selves as good friends, for as already mentioned, the Namaquas 
are a different race from these Hottentoos, being of much taller 



244 

6 *-- statue without being besmeared, and clothed in finely prepared 
Mi>- hairless skins, sleeping at night on others with the hair on. Their 
hair, though like that of the Caffres, is long and elegantly plaited 
like locks, with many ornaments of copper, iron and red beads, 
also cowries or ' bougys,' which they are very fond of, also of red 
caps and ditto cloth from which they make them. 

Ivory also seems to be more abundant among them than among 
the Hottentoos, as may be observed from the very thick arm 
rings which they wear of it on their arms, as well as from the rare 
plates of the same article on a beautifully pleated and prepared 
skin worn like a little apron before their private parts. Samples of 
each have been sent home as proofs to our Lords and Masters, and 
two similar ivory plates are in the office here. It may therefore 
happen that a trade in ivory and other kinds of merchandise from 
the interior, might be established with or through them, a result 
very much to be desired in order to reimburse the Company for its 
expenses here. 

And as, from the calculation of the courses and distances taken 
and travelled by our land parties, we believe that we may con- 
jecture that this nation is living not very far from the sea and in 
the neighbourhood of the bay named Angra das Voltas by Lin- 
sehoten, and situated between the 29th and 30th degrees to the 
north of this, our idea was that, if we remained here, to send 
thither on a favourable opportunity either a Cape galiot or ai\y 
other small vessel that could be spared, in order to investigate 
this matter, and find out whether that Bay might not be found 
suitable, as regards drink-water and refreshments, or soil fit for 
the purpose, as a harbour of refuge for the Company's return 
ships, when perhaps blown past this Bay by storms from the 
S.S. East on their homeward voyage from India in February or 
March, when those gales are generally at their worst, and in case 
of finding any ivory or other merchandize (which it would be too 
difficult to transport hither overland), to establish a trading station 
there or otherwise, as circumstances might in time suggest. We 
therefore bring this also to your notice, that you may further 
consider it, and adopt such measures as you may, according to 
circumstances, deem the most practicable in the interests of the 
Company. But the little vessel must first be sent to Madagascar 
for rice and whatever more the Lords Masters have ordered to be 
done there, or may hereafter order to be done. 

It is especially necessary that you should always see your 
way clear to keep peace with the Hottentoos, with one tribe as 
well as with another, not only to keep the inland roads safe for 
making further discoveries, but also for enabling the tribes men- 
tioned above to come down to us continually without apprehension, 
coming as they do with cattle as refreshments for the passing 
vessels of the Company. For that purpose, in the first place, more 



than an ordinary liberal entertainment, &c., will do a great deal . 1662m . 
of good, and especially also when trifling disputes between our 5th 'jj v . 
people (especially the ships' crews) and these natives, are not too 
seriously taken up. but rather purposely overlooked, as if we were 
ignorant of them, especially at first, as they would be so frightened 
that they would flee inland with all their possessions, and make the 
other tribes also so timid that they also would remain away com- 
pletely, so' that thus you would suddenly be deprived of the present 
daily trade with the Saldanhars and all the other natives already 
enumerated. The best advice, therefore, which I can give on this 
point is that you should keep your thoughts in one direction, and 
keep them as steadfast as a wall, viz,, always to remain without 
the least estrangement from the Caapmen or Goringhcuquas, and 
tobacco thieves or Grorachouquas, as well as from Oedasoa, the 
King of the Saldanhars, who all are your neighbours here. This 
can be done, besides the friendly treatment mentioned, by keeping 
such a sharp and strict watch over the Company's and the free- 
men's cattle, &c., by means of horsemen and other outside guards 
(which have already been brought so far into order) that no 
opportunity, fair or open, be given them to drive them off without 
endangering their own lives. For that reason a very strict watch 
should always be kept, as when they see even the least chance they 
will not refrain from stealing our cattle. For the rest, should 
they sometimes meet one or other simpleton from the vessels, 
spying about in an out of the way place, and rob him of his 
tobacco, bread and copper or iron buttons of his clothes, this 
should not be looked upon as of such great importance, but might 
be easily settled. The quarrels also which occur between them 
and the ships' crews, which sometimes even go so far as stone- 
throwing, and which happen of tenor than with those residing here, 
need also not be too seriously taken, because our people, playing 
aud wrestling with them, and sometimes being handled more 
roughly than they are willing to bear, lose their temper and abuse 
them as black stinking beasts, &c., so that they are very often the 
cause of the quarrels, as the natives can understand such and 
many other Dutch words very well, aud accordingly reply that 
they are as much human beings as the Dutch, and so forth ; so 
that 1 mean to say that our common people are often, when we 
are not present, the principal cause of many quarrels, which bring 
their own troubles, for these natives are again to be pacifier), 
and this can mostly be done by nominally putting our own people 
in the wrong, ind soothing them with a friendly chat that 
those whom they complain of will be punished on board in some 
wuy or another, &c. And though this may appear to be somewhat 
improper in the case of many of our people, it is most urgently 
necessary, in order to remain in peace and quiet with these natives, 
and hence this course has always been observed by me, and 



246 

16*2. enforced at all times ; and should you be able to adopt a better 
fe M v one ln tbis as well as in other matters, the result cannot be other- 
wise than of still greater advantage to the Company, for in case of 
estrangement you will not keep one Hottentoo here or in the 
neighbourhood; and therefore friendship with those mentioned 
above should always be kept in mind as one of the principal 
maxims, as in that case trade will not only continue to flourish 
more and more, but the roads will in every direction be safe for 
travelling, in order to be enabled to search for what has not yet 
been found, as already mentioned above, and as we have found 
our masters and their Honours in Batavia are best pleased 
with ; for from their general and private despatches of last year it 
appears that they are not displeased with journeys to the interior 
for exploration purposes, but on the contrary they order us with all 
earnestness to attend to this with all zeal, so that I cannot dissuade 
you from continuing those expeditions on favourable occasions 
when the monsoon allows it ; but on the contrary strongly advise 
you to attend to it with zeal, at the times above mentioned. 

The charts and notes of the travellers, &c., as well as those of 
the lands, the fort, gardens and coasts here, are all in their places 
in the office here, properly indexed, as well as all other books and 
manuscripts, and left in your custody, that you may especially 
study those of the coast in the neighbourhood to see whether you 
cannot make any improvements in them for the greater security 
of the Company's ships when calling in this Bay, as the reports of 
some skippers, when arriving from sea (and they should know 
best), appear to have caused great anxiety to our masters on this 
subject. Hence, if anything can be discovered that will afford 
greater security, their Honours will not take it amiss. 

The roadstead also should be cleared of all lost anchors lying on 
various spots, as often the ships chafe their cables to pieces on 
them and thus great inconvenience may be experienced. Hence 
we did not wish to pass this by but draw your attention to it as a 
matter of great moment. What trouble we have already taken in 
this matter, and how already we have recovered various anchors, 
we have mentioned to the Directors in our last year's despatch in 
which we also suggested, as we believed, a better way in which to 
effect this object. 

For the use of such of the return ships that may require them, 
and call here annually, there are stored in the cable house four 
new heavy cables, which we have been ordered to exchange every 
year for the new ones taken out of the ships arriving here from the 
Fatherland, in order to prevent them from rotting. They are 
sometimes also to be hauled through salt water, or wetted with 
sea water. They are lying here now more than a year, and, 
therefore, you should bear in mind to exchange them for others as 
soon as the first large shipci arrive. 



247 

The protecting fence for preventing the cattle from being driven lh62 - 
away, and which we commenced two years ago by planting bittor 5^ ^ a 
almonds, and which at present has been continued since the rains 
began to fall, as was done last year in order to be able to complete 
it, is a very necessary work, as otherwise every year heavy expenses 
will have to be incurred in repairing wooden fences, besides the 
work which would be entailed. Most likely in four or five years' 
time the plants will have thoroughly struck root and grown so thick 
and into each other that it will not be possible for any Hottentoos 
to drive any cattle through them. This will afford a great sense 
of security and completely enclose, as in a half-moon, the whole 
establishment of the Company, as well as the lands and pastures 
of the freemen. Only here and there at the cavalry guard nothing 
more than a bar will be required as an opening through which to 
let the Hottentoos pass (to which they are already accustomed by 
means of the fence). The same passage will also serve for the 
freemen, in order to fetch their supplies of salt, reeds, fish> game, 
and other things that they require. 

We also feel a greater sense of security therefrom that the Hot- 
tentoos are obliged to pass through the said bar past the watch- 
house, " Keert de Koe," straight to the fort, so that their approach 
to the dwellings of the agriculturists is completely cut off from 
them, and they no longer have an opportunity to study how to rob 
them of their cattle as they did before. And as the one as well as 
the other is now accustomed to this path, it will be advisable not 
to make any alteration in this respect, as the Company will thus 
the better retain the cattle trade in her own hands, which other- 
wise will be injuriously undermined and spoilt by the freemen, 
who will cause the prices to become exceedingly high as the result 
of their ugly transactions. It is therefore my advice that no 
attempt should be made, now that the natives have with their own 
free will become thus accustomed, ever to open other or broader 
roads for them, but that the bars should be retained in the form of 
gates to the area taken possession of by the Company. For that 
purpose it will therefore be urgently necessary, as soon as the 
almond trees shall have been planted as a protecting fence, that the 
pega pega hedge shall also be repaired, from the watch-house "Hout 
den Bui," as far as the Bosbergen, inclusive of the forests near the 
free woodsawyer, Leenderfc Cornelisz, of Zevenhuysen, where the 
said protecting fence was begun. Thus the cattle, as is already the 
ease at present, will always be within the limits of the Liesbeek 
liiver (which is full of wild palmetto trees, and accordingly so 
much the more diffiicult to drive cuttle through) and thence inside 
the fence extending to the Fort, go as to remain in safety. The 
outer fence is being principally planted in order to enclose much 
more pasturage than what is at present existing in the circle 
marked off by the Company as its own. But above all it must not 



248 

1662. be neglected, as sooii as the seed com is in the ground and before 
6th Mv the rainy season ends, that, inside and outside the aforesaid planted 
almond trees, the land is ploughed the breadth of a rood, in order 
to stop the fires on that bare area, which are annually during the 
dry season, made by our free agriculturists as well as the Hot- 
tentoos, to burn the grass and so obtain green food for the 
cattle ; for these fires, as has often happened, passing over into the 
young plantations, either destroy the young trees or each time re- 
tard their growth. This deserves to be remembered that the work 
done at the indispensable fence be not in vain. 

And whereas toe pastures within the limits of the Liesbeek are so 
little that the Company's cattle are often compelled to graze beyond 
them, protected by strong guards of soldiers, which at present is again 
the case, and the cattle must be sent to a great distance ; and whereas, 
as I have personally pointed out to you, there is no more land 
inside through which a plough can be drawn, because of the stones 
here and there in the ground, so that it is unsuitable for raising 
corn, we are quite of the same opinion as the Hon. Commissioner 
van Groens, expressed in his instr actions, and adhere to it as a firm 
maxim that nowhere there can any more corn lands be given out, 
but that the whole area shall always remain a common pasture 
ground, otherwise there will always be no food for the cattle of the 
freemen as well as of the Company, which often obtains an 
abundance by barter, so that the animals would die of hunger, 
many having died annually from that cause. Having, therefore, 
experienced so much on this head, we have not been able to refrain 
expressly to point it out to you fully as a warning. 

For the same reasons no land should be given out between the 
*' Uitwyck " and the Fort, though here and there have been found 
fairly good plots, for, being situated too near the Table Valley, 
all the corn would be beaten out of the ears by the heavy south- 
easters and the people ruined, as shown by the attempts made by 
us five years in succession, and always to our loss. Nevertheless, 
many will ask you for those plots as they have asked us, but their 
only object is, not the raising of corn, but to lie there in the 
passage of the Hotu-utoos, and barter from the latter their cattle 
in a clandestine manner. 

Between the "Bosheuvel" and the forests of the free wood 
sawyer, Leendert Cornelisz, about 20 or 30 morgen of corn laud 
might still be given out to the first applicants. Beyond the Biver 
Liesbeeck there are also about 20 morgen, between the " "Uytwijk " 
and the Redoubt " Coornhoop." These have been given out by 
us a little while ago. We do not know whether there are any 
more, viz. : as large and without rocks and stones in them, so that 
a plough may be passed through them. 

To give out lands outside the Company's circle, is on account of 
the expense connected with a garrison for the protection of the 



249 

freemen, altogether unadvisablu, and even if the latter wished to 
live there at their own risk, we have never dared to permit them, 5tll 
as they would at once lose their cattle, and be robbed of them even 
by our best friends, unless there were anybody mad enough and 
with money enough to risk his own capital in the attempt ; but it 
is altogether unadvisable to do so at the Company's expense, and 
in the manner in which the agriculturist is set up here. This 
should therefore never be thought of, as the Hottentoos would not 
neglect the least opportunity for driving off the people's cattle, as 
we have fully advised their Honours in Patria. Hence we would 
not dare to accommodate anyone with cattle, even for his money, 
should he want any for farming there, because he would at once 
lose them, and then be troubling the Company for others. This 
would naturally each time retard the increase too much, and too 
long a time would elapse before the best cattle (which hitherto 
have been unavoidably given to the freemen for their farm work) 
will be available for the Company's ships for their better satisfac- 
tion than has been the case hitherto. We hope that you will be 
more fortunate in this, as the free agriculturists, as already men- 
tioned, are all fairly well provided for their ploughs, and as there 
is no more land over, except for one farm, which will not require 
more than 12 oxen and as many cows, all the rest that are bartered 
or bred in future will be only used for refreshing the ships and 
feeding this residency, thus saving the salted meat and pork, 
which we were sometimes obliged to take out of the ships, and 
which are so very welcome in India ; so that their Honours there, 
as well as those in the Fatherland, will not be displeased but be 
particularly and much better satisfied, than we have been able to 
bring about for the reasons stated, for by means of the trade, 
about the dry season, with the Chainouquas, Namaquas and other 
tribes from the far interior you will only now have your hands 
thoroughly free in obtaining cattle. 

The pigs have already so multiplied among the freemen that 
the latter are freely selling them to each other, and already draw- 
ing good food supplies from them for their households, whilst they 
even sell some to the ships. We have never checked this, but 
rather winked at it, because of the much, money which they get 
for them, and that, in consequence, tluy may be encouraged to 
breed more, as also fowls, diioks and such like, with which every- 
one is so finely supplied, thai for a long while already they have 
served as a great recreation for the men of the passing ships, to 
whom they sell them, as well as all kinds of vegetables, ground 
and garden fruit, at their pleasure. 

Only the corn raised by them, and which they do not require 
for their own sustenance, the y are bound to deliver to the Com- 
pany, in order that the older established freemen may reduce their 
debts, and the more lately settled do the same. 



250 

i62. According to the express orders of our Lords Masters, they are 

Mh yiay a ^ 80 * deliver their surplus cattle and sheep to the Company in 
the same manner, in payment of what has been given them on 
credit for their ploughs, though many among them have clandes- 
tinely sold and conveyed them to the ships. But this will now no 
longer be done so extensively, in consequence of the price fixed for 
fattened sheep and cattle, so that from the present flocks of the 
freemen next year, particularly beautiful wethers will be avail- 
able. Besides, so many animals may now be expected from the 
trade (it not being necessary to supply the freemen with any 
more), that you will have your hands so free that, in my opinion, 
within a short time the animals of the freemen may be completely 
excused, and left at their own free disposal, so that they may sell 
them to whomsoever they like, except to foreign nations, out 
of whose hands you must as much as possible endeavour to 
keep everything, especially cattle, civilly refusing everything on 
the plea of your own necessities, in accordance with the orders of 
our Lords Principals ; but fetching of water, fishing along shore, 
buying fowls, ducks, vegetables and other garden produce from 
the freemen is permitted to them as much as they are to the 
Company's ships. 

Nor shall they sell any corn to strangers, because we are too much 
in want of it ourselves here ; nor do their Honours desire that they 
shall be accommodated with any, even the least ships' requirements 
or munitions of war, and much less with men. 

On the contrary, the troubles caused them politically in their 
voyages cannot be otherwise than serviceable to the Company. 
An opposite course cannot be otherwise than injurious. 

The ten iron guns saved from the wrecked French vessel the 
Hareschal their Honours in Batavia and lately our Lord Masters 
at home have ordered us properly to take care of. We were, 
however, authorised to break up the wreck (on the keel of which, 
according to the French, there were still 14 lying), and use the 
material for the benefit of the Company. However, during the 
night of the 6th March last, it was completely destroyed by fire, 
without our having been able clearly to discover the cause. Some 
of the woodwork has for the present been principally used for 
building the wooden redoubt Sant Hoop between Duinhoop and 
the Fort. It has now been further completed with Cape wood, 
in order, in accordance with our resolution of the oth April, 1661, 
the better to protect the shore by its means, and especially to 
prevent the landing of cannon between the Suit River and the 
Fort, which is somewhat more difficult to do ut other places. 
Moreover, it is all round the Cape so rocky, and the breakers are 
so heavy that boats would hardly venture to land, much less land 
cannon ; and should anyone do so in the Hout Bay, that would be 
of no account whatever, as it is impossible to convey any cannon 



251 

thence across the mountains to this place. It will also be very 
difficult to convey hither any cannon from the other side of the 
Salt Hiver, because of the many marshes which have to be crossed, 
so that, without the force of cannons or evil treachery, the Fort 
will not be so easily taken ; hence, in our opinion (under correc- 
tion), care must principally be taken to prevent the landing of 
cannon, as well as men, as much as possible. For that purpose 
the bushes growing in the Downs afford fine cover for our men, 
who could in case of necessity retire to the Redoubts or Fort, so 
that, in my opinion (subject to correction), a very considerable 
force would have to come, in order to drive the Company from 
this place. 

How the Company's Fort was, by order of our Lords Masters, 
called the " Grood Hope," how it has been quite completed and 
with what serviceable brick houses and stores it has been furnished, 
we have personally shown you, also where the other strong places, 
stores, depots, hospitals, mill, stables, garners, corn lands, gardens, 
and everything else belonging to the establishment, are situated as 
marked on the chart filed among the books and papers of last year, 
copies of which were sent to Patria also. Besides there have been 
our daily conversations showing how everything had been arranged 
and is being kept in order. But to repeat all this here would 
make too long a paper; besides it is not always possible that 
opinions should agree, especially as regards buildings, &c., whilst 
time often requires changes in many things, so that we com- 
mend all the rest to your good care, that you may carry out 
everything with the least expense and to the best advantage of the 
Company. One thing, however, is still very necessary, that, only 
this first year, the gardens should be cultivated exactly in accordance 
with my directions, so as to proceed surely, that, as we now, 
you also may have ( an abundance of fruit when the India return 
fleet and the outward bound autumn and winter ships arrive here 
next year, for you might otherwise be grievously disappointed and 
seriously embarrassed, as the aforesaid ships mostly all arrive 
here between the half of February and the end of May at the 
latest, and therefore you will be pleased to follow my verbal 
directions as I have communicated them to you, that whatever 
experience may in the meanwhile teach you, may in the future be 
of service for securing an even greater abundance of cabbages, 
carrots, &c., for these should always be on hand in large 
quantities and the time of sowing and planting them more carefully 
attended to than any other garden produce, viz. : carrots, 
parsnips, and beet must be in the ground at the latest in the month 
of August, when the planting and pruning time for vines and 
ether trees follows. About the middle of September (planting 
trees all the time), a commencement is made with planting water 
melon, cucumber and other kind of melon seeds. In October 



16t;2 - cabbages are to be put into the ground, but this oan be done the 
5th MT. wn l e J ear through, though this month is the best for the purpose, 
in order to have an abundance of this and all other kinds of 
vegetables ready when the return squadron and most of the 
outward bound arrive here, as we have had them every year, and this 
year also in exceptionally large quantities. Of the aforesaid 
carrots beet and parsnips so many should be kept over in the 
ground for the May ships, in proportion to the number annually 
expected. This we have found to be the best course and we have 
always observed it, so that the sowing of these ground fruits in 
quality and quantity must be expressly taken in hand during the 
period of the year mentioned. 

And as regards wheat growing, the corn and rye seeds we have 
always endeavoured to have in the ground before the middle 
of June at the latest, then the barley, and then the oats, peas and 
beans. And as the rivers at the lower ends of the lands somewhat 
overflow their banks during the rainy season, we purposely set 
these lands aside, in order to plant them during the dry season, 
commencing with October (but only during dry years), with peas, 
Cadjangh, White Turkish, Haricot and Cassant beans, as well as 
Zealand climbers, which will then, but (mark) not sooner, succeed 
there in the most desirable manner. 

And that the Company's orchards be not too much exhausted by 
the planting of ground fruit, and the young trees deprived of 
nourishment, we have them kept quite pure and clean, planting 
here and there only some cabbage lettuce, or cabbages in small 
quantities for the men employed in the Company's corn fields and 
forest, and then, at the proper time, climbers and white beans every- 
where among the trees, from which a considerable crop ia obtained 
annually, which affords a pleasant refreshment to the saloons of 
the passing ships, without causing the least injury to tho young 
trees and pays for the wages of the orchard men. 

The refreshments out of the Company's gardens are every day 
distributed among the Company's ships, as much as the men like 
or are able to eat, viz. : Cabbages and all other kinds of vegetables 
and herbs, as long as they are here ; and when they leave, every 
large vessel always takes away with her for the voyage carrots, 
beet and parsnips, covering more than a hundred roods of laud, 
because they can be kept for some time ; also hundreds of drum- 
ket.d cabbages and other kinds of greens and herbs, as niucn as 
they desire, as there is always an abundance at hand as well as water 
and other kinds of melons if in season. Each ship also takes two 
large tubs with horse radish, which is a very useful root, and should 
therefore be attended to and continually planted. Moreover it is 
an express order of the Masters that horseradish should be planted, 
though many think so little of it that they will hardly take them 
on board. 



253 

And as their Honours in Patria can now always and never 
untimely, obtain here an abundance of so many varieties of garden 5th 
produce for refreshing their ships, and have accordingly ordered 
that for that reason all their vessels are to call here, and that their 
delay here will not be counted as regards the premium, but 
deducted, they have also expressty ordered that particular 
care shall be taken that their ships do not delay here too long, 
but having been well refreshed within a reasonable time, and 
having taken in water, be despatched at once. The Hon. 
Ryckloff van Goens, in his instructions fixed the period at 10 days 
(should the weather be favourable), and this has been found to be 
ample. We therefore mention the matter here that it may be 
remembered and attended to, that is, in the case of large ships, as 
the yachts and ilutes will generally be able to clear earlier, as they 
never bring so many sick as the large vessels. These sick who 
have been left here by previous vessels, after their recovery are to be 
sent on to Batavia, to take the place of other sick left here by 
later vessels. 

The return ships lie here ordinarily from 18 to 20 days, because 
they have a long voyage before them and are first to be thoroughly 
refreshed here. Their earlier or later departure is left to the 
decision of the Commander of the Fleet, who is generally also 
Commissioner for Cape affairs and has to be informed of every- 
thing connected with the Company's establishment here, in 
accordance with the orders annually received from India on the 
subject, that he may be able to report to our Lords Masters in 
Patria. 

Besides the garden produce (of which there is always more than 
enough, or than can be consumed) there are, according to the transfer 
made (to you), as stock in hand, and for the purposes of refresh- 
ment, as well as for the ploughs of the Company, breeding 
purposes, &c., 278 old and young cattle, 489 sheep here on the 
continent and 170 on Robben Island, besides 300 pigs and 7 goats 
and kids, to which are daily off and on some are added by the 
Saldanhars, whilst apparently during the dry season the natives 
from the far interior, already mentioned, will bring on so many 
that one will be at his wits' end for depasturing them. 

Besides, there are among the freemen for their farming purposes, 
as well as for stockbreeding, &c., 300 head of cattle, more than 800 
sheep, and 100 pigs, so that the Cape remains at present fairly 
well supplied with 578 head of cattle, more than 1,400 sheep, some 
goats, and 400 pigs, which will in time produce a fine increase. 

Wax and honey the Hottentoos in the neighbourhood here have 
also now and then brought in from the veld ; and other natives from 
the interior have also promised to do the same. This traffic may 
be finely cultivated by giving an abundance of tobacco for it, in 
order in time to accustom them to larger quantities, so that we may 



254 

know what will result from it in future. For, without tobacco, 
jrsth May. hardly any trade can be carried on here, which, accordingly, is 
not a bad thing for the Company, as the consumption of that article 
is very great among all the natives, who get very fond of it when 
once they have had a taste of it, and madly yearn for it, as well as 
for Spanish wine and brandy, but rather Batavia aniseed arrack 
should be sent, because it is not of such fiery strength, and much 
friendship can be shown to these people with it, who can then be 
induced to come down to us with their cattle, especially when, 
after the barter is concluded, they are treated with a stomach full 
of bread or rice. 

The other goods which they like are plate copper and thin and 
thick copper wire, also red copper and other beads which are in the 
store. In course of time they may, however, be ghitted with these 
things, but their love for tobacco will last for ever and grow more 
and more, which, for the reasons mentioned, will be most desirable, 
as in time many other things will be procurable by its means from 
the interior. 

Besides the sheep already mentioned, Robben Island at its 
southern end is already fairly well stocked with rabbits, which 
have, however, been considerably reduced in number by the snakes, 
which know how to take the young out of the holes and swallow 
them. A few are still here in hutches, from the increase of which 
you will be able to refresh the friends that call here, as we have 
done. But, above all, they are not to be let out of their hutches, 
or planted here on the continent, as our Lords Masters have 
expressly forbidden it, as they would spoil the gardens here. Some 
may be placed on Dassen Island, however, that large quantities 
may be reared there. 

Horses have already (young and old) been bred by the Company 
to the number of 43. Ten of them have been trained under the 
saddle in the country as well as at the Fort. In a year's time 10 
or 12 more will be sufficiently capable and strong for work, so that 
a troop of 20 horsemen could always be kept in the country at the 
stations pointed out, besides those at the stable here at the Fort to 
be employed for other purposes, and which will also increase in 
number. By means of the horsemen the work here will be kept 
in such good order, and the natives under such control as may be 
desirable, without the necessity at any time of thinking of 
establishing anything more than the protecting fence already 
mentioned, and stables for the horsemen in the form of Ttedoiibts, 
as may be seen in the watchhouse, " Keert de Koe," which has been 
built in that manner. This may be copied in the same, or in any 
other cheaper way, as you may be able to manage. 

In course of time the horses will, become so abundant that the 
freemen may also be provided with them, and in case of necessity 
may be made use of for their own defence, as riding horses. In 



255 

case of European invasions, they will also serve a very useful 1662 - 
purpose, so that, in that respect also, matters will look up well <>th Ma 
here. 

The burghers and agriculturists, with their Dutch servants, 
have all been exercised in arms and formed into a military com- 
pany, under their officers, like the Company's garrison here, with 
a sergeant as chief, three corporals and a drummer, as was shown 
on your arrival here. 

And, in order to assist in deciding the faults and offences of the 
burghers, and pronounce sentence according to the orders decreed 
by the Hon. Van Gfoens, two of the most respected freemen have 
been selected as burgher councillors, who (should there be any 
cases against freemen) take session with us in Council for that 
purpose once a fortnight, on Saturdays. These, as well as the 
burgher military officers, will nominate a double number annually 
on May day as their successors, the drummer being excepted, who 
is elected by the Commander and Council, as well as replaced 
by another by the same body. Generally, however, one of the 
burgher councillors is continued in office for two years, in order not 
to have each time all inexperienced men or novices in the Council, 
in accordance with the Resolution adopted on this subject some 
years ago on May day, the perusal of which will inform you of the 
nature of the business, &c. For the aforesaid militia an ordinance 
has also been framed, and filed among the papers of last year in 
the office here, which can be amplified or amended in such a manner 
as you may deem to be necessary from time to time for the 
improvement, &c., of the Company. 

Exclusive of the sick, left here by the ships, the number of 
Company's servants at present amounts to 120 persons, who are 
employed as soldiers, agricultural labourers, gardeners, planters, 
smiths, carpenters, masons, mounted guards in the country, &c., 
according to the list filed in the office here, copy of which has been 
sent home to the Masters by the last return ships. This number, 
because of the horsemen, is considered sufficient to withstand the 
natives. It has thus been fixed, by consent and order of the 
Masters, in their despatch of the 7th May, 1661, and, should there 
be anything to be feared from Europe, our Masters are always so 
careful as to give us timely notice of it, accompanied with orders 
how we are to strengthen ourselves with men taken out of the 
arriving ships, &c. 

And that the Company's ships, when approaching this, may 
always know whether all is well here, and that there is no 
difficulty in their way, we have now, three years in succession, 
always written out with our own hands a secret signal, triplicates 
of which we sent to the Fatherland and duplicates to India, 
according to the minutes left in your hands, to be kept secret and 
preserved by you. We have also left you a cipher code fop 



256 

1664. conveying secret news to Patria and India, with English or 
5th Mav other foreign ships. On these two matters, especially the secret 
signal, very careful attention should be bestowed. 

Train' "oil is burnt on Dassen Island by the free Saldanha 
traders. It is required at Batavia by their Honours for the 
tanneries there, so that, in order to make the said traders more 
eager, we are at present paying them ten instead of eight guilders 
per half-aum. Thus their Honours at Batavia will be much better 
served. 

You are also to tame as many young ostriches for transmission 
to Batavia as their Honours may annually ask for. 

Also collect some of the yellow and red pigments and porcelain 
clay, of jwhich'an abundance can be obtained here, if they are asked 
for, but of this we as yet know nothing, as we did not receive the 
letters in charge of the Hon. Vlamingh. 

Nor would it be strange, as we have already begun to do, if, 
when an opulent cattle and sheep barter has been effected, the 
skins are collected, dried, well packed and shipped to Batavia in 
the outgoing ships. Should they fetch a price in Japan or else- 
where, the Cape expenses would be somewhat reduced. 

To maintain peace and prevent so many quarrels and angry 
disputes among the agriculturists, it would be well, as we 
intended, that everyone should mark off the boundaries of his 
land according to his title-deeds with a deeply ploughed furrow 
and an embankment, as it is impossible to induce them to leave 
the beacon poles in the ground, which they throw away continu- 
ally, or allow others to remove without endeavouring to prevent it. 

The servants of the Company as in India also receive board- 
money here. This the masters decided to continue in the 
manner arranged and ordered by us, as can be seen from the 
books in which are entered the monthly accounts of ordinary 
rations, and which entries are made on the first day of every 
month. Besides this, the men also receive 45 Ibs. rice, or 40 Ibs. 
fresh baked or 30 Ibs. hard ships' bread ; in the evening always a 
warm supper of garden produce, and in the morning each half a 
mutsjen of brandy, because it is cold here, and the men, the one 
as well as the other, have all to watch and work successively. 
The superintendents (basen) and others who receive much board- 
money and are exempt from keeping guard receive no brandy. 

The free woodsawyer, Leendert Cornelisz of Zevenhuysen, has 
for a long while rendered great service to the Company and the 
Colonists with his planks and other timber, both for building 
houses and the making of wagons, ploughs and many other 
implements. It may therefore serve as a memorandum that it is 
no longer necessary to requisition these things from the Father- 
land, as we have contracted with him to supply : 



257 



Planks of 1 to 2 inches per square Rhineland 

foot at . . . . . . 2 stivers. 

Planks of 3 to 4 inches per square Rhineland 

foot at . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Planks thicker than 4 inches per foot . . . . 6 

All of yellow, or other equally good wood. 
Inferior timber for less money. 

For a wagon without side planking 
and with 

plough 

harrow . . . . . . . . 

the back work of a plough . . 

an ox yoke 

a spade or shovel handle 

milk yoke 

large heavy wheelbarrow 

light do., to wheel soil and other things on the 

ramparts. Price still to be arranged. 
Repairing a wagon axle . . . . . . f2 10 

For a schamel . . . . . . . . f 1 5 

" voortangh " in a wagon . . . . f 2 

an " achtertangh " . . . . . . f 1 5 

Repairs to a plough, viz. : 
1 beam 
1 head (hoof t) 



1662. 



f30 

f36 

f!2 

f3 

HO 

f stivers. 

8 

15 

f5 



1 " rister 

1 wheel . . . . . . 

1 plough shaft, without wheels 

1 pole (disselboom) 

1 " tongh " 

1 " stert " 

1 " crop sche " 

Gun carriages (affuyten) per piece 

4 wheels of a wagon 

1 heavy wheel for a large wheelbarrow . . 

Palings like those with which the Fort is 
enclosed, 4 inches broad and 2 inches 
thick, properly sawn, per piece 



f2 
fl 
fO 
ft 
f2 
fO 
fO 
fl 
fO 
30 
f!8 
fl 





10 
15 
5 

10 
8 

10 

15 









3 stivers. 



The jetty, which is so very convenient for the water fetohers 
from the ships, should necessarily be lengthened fully 8 or 10 
roods into the sea, because at present, when it is low water, the 
large boats can sometimes hardly reach it. Moreover it will 
require repairs every year. 

The slaves learn here nothing but Dutch, and so do the 
Hottentoos, so that no other language is spoken here, and if this 
should remain the rule it will be a fine thing to let the Portuguese 

8 



258 

and others always stand dumb before the natives, and afford them 
5th May. ' ess cnance to seduce them, &c. 

Herry and Doman are generally staying about the Fort as in- 
terpreters, the first-named nominally for the Tobacco thieves, and 
the other for the Caapmen. They are treated by us with food and 
drink, and this custom might well be continued in order the more 
to attach them to the Company, and make them think less of evil 
practices, though I do not believe that, now that our stock of 
horses is increasing, they will any longer attempt anything, if 
only a proper eye be kept on the mounted guards outside. 

We have already mentioned how the interpretress Eva is kept on 
and entertained here. We have also explained it to you verbally. 
She is mainly employed in our intercourse with the Saldanhars, and 
principally with those coming from the far interior. 

Not thinking otherwise than that everything has been sufficiently 
mentioned here in detail, we do not know what more to say except 
briefly to repeat that for the service of the Hon. Company here, in 
the first place the most useful and principal things to attend to are: 

1. That we should always strive to live and trade peacefully 

with the natives, and at the same time to penetrate 
further and further into the continent for the purpose 
aforesaid. 

2. Continually to have on hand sufficient supplies of refresh- 

ments for the ships. 

3. The necessary breeding of cattle, sheep and pigs. &c. " 

4. And the further development of agriculture, as far as 

practicable, promoting it more and more, and keeping it 
in being for feeding this residency, that we may require 
so much less from outside. 

5. Also the continuation of the cultivation of the olive, which 

our Lords Masters in their letter of the 30th September last 
so earnestly impressed on us ; as well as the planting of 
all kinds of Fatherland fruit-trees, especially the orange, 
apple, lemon and shaddock. This has been begun at the 
" Bosheuvel," in order, in course of time, to be obtained 
thence in whole wagon loads to serve as refreshments for 
the ships during the voyage. There they are protected 
from the violent south-east winds, and, moreover, the 
spot is deemed the best for the purpose in the whole of 
the Cape, in accordance with our Resolution specially 
adopted on this head on the 18th July, 1661. For the 
same reason the olive is being planted there in multitudes, 
the layers, as well as those of the lemon and orange, to 
be taken from the parent stems, are all ready to be 
planted in May, in order to strike firmer root during the 
wet season. But for planting tha Dutch fruit trees, July 
and August are time enough. 



259 

Having now (I hope) explained in detail everything according 1662 
to the intention of (the Lords Masters as well as of the Hon. the 5th 
Governor-General and Councillors of India, yon will be pleased (in 
accordance with the orders of their Honours) to let this serve as 
such information as you and your Council shall find to suit 
the best interests of the Company, and to agree with the successive 
orders received, contained in the files of letters received from the 
Fatherland and India and filed here, until sucli a time when other 
or more definite orders are received from home or from India. 
In the meanwhile various letters will reach you from Patria, whose 
contents will afford you sufficient guidance to enable you to know 
what their Honours may be pleased to see you do. Ending there- 
fore now, I wish to pray to Almighty God that it may please His 
Most High Majesty so to dwell with you with His most generous 
blessing on the affairs of the Company, that our Lords Masters 
may have cause to thank His supreme power for it, &c., in Whose 
merciful protection I shall leave your Honour as well as the 
command and direction of affairs here for the greatest service 
of the Company. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, this 5th day of May, A" 1662. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN EIEKEECK. 
(1662.) 



200 



MEMORANDUM OF CONDITIONS MADE WITH 
THE FREEMEN, 



That every Company of the new burghers shall assume in 
ownership, S. by E. and N. by W. according to the position right 
over the neck along the river named the Liesbeecq 160 roods and 
in depth E. by N. towards the mountains of Africa 200 roods 
for 12 years, without any taxes or impositions according to their 
title deeds. 

And that these persons shall also remain free during that 
period, and sow the lands not otherwise than with wheat, rye, 
.oats, barley and rice, and use the uncultivated ground of the 
Hon. Company as pasture. Their grain the Company will 
at all times be ready to buy and pay for at the following 
rates : 

1 last of 3,600 Ibs. wheat at f \ 

1 last of 3,600 Ibs. rice at f. ... per last. 

1 last of 3,600 Ibs rye at f ) 

1 last of 3,600 Ibs. oats at f. ... ) at such a price as 
1 last of 3,600 Ibs. barley at f. ... ) they can obtain from 
the Company, should the latter require any. 

And in order to help them on their legs, with the Company's 
resistance, all their tools, such as ploughs, harrows, wagons, 
spades, shovels, &c , shall every time be repaired for nothing by 
the Company's workmen, after the same have been px>Ll to them, 
not for more than what they have cost the Company itself in the 
Fatherland, for the period of three years. 

The cattle trade with the natives is likewise allowed them with 
the knowledge and consent of the Commander, provided that they 
do not barter any at higher rates than those brought into use by 
the Company. For that purpose they shall obtain all the copper 
and tobacco required by them from the Company alone, and no 
one else. 

Nor shall they be permitted to sell their cattle, viz., cows, sheep, 
and pigs to the ships of any nation whatsoever which may arrive 
here, except with permission ; but what they can spare they shall 
be bound to deliver to the Company, viz. : 

1 head of cattle at f!2, the price at which they have received 
the cattle on credit. 

1 sheep for f3. 

1 pig, according to ruling price to be arranged with the Com- 
mander. The supply of cattle to the ships, or the disposal of the 



261 

same, shall be wholly left to the Company, excepting what they 1G57 
require for their own consumption, and whatever is sold here to 
the burghers and others. 

No iron shall be exchanged by anyone with the natives, except 
with express consent of the Commander. 

Garden fruit such as the Company provides for its men, they 
may not, until further orders, plant otherwise than for their own 
use. 

Fishing the Hon. Company will, until further orders, permit to 
everyone, provided that no time required for corn-planting is 
spent for that purpose. 

For which reason tobacco-planting will remain in suspense until 
further orders have been received from our Lords Principals. 

No one shall without consent be permitted to shoot any birds or 
game, but only noxious animals, such as lions, tigers, &c., provided, 
however, that they shall receive the rewards fixed for that purpose, 
viz. : 

For a lion and tiger . . . . . . f25 

wolf f20 

leopard . . . . . . . . flO 

No one shall be allowed to go on board any English, French or 
other vessel before having obtained the consent of the Commander. 

The burghers shall be bound to guard all such watch-houses, 
redoubts and other fortifications, which have already been erected 
or may still be erected by the Company for the defence and pro- 
tection of their lauds. For that purpose everyone shall be bound 
to keep at his own cost such fire and other arms as may be required 
and are necessary for the purpose 



262 

LETTERS OF FKEEDOM. 



Letters of freedom successively granted and passed by the Hon. 
Commissioner Van Goens and Commander Riebeeck and Council. 

1657. The Commander and Council of the Fort the Good Hope, at 

l4ih~April ^ aDO ^e Boa Esperance, having been pointed out and respectfully 
asked for by Steven Jansz:, of Wageningen, Otto Jansz:, of Vreede, 
Hendrick Elbrechtsz:, of Osenbrugge, Jacob Cornelisz:, of Roseu- 
dael all burghers and residents a certain plot of ground, 
situated in the big veld or pass between Table and False Bays, 
behind Table Mountain, on the East side of the little Liesbeeck, 
near the Bound Thorn Bush, in breadth mostly N. by W. and 
S. by E., 160 roods, in depth E. by N. and W. by S. at the N. 
and S. side 200 roods, adjoining on the W. the large public road at 
the said E. side of the aforesaid Liesbeeck, on the E. the Company's 
orchard, towards the Cape mountain range, on the W. towards the 
mountains of the Continent of Africa ; and on the S. and N. the 
cultivated and still to be cultivated land of the Hon. Company, 
just as it has been laid down and shown by the Surveyor in the 
annexed chart ; that the same land, that is fit for the purpose, may 
without delay, be at once sown with wheat, rye, rice and other 
grain, and be taken possession of in freehold, and held without 
any tax for the space of 12 years, provided that the grantees shall 
not be permitted to sell, let or alienate the same, before the said 
12 years shall have expired, and only then with the knowledge 
and consent of the Council aforesaid, instead of mortgage deeds, 
in which case they shall remain subject to the payment of such 
taxes and dues, as well as to allow such high roads thenceforth 
through their lands, as may have been resolved upon by the 
authorities in this country subject to the approbation of our 
Principals, or may hereafter be ordained in the interests of the Com- 
pany and that of the public, on condition however that should the 
said freemen on account of dissipation or otherwise, be found not 
to display sufficient diligence, and conseqiently leave their lands 
untilled, they shall forfeit all such lands, which shall again be 
taken possession of by the Hon. Company, and they shall further 
refund the Company with their labour all the debts which they 
have incurred, and be bound to protect and guard all such 
redoubts or watch-houses as shall be erected by the Hon. Company 
for the protection of their lands, everything subject to the approval 
and confirmation of the Honourable Masters. 

Given in the Fort " The Good Hope," on the 14th April, 1657, 
and signed Hyckloff van Goens. On the open space was pressed 



263 

the seal of the Company in red wax, under which stood, " By 1657 - 
order of the above-mentioned honourable gentleman, in the Fort, ~ 
and on the date as above and signed by me 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA, as Clerk." 



The Commander, &o., grant to 

Harmen Eemajenne, Jan Martensz: de Wacht, of Vrieslant, 
"Warner Cornelisz:, of Nunspeet, Hans Pietersz: Faesbenger, of 
Hoven, a plot of land under the afore-mentioned conditions, 160 
by 200 roods in extent. 

In the Fort " The Good Hope," the 14th April, 1657. 



The Commander, &c., grant to 

Jan Reyniersz:, of Amsterdam, and Wouter Cornelisz: Mostert, 
of Utrecht, a plot of land under the aforesaid conditions, 100 by 
200 roods in extent. 

In the Fort "The Good Hope," the 15th April, 1657. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBEEGK. 



The Commander and Council of the Company's Fortress and 
further establishment at Cabo de Boa Esperance, &c., to all who 
shall see or hear this read : greeting ! Be it known that : 

As Harmen Remajenne, of Cologne, sailor, in the service of the 
Company, has requested us to be discharged from the Company's 
service, and placed in freedom, notwithstanding he has still to 
serve 10 months longer which he will remain bound at any time 
to do we have by this granted his request, and permitted him 
to reside as a free burgher here at the Cape under the obedience 
and dominion of the State of the United Netherlands ; to choose 
his domicile here, and maintain himself with agriculture and lawful 
trade, submitting himself to all such ordinances and articles as have 
been framed, or may hereafter be still drawn up and published for 
the service of the general Company, provided that he shall remain 
a freeman for 12 years at lyast, according to contract made with 
him. 

In the Fort " The Good Hope," the llth April, 1657. 

(Signed) HYCKLOFF VAN GOKSS. 



264 

A* above to : 

16-iT. Hans Pietersz: Faesbenger, of Hove, soldier, d.d. 14tb April, 

1657. 

Idem. Jan Marteusz:, of Yreelant, arquebusier, d.d. 14th 
April, 1657. 

Idem. Warnar Oornelisz:, of Nunspeet, sailor, d.d. 14th April, 
1657. 

Idem. Wouter Cornelisz:, Mostert of Utrecht, arquebusier, d.d. 
14th April, 1657. 

Idem. Jan Reyniersz:, of Amsterdam, sailmaker, d.d. 14th 
April, 1657. 

Idem. Steven Jansz:, of Wageningen, sailor, d.d. 14th April, 
1657. 

Idem. Hendrick Elbrechtsz :, of Osenbrugge, cadet, d.d. 
14th April, 1657. 

Idem. Jacob Cornelisz:, of Rosendael, soldier, d.d. 14th April, 
1657. 

Idem. Otto Jansz:, of Vreede, soldier, d.d. 14th April, 1657. 

Idem.- Thomas Bobbertsz:, of Kent, boy, d.d. loth April, 1657. 

Idem. Willem Willemsz:, of Deventer, sailor, d.d. 15th April, 
1657. 

Idem. Roeloff Hansz:, of Christiania, sailor, d.d. 31st April, 
1657. 

Idem. Bartholomew, of Woerden, sailor, d.d 31st April, 
1657. 

Idem. Jan van Passel, of Creel, soldier, d.d. 3lst May, 1657. 

Idem. Christiaan Jansz:, of Hoesum, cadet d.d. 30th June, 
1657. 

Idem. Pieter Cornelisz:, of Langesout, arquebusier, d.d. 30th 
June, 1657. 

Idem. Jacob Cloeten, of Cologne, cadet, d.d. 10th August, 
1657. 

Idem. Jan Zachariasz:, of Amsterdam, soldier, d.d. 1st October, 
1657. 

Idem. Caspar Brinckman, of Vreekenhorst, cadet, d.d. 1st 
October, 1657. 

Idem. Hendrick Hendricksz:, of Surwierde, corporal, d.d. 1st 
October, 1657. 

Idem. Elbert Dircksz:, of Emmerich, soldier, d.d. Is: October, 
1657. 

Idem. Herman Ernest Gresnich, of Utrecht, 2nd gardener, d.d. 
1st October, 1657. 

Idem. Gornelis Claesz:, of Utrecht, arquebusier, d.d. 1st October, 
1657. 

xdem. Leendert Corneliaz:, of Zeveahuysen, carpenter, d.d 
3rd October, 1657. 

Idem Pieter Paulusz: Cley, of Delft, carpenter, d.d. 10th 
October, 1657. 



265 

Idem. Dirok Adriaensz: Vreeni, of " Der Meern/' carpenter, d .d. Iftfr7i 
10th October, 1657. 

Idem. Hendrick Hendricksz: Boom, of Amsterdam, master 
gardener, d.d. 10th October, 1657. 

Idem. Dirck Meyer, of Lunenborgh, d.d. 10th October, 1657. 

Idem. Hans Jacobsz:, Liskij of Dantzich, soldier, d.d. 15th 
October, 1657. 

Idem. Michiel Bartholonieusz:, of Swol, cadet, d.d. 15th 
October, 1657. 

Idem. Carel Broersz:, of Stockholm, arquebusier, d.d. 1st, 
November, 1657. 

Idem. Willem Gron, of Ketenes, cadet, d.d. 1st November, 
1657. 

Idem. Hendrik Fransz: Knipbergen, of Oudewater, soldier, 
d.d. 1st November, 1657. 

Idem. Claes Fredericksz:, of Amsterdam, young sailor, d.d. 
12th November, 1657. 

Idem. Jan Jansz: Macha, of Delft, soldier, d.d. 12th November, 
1657. 

Idem. Christoffel Coenraetsz:, of Emmerich, soldier, d.d. 12th 
November, 1657. 

Idem. Dircq Dircqsz:, of Cologne, sailor, d.d. 12th November, 
1657. 

Idem. Jan Christoffel Broeckmeulen, of Maeseyck, d.d. loth 
December, 1657. 

Idem. Pieter Visagie, of Antwerp, sailor, d.d. 15th December, 
1657. 

Idem. Jacob Theunisz:, of Cooltiensplaet, sailor, d.d. 15th 
December, 1657. 

Idem. Symon Jansz: In 't Velt, of Dordrecht, arquebusier, 
d.d. 15th December, 1657. 

Idem. Frans Grerritsz:, of " den Uythoorn," sailor, d.d. 15th 
December, 1657. 

Idem. Claes Schrijver, of " 't Ampt Beest," sailor, d.d. 15th 
December, 1657. 

Idem. G-errit Hermansz:, of Deventer, arquebusier, d.d. 5th 
January, 1658. 

Idem. Jeuriaen Jansz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier, d.d. 5th 
January, 1658. 

Idem. Thomas Christopher Muller, of Leipsich, d.d. 5th 
January, 1658. 

Idem. Bartholomew Borus, of Woerden, sailor, d.d. 5th 
January, 1658. 

Idem. Cornelis Cornelisz:, of Rotterdam, soldier, d.d. 5th 
January, 1658. 

Idem. "Meester" Jan Vetteman, chief eurgeon, of Amsterdam, 
d.d. 5th January, 1658. 



266 

1668. Idem. Hans Isaacq Mangel, of Geneva, cadet d.d. 20th 

" ' January, 1658. 

Idem. Hendriok Barentsz:, of Leeuwaerden, sailor, d.d. 31st 
January, 1658. 

Idem. Gerrit Sandersz:, of Blechsum, arquebusier, d.d. 31st 
January, 1658. 



FREE LETTERS, 

1658. 

Free Letters or Burgher Papers granted this year to : 

Jan Cruyck, of Antwerp, young sailor, formerly of the ship lift 
IFapen ran Hollant. Granted 13th March. 

Cornelis Jansz: van Koije, of Woerden, formerly arquebusier on 
Hct Wapen van Hollant, Granted 13th March. 

Carel Melin, of Bruges, formerly sailor on the same ship. 
Granted 13th March. 

Hans Ras, of Angel, ex-soldier of Het Wapen van Hollatd. 
Granted 13th March. 

Jochum Elbertsen, of Amsterdam, arquebusier in the Fort. 
Granted 31st March. 

Jacob Balhoorn, of St. Margriete Parish, arquebusier at the 
Fort. Granted 31st March, 1658. 

Hans Cornelissen, of Legelant List, sailor in the Fort. 
Granted 31st March. 

L)irck Cornelisz: Joiige Noteboom, of Bodegraven, soldier on the 
flute Elburg. Granted 14th April, 1658. (On the margin stands 
" On the 1st October he was, for stealing sheep, condemned by the 
Council to be riveted in chains and banished.") 

lioeloff Kist, of Lieth in Scotland, soldier on the flute Gechnui/flcn. 
Granted 10th June, 1658. 

Dirck Jansseu, of Petten, arquebusier in the Furt. Granted 
15th June. 

Dirck Kinckes, of Maseyck, sailor at the Fort. Granted loth 
June. 

Marten Jochumsen Flockaert, of Ter Goude, trumpeter in the 
Fort. Granted 16th June. 

L'ieter Heynse, of the Kijp, arquebusier on the Prims Wilkm, 
Granted 26th June. 



267 

Joost Pietersz: Moen, of Douburgh, carpenter on the Prim 1658 - 
Willem. Granted 26th June. 

Claes Q-eraertsz:, of Leeuwen, sailor on the Prim Willem. 
Granted 26th June. 

Leyn Leynse, of Domburgh, sailor at the Fort. Granted 6th 
August. 

Dircq Dircxsaen, of Montfoort, sailor on the flute Leerdam. 
Granted 15th August. 

Willem Pietersz:, of Nymegen, cadet in the Fort. 
Granted 31st August. 

Jaques Brackeny, of Bergen in Hanault, soldier in the Fort. 
Granted 15th August. 

Hendrick Jansz: Schayck, of Montfoort, arquebusier at the Fort. 
Granted 15th August. (On margin, " Condemned for sheep 
stealing to be riveted in irons and banished-") 

Hans Meyer, of Wesselemnare, cadet on the Henriette 
Louyse. Granted 5th September, 1658. (On margin, " Because 
he wished to desert he was condemned to three years in irons."} 

Hendrick Marcusz: Barel, cadet on the Henriette Louyse. 
Granted 5th September. 

Jan Ariensz:, of Ter Gouw, arquebusier on the flute Goeree. 
Granted 27th September. 

Joannes Bietvelt, of Alkmaer, boatswain's mate on the flute 
Goeree. Granted 27th September. 

Daniel Fran eke, of Remunst, arquebusier on the Goeree. 
Granted 27th September. 

Jan Pietersz:, of Anraet, soldier on the Goeree. Granted 27th 
September. 

Hendricq Rynste, of Dircxland, sailor on the flute Het Hart. 
Granted 27th September. 

Gysbert Arysz:, of Bommel, sailor in the Fort. Granted 30th 
September. 

Dircq Cornelisz: Grutter, of Hoorn, arquebusier in the Fort. 
Granted 30th September. 

Pieter Jansz:, of Middelburgh, soldier in the Fort. Granted 
llth October. 

Pieter Jacobsz:, of Bodegrave, sailor in the Fort. Granted 15th 
October. 

Barent Waenders, of Varick, cadet at the Fort. Granted 
1st November. 

Tielman Hendricxze, of Utrecht, cadet at the Fort. Granted 
1st November. 

Pieter van den Bos, of St. Amand, soldier at the Fort. Granted 
1st November. 

Hans Juricli Gieter, of Croon Wyssenburgh, soldier on the 
Went Vrieslant. Granted 8th November. 



268 

Jacob Hendricksz: Pol, of II o^ssum, sailor on the West 
Granted 8th November. 

Dircq Meyer, of Lunenburgh, sailor at the Fort. Granted 8th 
November, 1658. 

Pieter Jongh, of Staedt Moere, sailor on the Went Vrieslant. 
Granted 8th November. 

Elbert Dircsseu, of Het Huys ter Meyden, sailor on the Harp. 
Granted 30th November. 

Tielman Aryensz:, of Gorcum, cadet on the flute DC- Harp. 
Granted 30th November. 

Pieter Gassier, of Veurne, boy on the flute De Harp. Granted 
30th November. 

Pieter Schier, of Drinoute, soldier on the flute De Harp. 
Granted 30th November. 

Jan Hendricsz:, of Den Nieuwen Nierop, sailor on the flute De 
Harp. Granted 30th November. 

Jacob van der Hop, of Amsterdam, arquebusier at the Fort. 
Granted 15th December. 

1659. 

Coenraedt Claesz:, of Delft, arquebusier at the Fort. Granted 
1st February, 1659. 

Jan de Wolff, of Hamburgh, soldier at the Fort. Granted 1st 
February, 1659. 

Adriaen Willernsz:, of Leyden, boy on the Prfncesse Royael. 
Granted 22nd March. 

Claes Jacobsz: Meldorp, sailor on the Princcssc RoyacL 
Granted 23rd March, 1659. 

Philip van K-oije, of the Hague, cadet on the Arnlwm. 
Granted 22nd March. 

Torckel Troensz:, of Laerwyck, sailor on the Arnhan. Granted 
22nd March. 

Jan Fopkes, of Het Joumaren, sailor on theArnhem. Granted 
22nd March. 

Jan Jansz:, of Munster, cadet on the Hector. Granted 31st 
March. 

Jan Lievense Verley on the yacht Ilooyel.inde. 

Granted 4th April. 

Jan Coenraedt Visser, of Oinmen, soldier at the F. ..rt. Granted 
30th September. 

Harman Terschelhoven, of West Befferen, sailor on the Malacca. 
Granted 29th October, 1G59. 

Glaes Wiskebroeck, of Lingerick, sailor on the Malacca. 
Granted 29th October. 



269 

/ Michael Bartholomew, of Zwol, free carpenter. Granted 3rd 
) December, 1659. 

J Dirck Cornelisz:, de Jonge Nooteboom, free carpenter. 
\ Granted 3rd December, 1659. 

(N.B. Both were in 1658, for offences committed, condemned 
to 6 years' banishment, but on account of their valiant conduct in 
the Hottentoo War, they were pardoned.) 

Louijs Rjckart, of Brussels, cook at the Fort. Granted 3rd 
December, 1659. 

Claes Lammertsz:, of Aelsmeer, arquebusier at the Fort. 
Granted 3rd December. 

Jan Lourensz:, of Haerlem, sailor at the Fort. Granted 15th 
December. 

Jan van Baerlem, of Brussels, soldier at the Fort. Granted 
15th December. 

Jan Willebrandt, of Eynckelroo, cadet at the Fort. 
Granted 15th December, 1659. 

1660. 

HendrickGysbertsz:,of Westbrouck, sailor on the N. Enckhuysen. 
Granted 20th January, 1660. 

Hendrick Ternan, of Welschenenst, soldier on the N. Enckhuysen. 
Granted 20th January. 

Hendrick Dircx, of Erabden, sailor on the N. Enckhuysen. 
Granted 20th January. 

Jan Pietersz:, of Caspel ter Mare, soldier at the Fort. Granted 
20th January. 

Jacob Bruyn, of Bon, soldier on the yacht ' Gravelant. Granted 
21st January, 1660. 

Hendrick Harmansz:, of Inger in Westphalia, soldier at the 
Fort. Granted 1st April, 1660. 

Teecken Sibolts, of St. Annekeroken, arquebusier on Hft Wapen 
van Amsterdam. Granted 4th April. 

Pieter de Puyt, of Yperen, soldier on the yacht Vlissingen. 
Granted 12th April. 

Jan Severeynsz:. of Elsenzee, sailor on the yacht Vlissingen. 
Granted 12th April, 1660. 

Cornelis Jacobsz:, of Voorhout. on the ship De Wai" 

visch. Granted 16th April. 

Jan Staets, of Bergen Wynocx, soldier at the Fort. Granted 
30th April. 

Marten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, master gardener at the Fort. 
Granted 15th May. 

Anthony Jansz: van der Schuur, of Stryen, sailor on the ship 
f)e Vogel Phcnix. Granted 17th June, 



270 

i860. Paulus Cornelisz:, of Midwoodt, boy on the ship De Nagelboom. 

Granted 22nd June. 

Herman Hendricksz:, of Enschede, sailor on the ship De Naget- 
boom. Granted 22nd June. 

Hans Louysz, of Amserdara, arquebusier on the flute Loenen. 
Granted 23rd July. 

Bastiaen Castier, of Ostend, sailor on the ship De Musquaet 
Boom. Granted 23rd July. 

Cryn Anthonisz:, of Ter Goiiw, boy on the ship De Musquaet 
Boom. Granted 23rd July. 

Bartholomeus Borns, of Woerden, free servant of the Saldanha 
traders. Granted 23rd July, 1660. 

Isaac Pietersz:, of Leeuwaerden, sailor on the ship Df Musquaef 
Boom. Granted 27th July. 

Jan Abrahams van der Bie, of Nieuwenhoorn, sailor at the Fort. 
Granted 4th August. 

Aiadries Thysz:, of Maesterlandt, arquebuiser on the galiot De 
Parkyt. Granted 23rd August. 

Harman ter Schelhoven, of "West Beveren, sailor at the Fort. 
Granted 17th October. 

Hendrick Commertez: Hoogerveldt, of Hellevoetsluys, arque- 
busier at the Fort. Granted 17th October. 

Joris Hackmeke, of Glaseow, cadet on the flute Vollen- 
haven. Granted 21st October. 

Jan Verhagen, of Arendonck, arquebusier at the Fort. 
Granted 1st November. 

Matthys Hansz: van Huyer, of Copenhagen, sailor on the ship 
Oliphant. Granted 27th November. 

Jan Wesselsz, of Havelsbeeck, soldier on the Oliphant. Granted 
27th November. 

Jan Hansz:, of Groningen, soldier on the ship De Eliphant. 
Granted 27th November. 

Jan Carelsz:, of Utrecht, sailor on the Eliphant. Granted 27th 
November. 

Arent Theunisz:, of Duysen, sailor on the Eliphant. Granted 
27th November. 

Hendrick Stelman of Hamborgh, arquebusier at the Fort. 
Granted 31st December. 

1661. 

1661. Hendrick Stelman, of Hamborgh, arquebusier at the Fort. 

Granted 1st January, 1661. 

Theunis Pietersz:, of Maesterlant, arquebusier on the galiot 
the Perkiet, 1661. Granted 13th January, 1661. 

Adriaen Bastiaensz, of Utrecht, arquebusier at the Fort. 
Granted 20th March, 1661. 



271 

Pieter Joosten (of) Sohoonhoven, sailor at the Fort, Granted l661 - 
1st April, 1661. 

Hendrick Gysbertsz: Verschuyr, of Amersfoort, sailor at the 
Fort. Granted 1st April, 1661. 

Claes Jansz:, of Alkmaer, arquebusier on the galiot De Perkiet. 
Granted 1st April, 1661. 

Robbert Robbertsz:, of Woerden, sailor on the flute Hilversum. 
Granted 2nd April, 1661. 

Jacob Fransz: van den Bosch, arquebusier on the flute Hilvcmum. 
Granted 2nd April, 166L 

Salomon Elias Havingh, of Loosduynen, sailor on the ship Dor- 
drecht. Granted 5th May, 1661. 

Willem Schalck van der Merwe, of Broeok, arquebuaier on the 
ship Dordrecht.. Granted 5th May, 1661. 

Gysbert (Jlaesz: van Stecklenborgh, of Montf oort, soldier on the 
ship Dordrecht. Granted 5th May, 1661. 

Jan Pietersz, of Arnhem, soldier on the ship Dordrecht. Granted 
5th May, 1661. 

Bastiaen Jacobsz:, of Ramsdonck, soldier on the ship Dordrecht. 
Granted 5th May, 1661. 

Johan (cluever, of Stammerborgh in Westphalia, soldier on the 
ship Dordrecht. Granted 5th May, 1661. 

Michiel Leendertz:, of Groningen, sailor on the ship Dordrecht. 
Granted 5th May, 1661. 

Jan Oornelisz:, of Utrecht, soldier on Het Wapen van Holland. 
Granted 22nd June, 1661, 

Marten Coninck of Hamburgh, soldier on the ship Het Wapen 
van Holland. Granted 22nd June, 1661. 

Jan Jacobsz: Fluytje, of Haerlem, sailor on the ship Het Wapen 
van Holland. Granted 22nd June, 1661. 

Gerrit Arentsz:, of Ensohede, sailor at the Fort. Granted 1st 
July, 1661. 

Claes Eldertz:, of Meldorp, soldier at the Fort. Granted 20th 
July, 1661. 

Albert Gilhuysen, of Bergstiertvoort, sailor on the ship Prin- 
cesse Royael. Granted 23rd September, 1661. 

Cornelis Fransz:, of Amersfoort, young sailor on the ship 
De Parel. Granted 23rd September, 1661. 

Jan Dircxe van der Voor, cadet on the ship De Parel. 
Granted 23rd September, 1661. 

Thielman Hendricx, of Utrecht, free agriculturist. Granted 
15th December, 1661. t 

1662. 

Evert Jansz:, of Tonningen, sailor. Granted 18th January, 1662. 
1662. 

Frederick Jansz:. of Alkmaer, sailor. Granted 1st January, 
1662. 



Jan Matthysz:, of Geertruydenburg, boy. Granted 18th 
January, 1662. 

Christiaen Gerritsz:, of Amsterdam, sailor. Granted 13th 
February, 1662. 

Hendrick Jansz:, Lae of Munsterland. Granted 15th January, 
1662. 

Cornells Dircx, of Sande, arquebusier. Granted 18th January, 
1662. 

Andries Roeloffsz:, of Hilversum, sailor. Granted 18th 
January, 1662. 

Paulus van Hanckelhoven, sailor. Granted 18th January, 1662. 

Pieter van de Westhuysen, soldier. Granted 18th January, 1662. 

Loureiis Cornelisz:, of Gottenburgh. Granted 18th January, 1662. 

Hendrick Pietersz:, Vos of Weesp, agriculturist. Granted 26th 
. April, 1662. 

Jan Christiaensz:, of Laerwijk, arquebusier. Granted 26th 
April, 1662. 

Jan Samuelsz:, of Oldenburgherlant. Granted 27th April, 
1662. 

Gysbert Gysbertz:, of Baeckenes, arquebusier. Granted 27th 
April, 1662. 

Hendrick Steenke, of Hattum in Oldenburg. Granted 20th 
September, 1662. 

Hendrick Claeez:, of Utrecht, soldier. Granted 20th September, 
1662. 

Johannes Yoort, of Neijs, soldier. Granted 20th September, 
1662. 

Jan Carelsen, of Utrecht, young sailor. Granted 20th September, 
1662. 

Jan Severensz:, of Elserzee, sailor. Granted 20th September, 
1662. 

Jacob Cornelisz:, of Dantzich, arquebusier. Granted 9th October, 
1692. 

Bartholomeus Carolus:, of Ghent, soldier. Granted 9th October, 
1662. 



273 



CABO DE BOA ESPEBANCE, 

ANNO 1660. 



LISTS OF THE FREEMEN, &c. 



FBEKMEX. 



Steven's Company. 

Jansz:, of 
Wageningen 
Hendrik Klbertsz:, of 



Ossenbrugge 



Vrederftt Company. 
Otto Jansz:, of 

Vreede 
Jacob Cornelisz:, of 

Rosendael 

Herman's Company. 
Hannan Remajenne:, 

of Cologne 
Jacob Cloeten:, of 

Cologne 

Vrelant's Company. 
Jan Martensz: de 

Wacht 
Frans Oerritsz:, of 

den Uythoorn 

Brinckman's Company. 
Casper Brinckman, of 

Vreeckenhorst 
Jan Pietersz:, of the 

parish ter Mare 

Vassagic's Company. 
Jan Coenraedt Visser 
Pieter Vassagie of 
Antwerp 



Wives. 



Fyckje Raderott- 
jes 

Neeltjen Arensz: 



Dutf.h St-rvaiits. 



Jan Lievensz: 

Verley 
Jan de Wolff 



Pieter Kegel 
Michiel Franpz 
Willera l.^ietersz 



Jacob Bruyn of 

Bon 
Pieter Raderott j es, 

brother of Fyckje 
Hans Cornelisz: of 

Legelant List 

Hendrik Grys- 

bertsz: 

Hendrick Goetaert 
of Leyden 



Juriaen Jansz: 
Jan Jansz: of 

Morster 



Egbert Dircx 
Hendrick Ternau 



1660. 



274 



-1*60. 



FKFKMF.X. 



Wives. 



Dutch Servants. 



Hendiik Boom's land 

lessees. 

Hans Ras, of Angel 
Pieter Jocghof Stadt- 
more 

Private Agriculturists 

of Commander Van 

Riclcfck. 
Tielemen Hendrickse, 

at Uijttryck 
Bareut Waender, of 

Varick, 

at the Boschheuvel 

Saldanha Jifiy Traders. 
Gerrit liarmansz:, of 

De venter 
Christoffel Mulder, of 

Leipsigh 

Jochum Elbertsz:, of 
Amsterdam 

Leendt rt CorntK&K, of 

Se vent i uy*en . Sur- 
veyor and Carpenter. 



Henrick Hendricxs 
Boom, of Amster- 
dam 

Jan lieyniersz:, of 
Amsterdam 

Widow of Jan van 
llarwarden 



Mayken Hendriox 



Anuetje Joris 

Lysbeth Janz: 
Johanna Boddys 



Harman ter Sehel- 

hoven 
Michiel Brug- 

mans 



Tieleman Andriez: 

Dircq Meyer, of 

Lunenburgb 



ComelisCoruelisz:, 
of Rotterdam 

Bartholemeus 
Boras 

Hen drick B arentsz: 

Dircq Rinskes, of 
Maseyck 

Jan Jansz: Macka 
Jacques Brackeny 
Jacob Hendrick 

Pott 
RoelofE Kiel of 

Liet 

Coenraedt Claasz: 
Terckel Troensz: 
Claes Fopkes 
Ilendrick Dirx, of 
Emden 



Hans Jacobsz:, 
Li sky 



275 



FKEEMEN 



Jurien Jansz:, of 
Amsterdam, tapper 

Hendrick Hendricx, 
of S u r w a r d e n, 
tailor 

Elbert Direx, of 
Emmerich, tailor 

Jan Zacharias, of 
Amsterdam, messen- 
ger 

Pieter Cornelisz:, of 
Langesondt, fisher- 
man and free 
hunter 

Wouter Cornelisz: 
Mostert, of Utrecht, 
miller and brick- 
maker 

Dirck Jansz:, of 
Petten, mason 

Gysbert Arisz:, of 
Bommel, mason 

Jan Lourensz:, of 
Haerlem, thatcher 

Dircq Corn: Jonge 
Neuteboom, car- 
penter 

Michiel Bartholo- 
meus, of Swoll, 
carpenter 

Cornelia Claesz:, of 
Utrecht, ex-agri- 
culturist, now in 
the kitchen of the 
office 



1660. 



Wive*. 



Dutch Servants. 



Jannetje Ferdin- 1 Pieter Jansz:, of 
andus Middelburg 

Grietje Francina ' 
MeeckhofE 



Christina Does 
Maria, of Bengal 



Annetje Bruyns 



Hester Weyers, 
of Lier 



Willem Willemsz: 



Jan van Baerlem 



Pieter van deu 
Bosch, of St. 
Arm and 



27 



1661. 



Steven's Company. 
Steven Jansz:, of 

Wageningen 
Hendrick Elbrechtsz:, 

of Ossenbrugge 

Vreden't Company. 
Commander van Eie- 
beeck, one half. 
Jacob Cornelisz:, of 
Rosendael 

Herman'* Company. 
Herman Remajenne, 

of Cologne 
Hans Ra?, of Angel 



Vrelanfts Company 
Jan Martensz: de 

Wacht. of Vreelant 
Frans Grerritsz:, of 

' Den Uythoorn ' 

Private Agriculturists 
of Commander tan 
, Bt'ebeeck, at : 

' Uytiryck. 

Tielraau Hendricksz:. 
of Utrecht, Super- 
intendent 

Bcsfl fKTff. 

Barent Waenders, of 
Varick\ Superin- 
tendent 



Wives. 



Neeltjen Aliens, 
ot Vreelant 



Mayken 

van den Berg}: 



Dutch Servant> . 



WiliemWillemsz:, 
of Deventer 

Pieter Jon?h, of 
Stadtmoor 



Willem Pietersz;, 
of Nimwegen 

Jan Abrahamsz: 
van der Bje 

Jacob Bruyn, of 

Bon 
Hans Cornelisz:. 

of * Het Lege- 

lant lis ' 
Jan Carelsz:, of 

Utrecht 

Jan Severynsz:, of 

Elserzee 

Hendrick Gys- 
bertez:. of Wes- 

terbeeck 



Jan Verhagen, of 
Arendonck 



Tielman Aliens, of 
Gorcuni 



277 



FREEMXX. 



Jan Pietersz:, of 
Caspel ter Mare, 
agriculturist 



Jan Coenraed Visser, 
of Ommen 



Cornelia Claesz:, of 
. Utrecht, owner 

Herman ter Sehel- 

hoyen and Hen- 

drick Commentsz: 

. Hogeveen in Com- 

"pany 

Jacob Cloeten, of 
Cologne, free bur- 
gher 

Saldanha Traders. 
Gerrit Harmansz:, of 

Deventer 
Thomas Christoffel 

Muller, of Leipsich 
Bartholomeus Borus, 

of Woerden 

Leendert Cornelisz:, 
of Zevenhuysen, 
wood sawyer and 
carpenter 



1661. 



Wives. 



Dutch Servaiit- 



Fyckie Raderott- 
jes, of Oijt 



ilendrick Jansz:, 

of Schayck 
Hendrick Her- 

mausz:, of Inger 
Mathys Hansz:, of 

Copenhagen 
Hendrick '1 eman, 

of Keiischeues 
Areut Theunisz:, 

of Dnysen 
Taulus Cornelisz:, 

of Midwoot 
Jan Hansz:, of 

Groningen 

Jan Wesselsz:, of 
Havelbeecq 



Toecke Syboltsz:, 
of St. Annekerck 
Bastiaen Castier,of 
Ostend 

Cornells Cornelisz:, 

of Rotterdam 
UendricqBarentsz:, 
of Leeuwaerden 

Hans Louys, of 
Amsterdam 

Jacques Brackenij 
Jacob Hendricksz: 

Pot 
Roeloff Kief, of 

Liet 
Ooenraedt Olaesz:, 

of Delft 
Terckel Troensz:, 

of Laerwyck 
Olaes Fopkes, of 

't Jouniiivum 



278 



1661. 



FBEKHEN. 


Wives. 


Children. 


Dutch Servants. 


Leeiidert Cornelisz: 






HendrickDireksz:, 


contd. 






of Embden 








Hendrick Hen- 








dricksz 








Cornelis Jacobsz:, 








of Voorhout 








Andries Tysz:, of 








Maesterlant 


HendrickHecdricxsz: 


Annetje Joris, of 


5 




Boom,of Amsterdam 


Amsterdam 






Jan lieijniersz:, of 


Lysbeth Jansz:, of 


2 




Amsterdam 


Amsterdam 






Widow of Jan van 


Johanna Boddys, 


3 


Herman Hen- 


Harwarden 


of Doesburgh 




dricksz, of En- 








schede 


Jurrien Jansz:, of 


Jannetjen Fer- 


1 


Isaacq Pietersz:, of 


Amsterdam, tapper 


dinandus of 




Leeuwaarden 




Cortryok 






Hendricq Hen- 


Grrietje Fransz:, 


1 


Cryn Anthonisz:, 


dricksz:, of Zur- 


Meeckhoff 




of Grouda 


warden, tailor 








Elbert Dircxsz , of 


Christina Done, 


1 




Emmerich, tailor 


of Doesburgh 






Pieter Cornelisz:, of 


Annetjen Bruyns, 




Jan de Wolff 


Langesondt, fisher- 


of Langesondt 






man 








Carel Broens, of 






Teunis Pietersz:, 


Stockholm ,fisherman 






of Maesterlant 


Wouter Cornelisz:, 


Hester Weyers, 


1 


Pieter de Puyt, of 


Mostaert,brickmaker 


of Lier 




Yperen 


Dircq Jansz:, of Pet- 








ten, mason 








Hendricq Stelman, of 








Hamburg, mason 








Jan Staets, of Bergen 






' 


in ^\ ijnox 








In the kitchen of the 






Pieter van den Bos, 


young clerks (de 






of St. Amant 


borsten van de pen) 








Marten Jacobs:, of 


Cateliintje Ab- 


1 


Anthony Jansz: 


Amsterdam gardener ramsz:, of Ryssel 




van der Schuyr 



279 



1662. 



FKEEMEX. 



Wires. 



Steven's Company. 
Steven Jansz:, of 

Wageniugen 
Hendrick Elbertsz:, 

of Osseiibrugge, 

owners 

Jacob C'>rnelisz:, of 
Rosendael 



Harman's Company. 
Herman Remajenne, 

of Cologne 
Hans Has?, of Angel, 

owners 



Private Agriculturists 
of Commander van 
Ri ebeeck at the 
Uytwyck 

Jan Teunisz:, of de 
Hooge Lys, super- 
intendent 

Frans Grerritsz:, of 
' den Uythoorn ' 



Jan Pietersz:, of Gas- 
pel ter Mare 



1G62. 



Dutch Servants. 



Neeltgen Jacobsz: 
Rosendaels 



Beatrix Weymans 
of Utrecht 



Hendrick Gr y s- 
bertsz: Verscliuyr 
Pieter Joosten, of 
Schoonhoven 



Jan Abrainsz: van 

der Bije 
Gerrit Aertsz:, of 

Ensohede 

Bastiaen Jacobsz:, 
of liamsdende 

Dirzick Pietersz: 
van den Graaif 

Paulus Henckel- 
hovenofHasselt 



Direq Meyer, of 

Lunen burgh 
Lourens Asmusz:, 

of Tomiereii 
Teeke ISi bolts, of 

St. Annekerck 
Hendrick Teman, 
of Weiischenest 
Jan Dirricxsz: van 

der Voor 
Hendrick Har- 

mansz:, of Inger 
Mathys Hansz:, of 

Copenhagen 
Hendrick Jansz: 

Lae, of Mun- 

sterland 



280 



1662. 



FltKKHKX. 



Wives. 



Jan Coenraet Visser, 
of Omraeii 



Jacob Cloeteu, of 
Cologne 

Pieter Yassagle, of 

Antwerp 
Jan Jacobsz: Fluytje, 

of Haerlem 
Maerten Coninck, of 

Hamburg 
Cornells Ulaesz:, of 

Utrecht 

T i e 1 e ra a n H e n- 
dricki-z:, of Gror- 
cum, owners 

Harman ter Schel- 
hoven, owner 



Willem Willemsz:, of 
Deventer 

Pieter Jongb, of Stat- 
in oor, owners 

Tieleraan H e n - 
z:, of Utrecht 



Leendert (/oruelisz:, 
of Sevenhuysen , 
free sawver 



Greertjen 

of Hardenberg 



Fyckje Badergen- 
ties of Oijt 



Maycken Hen- 
drix van der 
Bergh 



Dutch Servant*. 



Arent Thomasz:, 

of Dusseii 
Paulus Coruelisz:, 

of Midwood 
Andries Roelolf sz:, 

of Hilversura 



Hendrick 

bertsz:, of West- 

broeck 
Cornells Dircksz:, 

of Santeu 

Jan Wessels, of 
Havelsbergh 

Jan Pietersz:, of 

Am hem 
Albert Grilhuysen, 

of Bergsteervoort 
Cornelisz Fransz:, 

of Amersfoort 
Evert Jansz:, of 

Tonningen 
Loureiis Coruelisz:, 

of Gottenburgh 
Pieter van West- 

huysen 
Frederick Jansz:, 

of Alkmaer 
Jacques Brackery 
Hans Roeloffs, of 

Legelant List 
Torckel Troens, 

of Laerwyck 



281 



FREEMEN. 



Wives. 



1662. 



Dutch Servants 



JLeendert Cornelisz: 

confd. 



Jan Martens de Wacht 

of Vreelant 
Jan Keyniersz:, of 

Amsterdam 

flendrick Hendricxsz: 
Boom, of Amster- 
dam 

Wouter Cornelisz: 
Mostaert, of Ut- 
recht, free tile and 
brickmaker 



Hendrick Hendricxsz: 
of Surwarden, iim- 
keeper 

Elbert Dricksz: Die- 
mer, of Emmeviele, 
tailor 



Neeltjen Ariens, 

of Vreelant 
Lysken Jansz:, of 

Amsterdam 

Annetjen Joris, of 
Amsterdam 

Hester Weyer, of 
Lier 



Grrietijen Fransz: 
Meeckhoff 



Christina Dons, of 
Doesburgh 



Hendrick Dircksz: 

of Emden 
Cornelis Jacobsz:, 

of Voorhout 
Salomon Elias 

Haringh 
Q-hysbert Claesz:, 

of Streckenb: 
Claes Jacobsz: 

Meldorp 
Hendrick Rynste, 

of Dircxlant 
Jan Verhagen, of 

Arendb: 
Olaes Eldersz: 

Meldorp 
Ary Bastiaensz:, 

of Utrecht 
MichielLeendertsz: 

of Groningen 
Jan Matthys, of 

Greertruyden- 

burgh 



HobbcjrtRobbertsz: 

of Woerden 
Jan Cornelisz:, of 

Utrecht 
Hendrick Jansz:, 

of Schaick 
Pieter de Puyt, of 

Yperen 
Tryn Autonisz:, of 

G-OUW 
Herman Hen- 

dricksz:, of Ens- 

chede 
ChristiaenGerritsz:, 

of Amsterdam 



282 



FBKEMKX. 



Wives. 



Juriaen Jausz:, of 
Amsterdam, inn- 
keeper 

Marten Jncobsz:, of 



Amsterdam, 
dener 



gar- 



Saldanha Uny Traders. 
Thomas Christoffei 

Muller, of Leipsich 
Bartholomews Barnes, 

of Wuerden 



i 



Dut<:h 



Jannetjen Fer 

dinandus , of 

Cortrijck 
C a t h a 1 i j n t j e 

Abrams, of Kijs- 

sel 



Catherina Croons, 
of Bommel 



Pieter Oornelisz:, of 
Langesont, free 
fisherman 

Carel Broers,of Stock- 
holm, free fisher- , 
man 

Dirck Jansz:, of Pet- 
ten, free mason 

BIJ themselves. 
JanStaets,of Wijnocx- 

bergeu, swineherd , 
Bastiaeu Castiere, of 

Oste:ul 
Willem Michielsz:, of 

Amsterdam 
Andries Thijssets, of 

Alnc:-terlaiit 
Jacob Fransz: van den 

Bosch 
Willem Pietersz:, of 

Nimwegen 

and 



Annetien Brnijne, 
of Langesont 



22 



Cornelis Cornelisz:, 

of Rotterdam 
Hendrick Bar- 

entsz:, of Leeuw- 

aerden 
Claes Jansz:, of 

Alkmaer 
Jan de Wolff, of 

Hamburg 

Tonnis Pietersz:, 
of Maesterlant 



children 



End of RieleeclSs Period. 



283 



MUSTER EOLL OF THE OFFICERS, SOLDIERS AND 
SAILORS STATIONED AT THE FORT THE GOOD 
HOPE ON THE 20xH MARCH, 1656. 



(1) Johan van Riebeeck, of Cuylenborgh, commander. 1658. 

(2) Frederick Verburgh, of Amsterdam, junior mercbant. 

(3) Pieter van der Stael, of Rotterdam, sick comforter. 

(4) RoelofE de Man, of Cuylenborgh, assistant. 

(5) Matthys "Witsma, of list, cbief surgeon. 

(6) Jan van Herwaerden, of Seventer, Captn. des Armes. 
^7) Cornells van Heyningen, of Amsterdam. ) Assist- 

(8) Casper van Wede van Stouten borgh, of TJtrecbt ) anls. 

(9) Jan Jansz:, of Naerden, junior surgeon. 

(10) Arent van Strylant, of Amersfoort, butler. 

(11) Hendrik Hendricxs Boom, of Amsterdam, gardener. 

(12) Willem Muller, of Frankfort, corporal. 

(13) Symon Huybrechts, of Dordrecht, corporal. 

(14) Pieter Dircxs, of Wesep, drummer. 

(15) Hendrik Juriaensz: Hart man, of Oldenburgh, locksmith 

(master tinsmith in 1657). 

(16) Albert Claesz:, of Franicker, master carpenter. 

(17) David van Eps, of Lochum, junior surgeon. 

(18) Jonas de la Geure, of Havre de Grace, hunter. 

(19) Hendrik Boom, boy. 

(20) Pieter Evertsz:, of Amsterdam, junior surgeon. 

(21) Sybrant Rinckes, of Oudt Riemen, " adelborst." 

(22) Jan Pietersz:, of Soen water, sailor. 

(23) Joris Jorisz:, of Oldenzeel, "adelborst." 

(24) Cornelis Cornelisz:, of Rotterdam, soldier. 

(25) Evert Barentsz:, of Groniugen, " adelborst." 

(26) Wernaer Gerritez:, of Wesep, sailor. 

(27) Ryck Bastiaensz:, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

(28) Jacob Beeckman, of Wesel, soldier (cooper in 1657). 

(29) Herman Hendricxs, of Haerlem, young sailor. 

(30) Ot: Jansz: of Vrede, soldier. 

(31) Rem Caertsz:, of Emden, arquebusier (a turner in 1657). 

(32) Gerrit Harmens, of De venter, arquebusier. 

(33) Ryck Overhageu, cf Steenwyck, soldier. 

(34) Gysbert Andriesz:, of Langesont, arquebusier (superinten- 

dent of the forest in 1657). 

(35) Pieter Hosick, of Yserlo, soldier. 

(36) Hendrik Tymens, of Campen, soldier. 

(37) Martyn Cordie of Abbeville, arquebusier. 

(38) Louys Raine, of Dieppe, sailor. 

(39) Daniel Mulotli, 



166. ( 40) Adriaen Dop, of Utrecht, " adelborst." 

(41) Abraham Janez:, of Utrecht, young sailor. 

(42) Jan Reyniersz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier (sailmaker in 

1657). 

(43) Jan van Kempen (in 1657 " adelborst"). 

(44) Elias Giers, of Stockholm, soldier. 

(45) Dirk Ariensz: Vreem van der Mene, " adelborst." 

(46) Thomas Christoffel Mulder, of Lypsich, soldier. 

(47) Cornelis Naso, of Amsterdam, boy. 

(48) Reyndert Symens, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

(49) Oloff Knoets, of Bergen, Norway, 

(50) Jan Barents, of Bisleck, ,, 

(51) Gerrit Pietersz:, of Oestgeest, 

(52) Eldert Jansz:, of Oost vrieslant, arquebusier. 

(53) Evert Jansz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

(54) Adriaen van de Paver t, of Arnhem, soldier. 

(55) Tomas Ecbberts, of Kent, boy. 

(56) Boeloff Jansz:, of Dalen, soldier. 

(57) Pieter Cornelis, of Langesont. arquebusier. 

(58) Paulus JDircxsz:, of Gottenborgh, " adelborst." 

(59) Claes Willemsz:, Boom, of the Beemster, butcher's ma -. 

(60) Christiaen Jansz:, of Hoesurn, soldier ("adelborst" in 

1657). 

(61) Wouter Cornelis Mostert, of Utrecht, arquebusier. 

(62) Frederick Jansz: van den Bergh, 

(63) Jan Sacharias, of Amsterdam, soldier. 

(64) Pieter Jans, of Middelburgh, ,, 

(65) Carel hSroers, of Stockholm, arquebusier. 

(66) Roeloff Sieuwerts, of Groningen, master carpenter (m;i.srer 
mason in 1657). 

(67) Jan Teunis, of Gunea, arquebusier. 

(68) Jan Pietersz:, of Lejderdorp, arquebusier. 

(69) Jurgen Bittelmer, of Neurenburgb, ' adelborst." 

(70) Frederick Jacobsz:, of Corttenhoeff, arquebusier. 

(71) Jan Maert^ns de Waeht, of Vrelant, ., 

(72) Hendrick Hendricxs, of Seurwaerde, soldier. 
,(73) Joohem Elbertsz:, of Amsterdam. 

(74) Jan Pietersz:, of Bommel, " adelborst " 

(75) Harmen Remajenne, of Ceulen, arquebusier. 

(76) Jacob Toevoy, of Gent, soldier. 

(77) Pieter Adriaensz:, of Calverdyck, arquebusier. 

(78) Jan Teunis, of Soelen, " adelborst."' 

(79) Cornelis Cornelisz:, of Haerlem, arquebusier. 

(80) Franchoys Green, of Villeneuve, " adelborst." 

(81) Hans Swans, of Maesterlant, arquebusier. 

(82) Arent Jansz: de With, of Oude Mierop, arquebusier. 

(83) Cornelis Cornelisz: Luyt, quartermaster. 



285 

(84) Hendrik Volkerts, of Emden, trumpeter. 16is - 

(85) Matys Jansz:, of Elsenburgh, arquebusier. 

(86) Dirck Jansz:, of Amsterdam, carpenter's apprentice. 

(87) Gerrit Carstensz:, of Swol, arquebusier. 

(88) Cors Jacobsz:, of Buscoop, ,, 

(89) J >n Jacobs, of liijnsburg, sailor. 

(90) Hendrik Elbrechts, of Ossenbrugge, " adelborst." 

(91) Jan Claesz., of Wesselenboere, 

(92) Hendrik Clenson. of Osenbrugge, soldier. 

(93) Abel Syours, of Seruyssum, sailor. 

(94) Tiet je Douwes, of Bil 

(95) Ertman Gleuche, of Straalsunt, ' adelborst." 

(96) Barent Jansz., of Boeckbolt, arquebusier. 

(97) Jan Claesz:, of llarep, young sailor. 

(98) Frans Volkertsz:, of Amsterdam, boy. 

(99) Caspar Brinckman, of Yreeckenhorst, " adelbortt.'' 

(100) Jaques Wits, of Hamilton, ., 

(101) Wessel Hoeloffs, of Christiana, arquebusier. 

(102) Maerten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

(103) Maerten Scholts, of Dantsick, ' adelborst." 

(104) Claes Jansz:, of Wesep, junior mate. 

(105) Abram Jaiisz:, of Amsterdam, junior carpenter. 

(106) Alichiel de Book, of Ardenborgh, boy. 

(107) Jan Jansz:, of Middelburgh, ,, 

(108) Jacob Cornells de Groot, sailor. 

(109) Pieter Vysagie, of Antwerp, sailor. 

(110) Jacob Willemsz:, of Bomruel, butler's mate. 

(111) Christiaan Wilhelm, of Eobbenhuysen, "adelborst." 

(112) Jan Woutersz:, of Middelburgh, assistant. 

(113) Elias Pieters Baret, of Trammelade, carpenter. 

(114) Severyns Abramsz:, from the Hague, soldier. 

(115) Huybrecht Jansz: Verdoncq, of Delft., sailor. 

(116) Jochem Blanck, of Lubeok, "adelborst." 

(117) Pieter Potter, of Amsterdam, 

(118) Elbert Dircxs, of Emmerick, soldier. 

(119) Divck B/inskes, of Maseyck, sailor. 

(!20) Willem Harmans, of Aspern, "adelborst." 

(121) Maerten Cornelis, of Hoogh Vliet, sailor. 

(122) Jan Gillesz: Verpont, of Leyden, arquebusier. 

(123) Geurt, of Oudtdoor, soldier. 

(124) Hans Jacobsz: Lisky, of Dantsick, soldier. 

(125) Ary Fousten, of Dulcken, "adelborst." 

(126) Albert Gerritsz: Loots, of Woerden, arquebusier (cook's 
mate in 1657). 

(127) Pieter Piotersz:, of Amsterdam, soldier. 

(128) Adriaau Tomas, of St. Anne Kercke, provost. 

(129) firerrit Volckertsz:, of Hoorn, carpenter. 



280 

i56. (130) Jan Hendrixs, of Delft, arquebusier. 

(131) Cornells Jacobsz: Molenaer, of Enokhuysen, arquebusier. 

(132) Eoeloff Lamberts, of Enckhuysen, carpenter. 

(133) Jacob Claesz: Bolck, of Enckhuysen, ,, 

133 persons. 

Among these are 

20 sick of the ships. 

30 engaged in seal hunting on Dassen Island and in SaManha 
Bay. 

8 in the Forest. 

4 on Robben Island. 



62 

so that 71 are left for the garrison and all the work at the Fort ; 
and who are in good health. 

On the roll of the 6th March, 1657, also appear the names of 

1657. Baltus Cornelisz:, of Haerlem, gunner. 

Volckert Jansz: Sas, of Amsterdam, young Bailor. 

Pieter Teunisz: Mulder, master mason. 

Reynier Brondon, of St. Maityn. 

Claes Jansz:, of 8edan, " adeloorst." 

Jacob Cornelisz:, of Rosendael, soldier. 

Willem Hendricxs, of Aecken, ,, 

Nathaniel West, provost. 

Arent Willemsz:, of Hattum, gardener. 

Herman Ernst Gresnich. of Utrecht, second gardener. 

Frans Gerritsz:, of den Uythoorn, sailor. 

Louys Ryckert, of Brussels, " adelborst." 

Jan Jansz: Mostert, of Maeslantsluys, sailor. 

Jan Mahieuse, of Duynkercken, soldier. 

Gerrit Jansz: Ralandt, of Amsterdam, " adelborst." 

Pieter de Graeff, of Rotterdam, boy. 

Pieter Reynout, of Rouan, soldier. 

Frederick Jansz:, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Willem Fransz: Sleuff, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Jacob Jansz:, of Enckhuysen, carpenter. 

Abraham Gabbema, of the Hague, " adelborst." 

Jan Claesz: Vetteman, of Amsterdam, chief surgeon. 

Andries Soebeecq, of Revel, soldier. 

Albert Jansz:, from the Ryp, surgeon's apprentice. 

Hans de Bout, of Antwerp, sailor. 

Pasquael Rodrigos, of Teueriffe, soldier. 

Moens Pietersz; Faesbengger, of Hoven, soldier. 



287 



Hans Beckeudorp, of Hamburgh, sailor. 

Claes Willemsz:, of Renuep, junior carpenter. 

Michiel de Bocq, of Ardenburgh, boy. 

Pieter Vysagie, of Antwerp, sailor. 

Jan Franckeii the youngest, of Aruhem, " adelborst." 

Coenradus Urbanus, of Focxhasn, sailor. 

Nicolaes Delbort, of Arien, soldier. 

Bartholomeus Barns, of Weerden, sailor, 

Dirok Rinskes, of Museyck, ,, 

Cornells Huybrechts, of Hoorn, arquebusier. 

Matthys Corneliez:, of Arhadseu, sailor. 

Johanuas Diel, of Kaedenburgh, " adelborst." 

iVlicliiel Bisscuop, of Dantzich, junior surgeon. 

Wouter Roeloffsz:, of Kesteren, soldier. 

Willem Willemsz:, of Deventer, sailor. 

Coenraet Jan Jansz:, of Duyts, soldier. 

124 persons. 



1667. 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE OFFICERS, SAILORS AND 
SOLDIERS STATIONED AT THE FORT TME GOOD 
HOPE AT CABO DE BOA ESPERANCE, THE 31si 
MAT, 1657. 



per month . 



Jan van Riebeeck, of Cuylenburgh, commander 
Pieter van der Stael, of Rotterdam, sick comforter . . 
Roeloff de Man, bookkeeper. 
Jan van Herwaerden, of Seventer, sergeant 
Arent van Strylandt, of Amersfoort, butler 
Hendrick Hendricksz: Boom, of Amsterdam, gardener 
Ilendrick Juriaensz: Hartman, of Oldenburg, master 

smith. 

JJaut van Eps, of Lochum, junior surgeon 
Jonas de la Geune, of Havre de Grace, hunter 
' 'ornelis Cornelisz:, of Rotterdam, soldier 
Jacob Beeokman, of Wesel, cooper 
Ryk Overhagen, of Steenwyk, soldier 
Gysbert Andriesz:, of Laugesont, mastfr in the forest 
Hendrick Tymonsen, of Campen, soldier 
Louys Raine, of Dieppe, sailor 
Jan van Kempen, " adelborst " 
Elias Giers, of Stockliolm, soldier 



f!30 

f36 

f-20 

32 

24 

m 

30 

28 

15 

f9 

15 

9 

16 

9 

9 

10 

19 



IS57. 



NAME. 



Dirck Aclriaensz: Vreem, of the Meere, carpenter 

Thomas Christoffel Mulder, of Lypsich, soldier 

Roeloff Jansz:, of Dalen, smith's apprentice 

Pieter Cornelisz:, of Langesont, arquebusier, . 

Christiaen Jansz:, of Hoesum, " adelborst" 

Frederick Jansz:, of Amsterdam, carpenter 

Jan Sacharias, of Amsterdam, soldier 

Pieter Jansz:, of Middelburgh, soldier 

Carel Broers, of Stockholm, arquebusier 

Roeioff Siewertsz:, of Groeningen, master carpenter. . 

Jurgen Bittelmeer, of Neurenburgh, " adelborst " . . 

Hendrick Hendricksz:, of Seurmeurde, corporal 

Jochein Elbertsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier 

Jan Pietersz:, of Bemmel, corporal 

Cornelis Cornelisz:, of Haerlem, carpenter 

Evert Jansz: de With, of Oude Nierop, arquebusier. . 

Cornelis Cornelisz: Luyt, quarter-master 

Pieter Anthonisz:, of 's Hertogenbosch, trumpeter , . 

Matthys Jansz:, of Elsenburgh, arquebusier 

Jan Jacobsz:, of Reynsburgh, sailor 

Jan Claesz:, of Wesselenboere, " adelborst " . . 

Abel Sjours, of Seruijssum, sailor 

Casper Brinckman, of Vreeckenhorst, " adelborst " . . 

Marten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier 

Gerrit Harrnansz:, of Deventer, master mason 

Reynier Boudon, of St. Martyn, drummer . . 

Willem Hendricksz:, of Aecken, soldier 

Nathaniel West, of Amsterdam, provost 

Harmen Ernst Gressingh, of Utrecht, 2nd gardener. . 

Frans Gerritz:, of den TJythoorn, sailor 

Louys Ryckaert, of Brussel, cook 

Gerrit Jansz: Ralandt, of Amsterdam tl adelborst " . . 

Jan van Passel, of Geel, soldier 

Frederick Jansz: van der Bergh, arquebusier 

Abraham Gabbema, from the Hague, " adelborst " . . 

Jan Claesz: Vetteman, of Amsterdam, chief surgeon 

Andries Soebeecq, of Revel, soldier 

Hans de Bout, of Antwerp, sailor 

Pasqua4 Rodrigos, of Teneriffe, soldier 

Hendrick Matthys, of Stralen " adelborst " . . 

Job Hendricksz: Boom, boy 

Tennis Fiedericx, of West Riesen, sailor 

Andries Swart, of Elvingh, soldier 

Lourentsz: Jansz:, of Delft, soldier 



Earning* 
per month. 



15 
f9 

fia 
fii 

12 

fH 

f9 

f9 

fll 

f22 

no 

14 

fl(> 

f!4 

16 

fll 

f!4 

f30 

flO 

fo 

flO 

f8 

flO 

fll 

f'^2 

fll 

fLO 

f!5 

fll 

f9 

f20 

flO 

flO 

flO 

flO 

36 

flO 

fll 

flO 

flO 

fo 

9 

9 

9 



289 



NAME. 



Jan Dircxs, of Groeningen, " aclelborst " 

Dirck Mayer, of Lunenburgh, arquebusier . . 

Jaii Cornelisz:, of Leyderdorp, sailor 

Dirck Jansz;, of Petten, sailor 

Willem Pietersz:, of Niramegen, " adelborst " 

Pieter Vijsagie, of Antwerp, sailor 

Christiaan Wilhelmus, of Robbinhuysen, " adelborst " 

Jan Woutersz:, of Middolburgh, soldier 

Jan Francken, the youngest, of Arnhem, " adelborst " 

Coenradus Urbanus, of Focxhaen, sailor 

Gerrit Yalck, of Schoppingen, " adelborst " . . 

Christiaan de Soete, of Tedegem, soldier 

Severyn Abrahamsz:, of the Hague, soldier 

Jochum Blanck, of Lubpck, " adeiborst " 

Pieter Potter, of Amsterdam, land surveyor 

Elbert Dircksz:, of Emmerich, soldier 

Dirck Rinskes, of Massy ck, sailor 

Hans Jacobsz: Lisky, of Dantzich, soldier 

Albert Gerritsz: Loots, of Woerden, cook's mate 

Pieter Pietersz:, of Amsterdam, soldier 

Gerrit Yolckertsz:, of Hoeven, carpenter 

Jan Hendricksz:, of Delft, arquebusier 

Johannes Diel, of Koedenburgh, " adelborst " 

Abraham Jansz:, of Amsterdam, carpenters' apprentice 

Nicolas Delbort, of Aiven 

Coenraet Jan Jansz:, of Duyts 

Roelandt van de Walle, plough maker 

Willem Leendertsz:, thatcher 

llendrick Harmanse, of Inger, plougher 

1 [endrick Francen, tree grafter 

Arien Ariensz:, of Lagedyck, miller 

Pierre de Hamber, chestmaker 

Jan Hendricksz:, of Schoppingen, can plough with oxen 

Michiel Bartholomeusz:, turner 

Isaacq Harmensz: van Driel, ; 

Jan Jacobsz:, of Langedyck Millwrights 

Claes Cornelisz:, of Hangelaer ) 

On the Robbejactien. 

Claes Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, commander 
Juriaen Jansz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier 
Symen Albertsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier Vi -,*:^ 
Jacob Claesz:, from Ter Schellingh, arquebueier 



Earniii<rs 
per m- nth. 



flO 

HO 

f9 

fll 

flO 

flO 

flO 

f!2 

flO 

flO 

flO 

f8 

f9 

flO 

fly 

f9 

19 

f9 

15 

9 

fao 
fii 
fio 

f!6 

flO 

9 

f!8 

f!2 

19 

f8 

f!2 

19 

f7 

flO 

40 

40 

f40 

f!2 
12 
12 
12 

1520 



1657. 



290 



Period of 
Punishment. 



; years 
3 mths. 
12 years 
5 ,, 

For the !c-rm 
of their na- 
tural lives. 



12 

25 



Convicts and Men in Chains. 

Ertman Gleuge, of Straalsont, for another . . 
Claes de Logie, of Amsterdam, 
Laurentsz: Albertsz, ... 

Hans Visscher, of Neurenburgh, 

The Chinaman 

Catharina of Paliacatte, a black 

Arrived from Batavia per H. Louysa on the 24th 
May, 1657. 

Jan Hendricksz:, of Leeuwaerden . . . . . . for 12 vrs. 

Guiljam Weerreys, of Brussels 

Pieter Ysbrants, of Haerlem 

Frans Helmigh of Osenbrugge 

Jasper Jause Duyff . . . . . . . . . :| 

Women and Children. 

The Commander's wife, three children and his own 

three Batavia female slaves . . . . . . 6 (? 7) 

Frederick Verburgh . . . . . . . . 1 

The wife and two children of the sick comforter, 
Pieter van der Stael, and his own Batavia 
female slave brought from the gardener. . 4 

The wife of the chief surgeon, Jan Vetteman, and 

one slave of his own . . . . . . 2 

Jan van Harwarden's wife, one son and one daughter *>\ 

The wife of the gardener, llendrick Boom, and five 

children . . . . . . . . . . (i 

The wife of Jan Woutersz:, soldier, a black woman. . 1 



Freemen. 

Steven Jansz:, of Wageningen. 

Hendrick Elbertsz:, of Osenbrugge. 

Otto Jansz:, of Vreede. 

Jacob Cornelisz:, of Roseudael. 

Tomas Robbertsz:, of Kent. Left the Company's service for 
that of the freemen. 

Herman Remajenne, of Cologne. 

Jan Martensz: de Wacht, of Vreelant. 

Hans Pietersz: Faesbenger. 

Warnar Cornelisz:, of Nunspeet. 

Willem Willemsz:, of Deventer. Left the Company's service 
for that of the freemen. 

.I:n Reyniersx:, of Amsterdam. 



291 

Wouter Cornelisz: Mostert, of Utrecht. 1657. 

Bartholomeus Borns, of Weerden. Left the Company's service 
for that of the freemen. 

Roeloff Hansz:, of Christiania. 



MUSTEK ROLL OF THE OFFICERS, SAILORS ANT) 
SOLDIERS STATIONED AT THE FORT "THE GOOD 
HOPE," AT CABO DE BOA ESPERANCE, ON THE 
15TH FEBRUARY, 1658. 



Jan van Riebeeck, of Cuylenburgh, commander. 16-53. 

Pieter van der Stael, of Rotterdam, sick comforter. 

Roeloff de Man, bookkeeper. 

Jan van Harwarden, of Seventer, sergeant. 

Abraham Gabbema, of the Hague, scribe (clerk). 

David van Eps, of Lechum, junior surgeon. 

Henrich Juriaens H&rtman, of Oldenburch, master smith. 

Jacob Beeckman, of Wesel, cooper. 

Rem Courtsz:, of Emden, turner. 

Ryck Overhagen, of Steenwyck, soldier. 

Ghysbert Andries, of Langesont, superintendent in the forest. 

Jan van Kempens, " adelborst." 

Elias Giers, of Stockholm, soldier. 

Roeloff Jansz:, of Dalen, smith. 

Pieter Jansz:, of Middelburch, soldier. 

Roeloff Sievertsz:, of Groeningen, master carpenter. 

Jurgen Bittelmer, of Nurenburgh, " ddelborst." 

Jochem Elbertsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

Jan Pietersz:, of Bemmel, corporal. 

Cornelis Cornelisz:, of Haerlem, carpenter. 

Arent Jansz: de Wit, of Oudenierop, arquebusier. 

Jan Jacobsz:, of Rynsburgh, sailor. 

Jan Claesz:, of Weselenboere, " adelborst." 

Abel Syours, of Seruyssum, sailor. 

Marten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

Reynier Boudon, of St. Martin, drummer. 

Willem Hendrickxs, of Aecken, soldier. 

Nathaniel West, of Amsterdam, provost. 

Claes de Logie, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Louys Ryckaert, of Brussels, cook. 

Frederik Jansz:, of Amsterdam, carpenter. 

Andries Soebencq, of Revel, soldier. 

Pasquael Rodrigos, of Tenerifl'e, soldier. 

V 2 



Theunis Fredericksz:, of Westerriesen, sailor. 

Andries Swart, of Elburgh, soldier. 

Louris Jansz:, of Delft, soldier. 

Dircq Jansz:, of Petten, arquebusier. 

Wilhelm Pietersz:, of Nymegen, ' adelborst." 

Abraham Jansz:, of Amsterdam, carpenter's apprentice. 

Wilhelm Leendertsz:, of Purmerendt, arquebusier. 

Arien Ariensz:, of Langedycq, arquebusier. 

Roelotl Gerritsz:, of Jeveren, arquebusier. 

Pieter Jansz: van Yeur, arquebusier. 

Jan Dircqsz:, of Haerlem, chief boatswain. 

Gillis Robbertsz: Tavernier, of Gouda, sailor. 

Pieter Jansz:, of Haerlem, sailor. 

Sicke Jacobsz:, of Harlingen, sailor. 

Henrick Leurs, of Harlingen, arquebusier. 

Nittert Jansz:, of Sardam, arquebusier. 

Marten Reselaer, of Berenbergh, cooper. 

Jurgen Caretensz:, of Sunderbergh, sailor. 

Juris Taute, of Lubecq, arquebusier. 

Jan Woutersz:, of Middelburgh, soldier. 

Christian Wilhem, of Robbenhuyseu, " adelborst." 

Jan Francken, the youngest, of Arnhem, provisional corporal. 

Cunradus Urbanus, of Fockhaen, sailor. 

Nicolaes del Bort, of Arien, soldier. 

Christiaan de Soete, of Tedegem, soldier. 

Roelant van de Wai, of Waes, wagon maker. 

Arent Andriesz:, of Bergen, arquebusier. 

Thomas Hermansz:, of Sevenbergen, sailor. 

Jau Remens, of Ghent, " adelborst." 

Jaspar Jausz: Duyff, of Middelburgh, soldier. 

Joost Jacobsz: Hulstman, of 's Hertogenbosch, soldier. 

Severyn Abrahamsz:, of the Hague, soldier. 

Jochem Bl.ancq of Lubecq, " adelborst." 

Pieter Anthonisz:, of 's Hertogenbosch, trumpeter. 

Claes Jansz: Nobel, of Hasselt, lance-corporal. 

Heyn Symonsz:, of Hoorn, arquebusier. 

Meyndert Witoop, of Esens, soldier. 

Gerrit Boucheren, of Rhenen, soldier. 

Maerten Pietersz: d' Pont, of Delft, soldier. 

Jan Jansz: Ronde, of Tulbagh, " adelborst." 

Hans Fredericq Smith, of Gulick, " adelborst." 

Juriaen Stoet, of Rynevelt, "adelborst." 

Andries Hermansz: Pevoet, of the Hague, soldier. 

Hans Juriaen Streker, of Leipsich, soldier. 

Jacob Balhoorn, of St. Margarite Caspel, arquebusier. 

Hans Wiilemsz:, of Antwerp, arquebusier. 

Pieter Potter, of Amsterdam, land surveyor. 



Dircq Kinskens, of Maseyck, sailor. 1658. 

Albert Gerritsz: Loots, of Woerden, sailor. 

Jan van Ghmt, of Deventer, soldier. 

Adriaen de Grueyter, of Meerckerckspoel, soldier. 

Martin Baten, of Diest, cadet. 

Pasquier Isaacqsz: de Lepelaer, carpenter. 

Jan Stevensz: Louterbeeck, of Rotterdam, carpenter. 

Pieter Pietersz:, of Amsterdam, soldier. 

Q-errit Volckertsz:, of Hoorn, carpenter. 

Jan Hendricksz:, of Delft, arquebusier. 

Dirck Cornelisz: Grutter, of Hoorn, arquebusier. 

91 wage-earning persons, or a deficiency of 9, which number will 
be drawn from the first arriving ships. 

Convicts and Men in Irons. 

Heudrich Hermansz:, of Inger, for another 4 years. 
Eertman (Heuge, of Stralsunt, 2 ,, 

Lourens Albertsz:, of Amsterdam, 11 
Hans Visscher, of Nurend, .... 4 
A Chinaman ( ,. ,-,. 

Catariua, of Paliacatta, female black | 
Jan Hendricksz:, of Leeuwaerden, for another 11 years. 
Guilliam Weereys, of Brussels, 2 ,, 

Pieter Ysbrantsz:, of Haerlem, ,, 11 

Frans Helmich, of Osenbrugge, 24 ,, 

Women and Children. 

The Commander's wife, 3 children and 3 slaves (his own) . 
The wife and 3 children of the sick comforter Pieter van dor 
Stael, and 1 slave (his own). 

The wife of the sergeant van Herwaerden, with 2 sons. 
The wife of Jan Woutersz:. soldier, a black woman. 



Freemen's Wives and Children. 

The wife of Hendrick Hendricksz: Boom, and 5 children. 

The wife of Elbert Dircqsz:. 

The wife of Jan Claesz: Vetteman, and 1 slave (his own). 

Freemen . 

Steven's Company. 
Steven Jansz:, of Wageningon ) owners of the laud 



I Cendrick Elbrochtsz:, of Osenbrag ) granted to them. 
Wilholm Willemso, of Deventer, in their service. 



294 



16>58 - Vri'deti's Company. 

Otto Jausz:, of Vrede j owners 

Jacob Comelisz:, of Rosendael ( 
iieudrick Frausz: Knipbergen, in their service. 

Herman'* Company. 
Her man llemajenne, of Cologne 



i owners. 
J an Marteusz: de Wacht 

Jacob Cloeten, of Cologne. 

Hans Coruolisz:, of " het Legolant List," in their servieu. 

Srtttckmetn f 8 Company. 

Casper Briuckmau, of Vreedenhorst ) 
Warnar Cornelisz:, of Nunspeet j 

Gerrit Sandersz:, of Blecksum ) . ,, . 

m, c i^ MH tueir service. 

Ihomas Robbertsz:, or lient ) 

Visagie's Company. 

Pieter Visagie, of Antwerp 
Jacob Teunisz:, of Cooltgensplaat 
Fraiis Grerritez: of " den Uythoorn." 
Hymen Jans/: In 't Velt, of Dordrecht. 



owners. 



Hendrick Heudricksz: Boom, owner. 

Herman Ernstz: Gresnich, of Utrecht \ 

Cornells Claesz: of Utrecht > in his service. 

Dirck Meyer, of Lunenberg 

Jan lieyniersz:, of Amsterdam, owner. 

AVouter Cornelisz: Mostert, 

Jan van Passel, of Geel j 

KoelofE Hansz:, of Christiania > in their service. 

Claes Schryver ) 

Hendrick Hendricksz:, of Zurwurde ) free burghers 
Klbcrt Dircqsz:, of Emerich ) and tailors. 

Christiaan Jansz:, of Hoesum I* i , 
Pieter Cornelisz:, of Langesont j 

Jan Claesz: Vettenian, of Amsterdam, free burgher and surgeon. 
Isaack Manget, of Geneva, in his service. 

Jan Jansz:, of Amsterdam \ owners of the Saldanha 

Gerrit Hermans^:, of Deventcr > trade for burning oil, 
Thomas Clmstofrel Mulder ) fishing, i^c. 
Cornelis Comelisz:, of Rotterdam \ 
Bartholomeus Borus, of Woerden ' in tUeir service. 

Heudriok Bareut^z:, of Leeuwaerdeu 



295 

Leendert Cornelisz:, of iSeveauuysen, woodsawyer, aad owner of 1(i>i8 - 
part of a forest. 

Dircq Dircqsz:, of Cologne "" 

Carel Broersz:, of Stockholm 

Christoffel Goenraets 

Jan Jansz: Macca ^in his service. 

Claes Fredericksz: of Amsterdam 

Wilhelm Grou, of Ketenes 

Christoffel Broeckermeulen J 

Dirck Ariensz: Vreem, of der Mere i , 
Pieter Paulus Cley, of Delft j ireo 

Michiel Bartholomeusz:, of Swal, in their service. 

Jan Zaehariasz:, in the service of the bookkeeper and assistants, 
to cook for them. 

Hans Jacobsz: Liski, in the sergeant's service for the samo pur- 
pose. 

Total 189 souls living at the Cape, under the obedience of tliu 
Netherlands' Chartered East India Company. 



MTSTER ROLL OF THE OFFICERS, SAILORS AND 
SOLDIERS STATIONED AT THE FORT "THE 
GOOD HOPE," AT CABO DE BOA ESPERA.NCE, 
ON THE OTH MARCH, 1659. 



Jan van Riebeeck, of Cuylenburgh, commander. 
Roeloff de Man, of Cuylenburgh, junior merchant. 
Pieter van der Stael, sick comforter. 
Abraham (rabbema, of the Hague, fiscus. 
Hendrick Jarjansz: Hardtman, of Oldenburgh, master smith. 
Ryck Overhagen, of Steenwyck, superintendent on Robben 
Island. 

Elias Griers, of Stockholm, soldier. 

Roeloff Jansz:, of Dalen, smith. 

Cornells Cornelisz:, of Haerlem, master carpenter. 

Abel Sijours, of Seruyssum, sailor. 

Marten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, master gardener. 

Reynier Buodon, of St Martin, drummer. 

WUlem Hendricksz:, of Aacken, soldier. 

Nathaniel West, of Amsterdam, provost. 

Louys Rychaet, of Bruggen, cook. 

Frederick Jansz:, of Amsterdam, carpenter. 



200 

1659. Andries Soebeecq, of Eeval, soldier. 

Theunis Frederieksz:, of Westerysen, sailor. 

Louris Jansz:, of Delft, soldier. 

Marten Reselaer, of Berenbergh, cooper. 

Johannes de Leeuw, of Haeffte, cadet. 

Pieter Jansz: Lampus, of Leyden, sailor. 

Jacob Pietersz:, of Brugge, arquebusier. 

Theunis Koch, of Reygenbach, cadet 

Johannes Eliasz:, of Leyden, sailor. 

Amroon Ericksz:, of Bergen, arquebusier. 

Jan Claesz:, of Steenwyck, soldier. 

Gerrit Jacobsz:, of Elburgh, arquebusier. 

Andries Robbertsz:, of M aesterlandt, gunner's mate. 

Pieter Cruythoff, of Lin, cadet. 

Joris Jorisz:, of Oldenzeel, ship's corporal. 

Hendrick Hendricksz:, Cloppenburgh, cadet. 

Jan Bennckhoven, of Root, cadet. 

Hendrik Hermansz:, of Inger in Westphalia, soldier. 

Reynier Coenen, of Nymegen, cadet. 

Hendrick Heunigh, of Tongerloo, soldier. 

Jan Ellekiuck, of Nieuwenborgh, soldier. 

Lucas Jansz:, of Groningen, soldier. 

Francoys de Koninck, of Ghent, soldier. 

Harman Hendricksz:, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Jan Francke, the youngest, of Arnhem, corporal. 

Coenradus Urbanus, of Foixhaen, sailor. 

Niclaes Delbert, of Arien, soldier. 

Christiaen de Soeten, of Tedegem, soldier. 

Arent Andriesz:, of Bergen, arquebusier. 

Thomas Harmansz:, of Zevenbergen, sailor. 

Pieter van Cliuckenbergh, of Middelburgh, junior surgeon. 

Jan Jansz: de Beer, of Maastricht, trumpeter. 

Jan Carstenz:, of Oldenburgh. sailor. 

Juchim Eysse, of Timuierveen, soldier. 

Christiaen Louysx:, of Roebrugge, sailor.' 

Joris Kouwel, of Honcoten, soldier. 

Frans Martensz:, of St. Antheunis, soldier. 

Guiljamo Robbertsen, of Dondey, chief surgeon. 

Pieter Evesaert, of Cruysaert, corporal. 

Claes Jansz: Blauw, of Calis, boatswain's mate. 

Hendrick Nagel, of Bebber, soldier. 

Hendrick Hagens, of Lochum, cadet. 

Jacob Kouters, of Dalen, soldier. 

Jan Dircksz:, of Rhees, cadet. 

Anthony de Muuten, of Ter Goes, carpenter. 

1'irter Hansz:, of Nymegen, soldier. 

Joo'iim Blancq, of Lubecq, dispenser. 



29, 

Olaes Jansz: Nobel, of Hasselt, lance corporal. 165 - 

Heyn Symonsz:, of Hoorn, carpanter. 

Jan Coenraet Visser, of Ommeii, soldiei, 

Jan de Coen, of Nynoven, soldier. 

Johannes Diel, of Koedeburgh, cadet. 

Elias Dircksz:, of Maegdeburgh, soldier. 

Sick and Invalids, 

Adriaen de Ruyter, of Meerkerckspoel, soldier. 

Pieter Rooman, of Schersel, soldier. 

Anthony Terrouw, of Antwerp, soldier. 

Jan Cornelisz:, of Warmsoo, arquebusier. 

Christiaen Hansz:, of Toonder, cadet. 

Heynck Jansz:, of Noorden, sailor. 

Cornelis Greleynsz: van Otte, of Bergen of Zoom, arquebusier. 

Grilbertus de Bissoni, of Brussel, cadet. 

Convicts and Chain Gatuj. 

Louries Albertsz:, of Atasterdam, for 10 years more"") 

Jan Hendricksz:, of Leeuwaerden, ,, 

Frans Helmich, of Ossenbrugge, 23 ,, I From 

Chatarina \ \ Batavia. 

Susanna \ of Paliecatte, blacks, for life 

Domingo ) J 

Michiel Bartholomeusz:, of Swol, for 6 years more. 

Hendrik Jansz:, of Schayck, 15 

Willem Pietersz:, of Nymegeu, 5 

Jacob Balhooven, of St. Margriet, 3 

Hans Meyer, of Wesselenmaro, 3 

Pasquael Rodrigo, of Teneriffo, 2 

Dirck Cornelisz: Jonge Neuteboom, of IVfontt'o.trl , for 6 yrs. more. 

Ertman GHeuge 1 year ,, 

Herry Hottentoo, for life on Robbeu Island. 



MUSTER ROLL. 
1660. 

Jan van Riobeock, of Guylenburgh, commander. I6o. 

Roelof de Man, of Ouylenburgh, junior merchant. 

Pieter van der Stael, of Rotterdam, sick comforter. 

Abraham Grabbema, of the Hague, fiscal. 

Q-ysbert Reyersz: van Campen, of Amsterdam, assistant. 

Elias Giors, of Stockholm, corporal. 

Comelis Cornelisz:, of Haerlom, mastor carpenter. 



298 

16C.O. Reynier Buoden, of St. Marty 11, drummer. 

Willem Hendricksz:, of Aacken, soldier. 
Nathaniel West, of Amsterdam, provost. 
Louis Ryckhardt, of Brussels, cook. 
Andries Soebeeck, of Reval, soldier. 
Theunis Fredericksz:, of Westerysen, sailor. 
Lourens Jansz:, of Delft, soldier. 
Marten Reselaer, of Berenburgh, cooper. 
Johannes de Leeuw, of Affte, cadet. 
Pieter Jansz: Zampus, of Leyden, sailor. 
Jacob Pietersz:, of Brugge, arquebusier. 
Theunis Kag, of Key gen bag, cadet. 
Ammon Ericx, of Bergen, arquebusier. 
Jan Claesz:, of Steenwyck, soldier. 
Grerrit Jacobsz:, of Elburg, arquebusier. 
Pieter Cruythoff, of Lin, corporal of the cadets. 
Gysbertus de Bissony, of Brussels, soldier. 
Hendrick Harmans, of Inger in Westphalia, soldier. 
Lucas Jansz:, of Groningen, soldier. 
Francois de Coninck, of Gent, soldier. 
Claes Lambertsz:, of Aelsmoer, arquebusier. 
Albert Thornasz: Kerokenraedt, of Cologne, soldier. 
Cornells Cornelisz: Luydt. garden foreman. 
Jan Hendricx, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 
Willem Jansz:, of Alckmaer, arquebusier. 
Pieter Egbertsz: Smidt, from Ten Damno, sailor. 
Carsten Cartensz:, of Amsterdam, youug sailor. 
Jan Parys, of Brussels, soldier. 
Pieter Tobias, of Harlingen, sailor. 
Pieter van Meerhoff, of Copenhagen, soldier. 
Arent Roelofs, of Christiaenshaven, sailor. 
Christiaen Christiaenz:, of Fleckere, sailor. 
Valentyn Does, of Nymegen, cadet. 
Jan Jansz: van Eyck, of Hasersouw, arquebusier. 
Christiaen Jansz:, of Roesum, superintendent of the Company's 
stables. 

Jacob Jacobsz: Backer, of Zaerdam, carpenter. 

Herman Ernst von Gresnich, of Utrecht, second gardener. 

Herman Wiggertsz: de Vloo, of Steenwyck, soldier. 

Lourens Abrahamsz:, of Haerlem, arquebusier. 

Jeremias Frausz:, of Amsterdam, soldier. 

Cornelis Bouwonsz:, of Dorp van Leydeu, soldier. 

Jan Baptista, of Frankfort, cadet. 

Jan Gerritsz:, of Delmenhorst, soldier. 

Anthony de Ka, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Nellis Cloepert, of Cornelisz:, Munster, sailor. 

Willem Adamsz:, of Amsterdam, bailor. 



299 

Jan van Overmeer, of Oversubie, sailor. 

Leendert Kase, of Amsterdam, soldier. 

Frederick Frederioksz:, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Nicolaes Del Bort, of Arien, soldier. 

Christiaen de Soete, of Tedegem, soldier. 

Arent Andriesz, of Bergen, arquebusier. 

Thomas Harmansz:, of Sevenbergen, sailor. 

Pieter van Clinckenberg, of Middelburg, junior surgeon. 

Jan Carstens, of Oldenburg, sailor. 

Joris Couwel, of Hensconte, soldier. 

Frans Martensz:, of St. Antheunis, soldier. 

Pieter Everaert, of Cruyssardt, sergeant. 

Hendrick Nagel, of Bebber, soldier. 

Hendrick Hagens, of Loohum, cadet. 

Pieter Booman, of Schorsel, soldier. 

Anthony de Munter, from Ter (roes, carpenter. 

Pieter Hansz:, of Nymegen, soldier. 

Jasper de Boy, sailor. 

Pieter Mol, of Dansick, cadet. 

Jacob Jacobsz:, of Jeveren, soldier. 

Pieter Jacobsz:, of Bergen op Zoom, cadet. 

Pieter Verrenne, of Brugge, soldier. 

Cornelis Willemsz:, of Linden, cadet. 

Guilliam Snauwart, of St. Bowins, soldier. 

Jan Pietersz:, of Copenhagen, soldier. 

Mathys Huybrechts, of Oberkerke, cadet. 

Coenraedt Schaetman, of Duynkercken, soldier. 

Pelagius Weckerlin, of Cosnits, cadet. 

Marten Climpien, of Boomgaerden, cadet. 

Laurens Verstraete, of Brugge, cadet. 

Guilliam de Bunje, of Disselgem, soldier. 

Jan Vooght, of Lubeck, cadet. 

David van Guchten, of Ghent, soldier. 

Hendrik Lacus, of Wesel, cadet. 

Willem Dirckx, of 's Graevendeel, arquebusier. 

Jochim Blancq, of Lubecq, dispenser. 

Claes Jansz: Nobel, of Hasselt, lance-corporal. 

Heyn Symonszt, of Hoorn, carpenter. 

Jan Duynsbergen, of The Hague, soldier. 

Pieter Potter, of Amsterdam, land surveyor, 

Jan van Gendt, of Deventer, soldier. 

Gillis Arentsz:, of Schiedam, arquebusier. 

Arent Gerrits, of Blburg, arquebusier. 

Willem Cornelisz:, of Rotterdam, gunner and trumpeter. 

Johannes Diel, of Kaedenburg, cadet. 

Erntryck Dilman Ditmar, of Berlin, soldier. 

Johau Jansz: de Widt, of Widtmout, soldier 



300 

1660. Anthony de Widt, of The Hague, cadet. 

Johannes van Asschen, of Brussels, cadet. 
Jan Staetis, of Bergen Wynox, soldier. 
Jacob Talje, of Westfreeckeren, cadet. 
Pieter Hardthoorn, of Cologne, cadet. 
Johannes Darhagen, of Gronau, cadet. 
Hendrick Stuyver, of Amsterdam, cadet. 
Georgius Frederick Wreede, of Amsterdam, cadet. 
Pieter Provoost, of Sluys in Flanders, cadet. 
Cornells Jansz: von Roye, of Woerden, arquebusier. 
Marten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam, master gardener. 

Sick and Invalids. 

Christiaen Roeloffs, of Wesselenboere, young soldier. 
Pieter Hendricx:, of Odendaal, sailor. 
Jacob Hendricx:, of Jemeren, cadet. 
GHllis Dircx, of Rantwyck, arquebusier. 
Albert Albertsz:, of Blocksiel, sailor. 
Marten de Bruyn, of Brugge, soldier. 
J an Danckhart, of Nyuoven, cadet. 
Cornelis Gerritsz: Jongeboer, of Heemstee, arquebusier. 
Jacob Pritsel, of Dresden in Saxony, cadet. 
Niels Bieursz:, of Slangerop, cadet. 
Joost Brochterop, of Buchum, cadet. 
Anthony Govertsz:, of Antwerpen, cadet. 
Lourens Asmus, of Tonningen, cadet. 



MUSTER ROLL, 1661. 
1st March. 

1661. Jan van Riebeeck, of Cuylenburgh, commander. 

Roeloff de Man, of Cuylenburgh, junior merchant. 

Pieter van der Stael, of Rotterdam, sick comforter. 

Abraham Gabbema, of the Hague, book-keeper and fiscal. 

Nathaniel West, of Amsterdam, provost. 

Louys Ryohart, of Brussels, cook. 

Lourens Jausz:, of Delft, soldier. 

Martin Reselaer, of Berenbergh, cooper. 

Johannes de Leeu, of Haffte, cadet. 

Pieter Jansz: Zampus, of Leyden, sailor. 

Theunis Kogh, of Reygeiibach, cadet. 

Amman Erichsz:, of Bergen, superintendent in the forest. 

Jan Claesz:, of Steonwyck, cadet. 

Lucas Jansz:, of Grooniugen, soldier. 

Frauchoys de Coninck, of Ghent, soldier. 



301 

Glaes Lambertsz:, of Alsmeer, cook and baker. l661 ' 

Pieter Egberts, of Den Dam, smith's assistant. 
Pieter Thobias, of Harlingen, sailor. 
Arent Roeloffs, of Christiaanshaven, sailor. 
Christiaen Christiaensz, of Fleckere, sailor. 
Valenthyn Does, of Nimwegen, cadet. 
Jan Jansz: van Eyck, of Haserswoude, quarter-master. 
Christiaen Jansz:, of Hoesum, superintendent of the Comp's 
stables. 

Jacob Jacobsz: Backer, of Zardam, carpenter. 

Jeremias Fransz:, of Amsterdam, soldier. 

Marten de Bruyn, of Brugge, soldier. 

Joost Pietersz:, of Leyden, soldier. 

Anthony de Kaa, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Pieter Hendrickx, of Odendaal, carpenter. 

Nellis Kloepert, of Cornells Minister, sailor. 

Willem Adamsz:, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Otte Jansz:, of Vreede, soldier. 

Joost Hendricksz:, of Groningen, soldier. 

Jeronimus Croes, of Bylevelt, soldier. 

Gerrit Geronitsz:, of Lies, arquebusier. 

Pieter Arents van de Vaert, of Haerlem, cadet. 

Jan Jansz:, of Arnhem, soldier. 

Pieter Andro, of 's Hertogenb( sch, cadet. 

Claes Jansz:, of Pelsum, arquebusier. 

Jan Bartelsz: Steynbergh, cadet. 

Bareut Ciaes ter Maet, of Assen, soldier. 

Evert Cornelisz:, of Utrecht, urquebusier. 

Adriaen Aukesen de Yisser, of " de Leege Swalue," cadet 

Willem Heridricksz, of Utrecht, soldier. 

Gilles Grimbertsz:, of Brussels, soldier. 

Wessel Lambertsz:, of Zwolle, cadet. 

Lubbert Elcken, of Jeveren, cadet. 

Jeronimus Smith, of Strassburgh, soldier. 

Johannes Baltersz:, of Utrecht, cadet. 

Jacob Huybrechtsz: van Rosendael, of Leyden, cadet. 

Floris Adriaensz:, of Amsterdam, young sailor. 

Reynier Dryver, of Cleeff, cadet. 

Thobias Smith, of Streelen, cadet. 

Jan Theunisz:, of Hoogerys in Goylandt, cadet. 

Bartholomeus Eudolphus, of Het Weert, cadet. 

Joost Homrnelingh, of Munster, cadet. 

Hans Assersz:, of Rype, sailor. 

Claes de Winter, of Bremen, cadet. 

Caspar Brinckman, of Vreeckcnhorst, cadet. 

Paul Holsteyn, of Flensburgh, arquebusier. 

Gerrit Arentsz:, of Enschede, sailor. 



302 

Thomas Pauwelsz:, of Tonderen, sailor. 

Dirck Wessels, of Het Ampt te Harpsteede, soldier. 

Jan Wessels, of Het Ampt te Harpsteede, soldier. 

Ryck Evertsz:, of Auryck, sailor. 

Jan Jansz: Schoonhove, of Amsterdam, arquebusipr. 

Jan Jansz:, of Bommel, cadet. 

Pieter Baderotjes, of Ut in the land of Cologne, husbandman. 

Roeloff Michielsz:, of Godtlandt, arquebusier. 

Tuge Jurse, of Rype, sailor. 

Pieter Adriensz:, of de Sehage, arquebusier. 

Gerrit Jansz:, of Ornastappe in Ireland, sailor. 

Harman Pietersz: Doerman, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Jan Zacharias, of Amsterdam, cadet. 

Nicolaes Delbart, of Arien, mason. 

Ohristiaen de Soete, of Tedegem, soldier. 

Pieter van Clinckenberg, of Middelburgh, surgeon. 

Jan Carstensz:, of Oldenburgh, sailor 

Pieter Everaert, of Cruysaert, sergeant. 

Hendrick Nagel, of Bebber, soldier. 

Hendrick Hagens, of Lochum, cadet. 

Pieter Rooman, of Schorsel, soldier. 

Anthony de Munter, of Ter Goes, carpenter. 

Pieter Hansz:, of Nymegen, soldier. 

Jasper de Boey, wagon maker's assistant. 

Pieter Mou, of Dantzich, corporal 

Pieter Jansz:, of Bergen op Zoom, cadet. 

Cornelis Willemsz:, of Liender, cadet. 

Coenraedt Schadtman, of Duynkercken, soldier. 

Guiljamo de Bunje, of Disselgum, soldier. 

Hendrick Lacus, of Wesel, land surveyor ami assistant. 

Pieter Jacobsz:, of Oetjenskercck, soldier. 

Guiliaem de Haen, of Hooglee, soldier. 

Hans Meyer, of Wesselenmaire, cadet. 

Jochim Blanck, of Lubeecq, dispenser. 

Claes Jansz: Nobel, of Hasselt, carpenter. 

Heyn Simonsz:, of Hoorn, carpenter. 

Jan Duynsbergen, of the Hague, soldier. 

Jan Jaiisz:, of Munster, cadet. 

Isaac Liberis, of Delft, soldier. 

Jan Fransz: Disse, of Rotterdam, arquebusier. 

Claer Roeloffsz: ter Maet, of the Hague, cadet. 

Louys Isaacsz:, of Amersfoort, arquebusier. 

Pieter Bastiaensz:, of 's Hertogenbosch, soldier. 

Isaacq Jansz: de Graeff, of Leyden, cadet. 

Pieter Potter, of Amsterdam, lind surveyor. 

Gillis Arents, of Schiedam, arquobusier. 

Arent Gerritsz:, of Elburgh, arquebusier. 



SOS 

Willem Cornelipz:, of Rotterdam, gunner and trumpeter. 1661 

Johannes Diel, of Hoedenburgh, master mason. 

Joost Pietersz: Vos, of Delft, soldier. 

Adriaen Bastiaensz:, of Utrecht, arquebusier. 

Joost Brochterop, of Boohum, cadet. 

Lourens Asmus, of Toningen, cadet. 

Anthony de Wit, of the Hague, cadet. 

Pieter Harthoorn, of Cologne, cadet. 

Jan Danokaert, of Nyuoven, cadet. 

Hendrick Struyver, of Amsterdam, cadet. 

Giorgius Fredericks/:, of Uten in Luynonburgh, cadet. 

Dirck Meyer, of Luynenburgh, arquebusier. 



MUSTER BOLL, 1662. 
1st April. 

Jan van Riebeeck, of Cuylenburgh, commander. 1662. 

Roeloff de Man, of Cuylenburgh, junior merchant. 
Pieter van der Stael, of Rotterdam, sick comforter. 
Abraham Gabbema, of the Hague, book-keeper and fiscal. 
Nathaniel West, of Amsterdam, provost. 
Lourens Jausz:, of Delft, soldier. 
Marten Reselaer, of Berenburgh, chief cooper. 
Pieter Jansz: Lampus, of Leydon, sailor. 
Thcunis Kagh, of Reygeubaoh, cadet. 
Jan Claesz:, of Steenwyck, cadet. 
Pieter Cruythoff, of Lin, corporal to the cadets. 
Lucas Jansz:, of Groningen, soldier. 
BVanchoys de Coningh, of Ghent, soldier. 
Claes Lambertsz:, of Aelsmeer, cook and baker. 
Pieter Thobiasz:, of Harlingen, sailor. 
Pieter van Meerhoff, of Copenhagen, junior surgeon. 
Arent Roeloffsz:, of Christ iaenshaven, sailor. 
Christiaen Christiaensz:, of Fleckere, arquebusier. 
Jan Jausz: van Eyck, of Hazerswoude, quarter-master. 
Christiaen Jansz:, of Hoesum, superintendent of the < Company's 
stables. 

Herman Ernst van Gresnich, of Utrecht, second gardener. 

Marten de Brugh, of Brugge, soldier. 

Jan Baptist, of Franckfort, cadet. 

Anthony de Ka, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

Pieter Hendricksz:, of Odendaal, carpenter. 

iN'ellis Cloepert, of Cornelis Munster, arquebusier. 

Willem Adamsz:, of Amsterdam, carpenter. 

Otte Jansz:, of Vreede, soldier. 



304 

Jeronymus Croes, of Bilevelt, soldier. 

Pieter Arentse van de Vaart, of Haerlem, cadet. 

Jan Jansz:, of Arnhem, soldier. 

Claes Jansz:, of Teelsum, arquebusier. 

Jan Bartelsz:, Steynbergh, cadet. 

Evert Cornelisz:, of Utrecht, arquebusier. 

Adriaen Andresen de Visser, of " de Leege Swalue," 

Grilles Grimbertsz:, of Brussel, soldier. 

Wessel Lambertsz:, of Swol, cadet. 

Christiaen van Kerckhoven,. soldier. 

Lubber t Elken, of Jeveren, cadet. 

Jeronimus Smith, of Straesburgh, soldier. 

Florus Adriensz:, of Amsterdam, young sailor. 

Rynier Dryver, of Cleeff, corporal. 

Tobias Smith, of Strelen, cadet. 

Bartholomeus Rudolphus, of Het Weert, young sailor. 

Joost Hommelingh, of Munster, young sailor. 

Hans Assersz:, of Riepe, arquebusier. 

Claes de Winter, of Bremen, cadet. 

Casper Brinokman, of Vreeckenhorst, cadet. 

Pauwel Halsteyn, of Ylensburgh, arquebusier. 

Frans Pauwelsz:, of Toonderen, sailor. 

Jasper Andriesz:, of Langesondt, superintendent in the fore?1 

Dirk Wesselsz:, of Het Ampt te Harpstede, soldier. 

Jan Wesselsz:, of Het Ampt te Harpstede, soldier. 

Ryck Evertsz:, of Aurick, sailor. 

Jan Janez:, of Bommel, cadet. 

Pieter Raderootjes, of TJt, in the land of Cologne, husbandman. 

Roeloff Michielsz:, of Godtlandt, carpenter. 

Tuge Jurze, of Riepe, sailor. 

Gerrit Jansz:, of Anestappe, sailor. 

Herman Pietersz: Doerman, of Amsterdam, sailor. 

Jan Zachariasz:, of Amsterdam, cadet. 

Pieter van den Bos, of St. Amand, soldier. 

Carel Opdorp, of Cuylenburgh, young sailor. 

Jacob Opdorp, of Cuylenburgh, sailor. 

Cornelis de Cretser, of Cuylenburgh, cadet. 

Barent Andriesz:, of Norden, arquebusier. 

Alexander Gabriel, of Brussels, soldier. 

David Jansz:, of Haerlem, arquebusier. 

Huybert Roothof, of Sluys in Flanders, drurmm-r. 

Dirck Lampe, of Naehuys, trumpeter. 

Huybert Hansz: Borthuys, of Aelburgh, cadet. 

Adriaen Pieterez:, of Gronnirigen, arquebusier. 

Jacob Pauwels/:, of Wisbu, arquebusier. 

Claes Oliviersz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier. 

Jonas de Lageur, of Havre de Grace, corporal. 



305 

Pieter Adriaensz:, of Sohagen, arquebusier. 

Ryck Overhagen, of Steenwyck, cadet. 

Hans Miohiel Wolff, of Straesburgh, cadet. 

Wouter Jansz:, of Wageningen, arquebusier. 

Hendrik Lacus, of Wesei, land surveyor and assistant. 

Pieter Everaerdt, of Cruysaerdt, sergeant. 

Nicolaes Delbort, of Arien, mason. 

Pieter van Clinckenbergh, of Middelburgh, surgeon. 

Jan Carstensz:, of Oldenburg, arquebusier. 

Frans Martensz:, of St. Antnonis, soldier. 

Hendrik Nagel, of Bebber, soldier. 

Hendrick Hagens, of Loohum, cadet. 

Pieter Hansz:, of Nymegen, soldier. 

Jasper de Boy, wagonmaker's assistant. 

Pieter Mouw, of Dansigh, corporal. 

Pieter Jausz:, of Bergen op Zoom, cadet. 

Cornelis Willemsz:, of Liendeii, cadet. 

Mathys Huybertsz:, of Oberkerck, cadet 

Coenraet Sohatman, of Duynkercken, soldier. 

Pelagius Weckerlyn, of Costnits, cadet. 

Gruiljam de Haen, of Hooghlee, soldier. 

Hans Meyer, of Wesselenmare, cadet. 

Hendrick Pietersz:, of Mauriok, soldier. 

Guiljam ten Bos, of Amsterdam, carpenter. 

Jochim Blauck, of Lubeck, dispenser. 

Claes Jansz: Nobel, of Hasselt, carpenter. 

Jan Duynsbergen, of tbe Hague, soldier. 

Jan Jansz:, of Munster, cadet. 

Jan Fransz: Disse, of Rotterdam, arquebusier, 

Hendrick Meyer,' of Bremen, soldier. 

Samuel Driuokaus, of Sangerhausen in Saxony, harrow worker. 

Joost Pietersz: Vos, of Delft, soldier. 

Joost Brochterop, of Bochum, cadet. 

Johan Jansz: de Wet, of Witmondt, soldier. 

Jacob Pritsel, of Dresden, in Saxony, cadet. 

Johannes van Asschen, of Brussels, cadet. 

Pieter Harthoorn, of Ceulen, cadet. 

Johannes Dorhagen, of Gronau, cadet. 

Hendrik Struyver, of Amsterdam, cadet. 

Giorgius Fredericks/: Wreede, of Uts in Luuenberg, cadet. 

Hardr: Jansz:, of Euckhuysen, gunner's mate. 

iierrit Nielsen, of Stramsroy^ cadet. 

Hermanns Pietersz:, of Rynbergh, cadet. 

Grerrit de Byser, of Brussels, arquebusier. 

Ritschar, Reyndertsz: Bottelman, of Leeuwarden, cadet. 



306 



OF PERSONS WHO DIED IN THE FORT THE 
GOOD HOPE AT CABO DE BOA ESPERANCE IN 
THE YEAR 1655, viz.: 

Of the Amsterdam Chamber. 



Who arrived here in the 
in 165'3. 



Andries Jaiiss:, of Wesel, soldier 
Lourens Pieters:, of Maasterlant, 

arquebusier 
Jan de Yos, of Brussels, cadet, arrived here in the Vogel Phrvnij- 

in 1653. 
Adam Deyns, of Haarlem, arquebusier, arrived in the yacht 

Gider.n in 1654. 
Matthys Lourenhz:, of Hamburgh, \ 

arquebusier ' Arrived in Jiff Hoft van 

Carol Pieterez:, of Heyligesont, ( Zfehint in 1654. 

arquebubier 

Of tl>c Zealand Chamber. 

Jacob vnn Saut-n, of Middelburgli, bo % y, arrived in the Henriette 
Louyw in 1655. 

Of the Rotterdam Chamber. 

Bastiaan Leenderts, of Pernis, boatswain, arrived in the Nieuu- 
Rotterdam in 1655. 

Of the Enckkuyxen Chamber. 

Jacob Jansz:, of Amsterdam, &r-~] 

quebusier 
Symon Broers, of Warga, arque- I Arrived in De Qecroomdt 

busier [ Leeuw in 1655. 

Rommer Rommerts, of Harlingen, j 

boatswain J 

11 persone deceased. 



TJST OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE FORT THE 
GOOD HOPE DURING THE YEAR 1656. 

Of tJic Amsterdam Chamber. 

1686. Tietje Douwee, of Bil, boatswain ; arrived in the Amersfoort in 

1655. 

Arent Jansz: de Wever, of Amsterdam, provost ; arrived in the 
yacht Muyden in 1656. 

Jan Albertsz: Croon, of Aelsmeer, boatswain ; arrived in the 
Parfl in 1656. 

Jan Gerritez:, of Coesvelt, soldier; arrived in the Princesse 
Royael in 1656. 



307 

Of the Zealand Chamber. 

Jacob Stayert, of Doesburgh, soldier ; arrived here from India 
in Het Hojf can Zcelant in 1656. 

Jaques Sailly, of Armentiers, cadet ; arrived from home in the 
yacht Srouvershaven in 1656. 

Uendrik Symonsz:, of Amsterdam, arquebusier ; arrived from 
home in the yacht Brmtwershaven in 1656. 

Of the Hoorn Chamber. 

Maarten Jansz:, of Enckhuysen, arquebusier ; arrived here in 
the Avondstar in 1655. 

A total of 8 persons, viz., 2 of the garrison and 6 of those left 
behind by the passing ship*. 



LIST OF THOSE WHO uIED AT THE FORT THE 
GOOD HOPE DUttING THE YEAR 1637. 

Of the Amsterdam Chamber. 

Moens Coenderts, of Laerwyck, arquebusier ; arrived in the 1657. 
Malacca, and lauded sick in 1657. 

Gerrit Juriaensz:, of Doroum, arquebusier ; arrived iti the flute 
Venenburgh in 1657, sick. 
Pieter Cornelisz: Focq, of Amster-"") 

dam, arquebusier 

Juriaen Willemsz:, of Amsterdam, I All arrived sick in De 
arquebusier I (fecroontie Leemv in lb'57. 

Meyndert Remmersz: Verwer, of | 
Campen, arquebusier J 

Of the Zealand Chamber. 

Jan Caramel, of Tumeveer, drummer ; arrived sick iii the 
Procintie in 1657. 

A total of six persons, all landed sick from the ships, and not 
one of the Cape Garrison. 



308 



1658. IJST OF DECEASED COMPANY'S SERVANTS WHO 
HAD BEEN STATIONED IN THE FORT THE GOOD 
HOPE, OR WHO HAD ARRIVED HERE SICK IN 
THE SHIPS, AND DIED IN THE YEAR 1658 HERE, 
AT CABO DE BOA ESPERANCE. 



First. The Company's Servants of the Chamber Amsterdam. 

Gerrit Jausz: Ralandt, of Amsterdam, Cadet, arrived in the 
Princesse Royale in 1656. 

Second. -Those of the Chamber Zealand. 

Francois Isaacxez:, of Ghent, arquebusier. arrived sick here in 
the Henriette Louijse in 1658. 

Roelant van der Walle, of Waest, wagonmaker, arrived in the 
flute Oyeraer in 1657. 

Jasper Jansz: Duyff, of Middelburgh, soldier, arrived from 
India in the H: Louijse in 1657. 

Jan Bundervoet, of Ghent, master gardener workman, arrived 
in the flute Spreeuic in 1658. 

Symon Choussy, of Cortryck, soldier. Idem. 

Claes Evertsz:, of Ter Goude, sail-maker, arrived in the flute 
De Meese in 1658 and brought sick on shore here. 

. Third. Those of the Chamber Delft. 

Johannes Bencker, of Leeuwaerden, soldier, arrived in the Dor- 
di-fcht in 1658, and landed here sick. 

Fourth. Those of the Chamber Rotterdam. 

Martyn Baton, of Diest, Cadet, arrived iu the N. Rotterdam 
in 16o7. 

Fifth. Thosf of the Chamber ffoor/t. 

Pieter Bruyn, of Caspelhem, iu Ditinarssen, and Willem Lam- 
mertsz:, of Waert, arquebusier, who arrived here sick in the 
WestvtietJant. 

Deceased Frei-men. 

Hans Pieters/: Faesbenger, freeman, who arrived here in the 
flute de Vogehangh in 1656 (an Amsterdam ship). 

Jacob Teuuisz:, of Cooltjesplaet, do., who arrived here in the 
ya,cht Hasxelt, of Amsterdam, in 1657. 

Harnian Broeckmeulen, freeman, who was in the service of 
Freemen here, and arrived in the ship Walvia of the Delft Cham- 
ber in 1657. 

Dircq Adriaensz Vreem, free carpenter, who landed here in 
1654 in the ship Vrede of Amsterdam. 



309 

LIST OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE PORT THE 
GOOD HOPE DURING THE YEAR 1659. 



Of the Amsterdam Chamber. 

Jan van Harwarden, of Seventer, ensign, arrived in the 
Salmander in 1653. 

Jacob Meydertsz:, of Quamen, carpenter, arrived in the Princesse 
Royael in 1659. 

Louije Labe, of Ghent, Cadet, arrived in the Princesse 
Royael in 1659. 

Pieter Jeronimusz:, of Staelbroeck, soldier, arrived in iheArnhem 
in 1659. 

Matthys Dyckelmans, of Mullen, in the County Broeok, Cadet, 
arrived in the Malacca in 1659. 

Jan Theunisz:, of Dockum, quarter- master, arrived here in the 
Malacca, on the 29th October, 1659. 

Hendrick Ydeii, of Ebdera, Cadet, arrived here in the 
Malacca in 1659. 

Cornells . Heyndricxsz: Hoogerbeets, of Hoorn, arquebusier, 
arrived in the Malacca in 1659. 

Jan Cornelisz:, of Alkmaer, soldier, arrived in the Malacca in 
1659. 

Of the Chamber Zealand. 

Jan Jansz: de Beer, of Maestricht, trumpeter, arrived in the 
Prim Willem in 1658. 

Anthony Terron, of Antwerp, soldier, arrived in the Print 
Willem in 1658. 

Jan Cornelisz:, of Warmelhoo, arquebusier, arrived in the flute 
Harp in 1658. 

Johannes Hulman, of Amsterdam, sergeant, arrived in the 
Prorintie in 1659 from India. 

Of the Chamber Rotterdam. 

Jan Vervoort, of Brussels, Cadet, who arrived in the 
Honingen in 1659. 

And of the Freemen. 

Roeloff Hansz:, of Christiania, freeman, who arrived in the 
(h'litifjie in 1657 (of the Amsterdam Chamber). 

Dirck Adriaensz: Vreem, of Ter Meere, free carpenter, who 
arrived in the Vrede in 1654 (of the Amsterdam Chamber). 

Joost Pietersz: Moen, of Domburgh, who arrived here in the 
Zealand ship Prints Willem (in 1658). 

Pieter Sohier, of Drienout, murdered by the Hottentoos, arrived 
in the flute Harp in 1658 (of the Zealand Chamber). 

Syrnon Jansz: In 't Velt, free burgher, also murdered by the 
Hottentoos; arrived in the flute Venenburgh in 1657 (of the Am- 
sterdam Chamber). 



310 



LIST OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE FOET THE 
GOOD HOPE DURING THE YEAR 1660. 



Of the A mater (I am Chamber. 

Elias Giere, of Stockholm, corporal ; arrived in the flute Het 
Lam in 1653. 

Albert Albertsz:, of Blocksiel, sailor, arrived in the Nieuw Enck- 
huysen in 1660. 

Pieter Pietersz: Gabbe, of Amsterdam, ship's corporal, arrived 
in the Nieuic Enckhuysen in 16b'0. 

Jacobus Halstenbeeok, of Leyden, oadet, arrived in the Walcie 
in 1660. 

Hidde Sibes, of Jellum, sailor, arrived in the Nieuic Enckhuysen 
in 1660. 

Of the Zealand Chamber. 

Cornelia Arentsz: Eiet, of Corteraer, carpenter, arrived in the 
Oninytr in 1659. 

Of the. Enckhuysen Chamber. 

Andries Stols, of Lunenburg, cadet, arrived in the Gecroonde 
Leeuw in 1659. 

Andries Broeckster, of Heuxster, oadet, arrived in the Gecroonde 
Leeuw in 1659. 

Johannes Rudolphusz:, of Gritsiel, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship in 1659. 

Of the Freemen. 

Philips van Royen, of the Hague, freeman here; arrived in the 
Arnheni in 1659. 

Gerrit Sandersz:, of Bletsum, freeman here ; arrived in the yacht 
Maria in 1657. 

Jan Willebrantdsz:, of Eynkelroo, freeman here ; arrived in the 
Oranyie in 1659. 

Pieter Kegel, of ?...., freeman here ; arrived in the yacht 
Hoyrlande in 1659. 



LIST OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE FORT THE 
GOOD HOPE DURING THE YEAR 1661. 



Of the Amstenlam Chamber. 

1661. Pieter Egbertsz: of Damme, smith's apprentice, arrived in the 

Prlncesae Royael in 1659. 

Cornelia Ht-rmausz:, of Utrecht, junior mate, arrived in the 
Marseveen in 1661. 



311 

Lubbert Olphersz: Tettens, steward, arrived in the Raedthuus in 
16(31. 

Jan Teuuisz:, of Muyden, sailor, arrived in If ft Hw/s te Swieten 
in 1661. 

Joost van Entvelt, of Ghent, soldier, arrived in the same vessel 
in 1661. 

Claes Salamonsz: of Amsterdam, sailor, arrived in the Princess* 
Royael in 1661. 

Willem Saecketsz:, of Leeuwaerden, soldier, arrived in the Par el 
in 1661. 

Jaii Willenisz:, of Ter Goude, sailor, arrived in the Par? I in 1661 . 

Of the Delft Chamber. 

Claes Roelofsz: Ter Maet, of the Hague, cadet, arrived in the 
Vogel Phf.nijf in 1660. 

Louijs Isaaox, of Amersfoort, arquebusier, arrived in the same 
vessel in 1660. 

isaaoq Jan.-/: de Graeff, of Leyden, cadet, arrived iu tbe same 
vessel in 1660. 

Of the Enckhuynen Chamber. 

A.ntoni de With, of the Hague, cadet, arrived iu the Gfcroonde 
Leeun- in 1659. 

Of the Freemen. 

B.areut Waender, of Varick, freeman, arrived in the yacht 
in 1658. 



LIST OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE FOET THE 
GOOD HOPE DURING THE YEAR 1662. 



Of the Amsterdam Chamber. 

Huybert Roothoff, of Sluys in Flanders, drummer, arrived in 1682. 
IletRaedthuys in 1661. Died the 17th April. 

Jan Evertsz:, of Emmerich, sailor, arrived in the Malacca in 1662. 
Died the 12th March. 

Wouter G-erritsz:, of Arnhem, cadet, arrived in the flute Venen- 
burgh in 1662. Died 26th April. 

Jan Roemer, of Swanenburgh, soldier, arrived here in the same 
ship. Died 3rd June. 

Leendert Hendricksz:, of Huytrechts, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 18th August. 

Ryok Smellenbergh, of Arnhem, cadet, arrived in the same ship. 
Died 28th May. 



312 

1662. Jurgeu Dircksz: Schreuder, of iloesum, arrived in the flute 

AmKtelhml in 1662. Died 29th May. 

Pieter Harmansz:, of Stockholm, cadet, arrived in the same 
ship in 1662. Died 1st November. (? June). 

Beowith, of Landaim, cadet, arrived in the same ship in 1662. 
Died 5th June. 

Grerrit Colman, of Dinslaeden, soldier, arrived in the same ship 
in 1662. Died 27th June. 

Johannets van Duyshurgh, of Amsterdam, junior cooper, arrived 
in the Kennetnerlant in ? Died 14th October. 

Jacob Davidsz: van der HoefP, of Leyden, soldier, arrived in the 
Rynlandt in ? Died 4th November. 

Of the Zealand Chamber. 

Jacob Jansz:, of Antwerp, soldier, jinived in the flute Clater- 
kei-ck in 1661. Died 9th April. 

Hendrick Bruygom, of Stockholm, carpenter, arrived in the 
Walcheren in 1662. Died 9th Inly. 

Paulus de Molier, of Middelburg, junior merchant, arrived iu 
ffet Hqff van Zeelant in 1662. Died 15th November. 

Andries Onderdoeck, of Brugge, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died the 91 h December. 

Jan Harmensz:, of Anckeren, soldier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died the 20th September. 

Looijs Timmerman, of Marijcke, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 9th December. 

Francoijs de Hase, of Brugge, soldier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died the 18th August. 

Gysbert Lamsen, of Grhent, soldier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died the 15th August. 

Wouter Jansz:, of Dordrecht, soldier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died 31st August. 

Thomas Senge, of Marseilles, soldier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died 18th August. 

Daniel Pietersz:, of Stanwanger, arquebusier, arrived in the 
same ship. Died 20th August. 

Andries van der Hoeve, of Grhent, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 18th August. 

Jacob Danielsz:, of Zierickzee, chief sailmaker, arrived in H<t 
Wapen van Zeelant in 1662. Died 13th October. 

Jan Gerritsz: Lantenga, of Beyle, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 26th October. 

Hans Hendricksz:, of Stockholm, sailor, arrived in the same ship. 
Died llth October. 

Biezant Swart, of Lille, soldier, arrived in the Orangie in 1662. 
Died 7th November. 



313 

Bastiaen Rynsz:, of Utrecht, arquebusier, arrived in the same 1662 - 
ship. Died 6th December. 

Jonas Jaoobsz:, of Hoesem, arquebusier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 26th November. 

Joost Barentsz:, of Bergen op Zoom, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 27th November. 

Jan de Poorter, of Burbergh, soldier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died 4th November. 

Frans Brandt, of Rostock, arquebusier, arrived in the same ship. 
Died 10th November. 

Gerrit Wynandsz: Yooght, of Serdam, chief carpenter, arrived 
in the same ship. Died 5th November. 

Of the Chamber Delft. 

Jan Duynsbergh, of the Hague, assistant, arrived in the yacht 
De Hector in 1659. Died 5th October. 

Harbert Harbertsz:, of Siemeren, soldier, arrived in the flute 
DC Pcperbael in 1662. Died 6th July. 

Of the Chamber Rotterdam. 

Jan Mastenbroeck, of Breevoort, soldier, arrived in the yacht 
Mars in 1662. Died 27th June. 

Of the Chamber Hoorn. 

Gysbert Aertsius, of Turenoudt, soldier, arrived in the Nagelboom 
in 1662. Died 7th September. 

Nicolaas Louwrensz-, of Sleeswyck, soldier, arrived in the same 
ship. Died 20th June. 

Jan Jurjaensz:, of Flensburgh, soldier, arrived in the yacht De 
Cogh in 1662. Died 12th October. 



314 



ERFBRIEVEN (TITLE DEEDS), 



1657. 




SOO Sfoocfs 



Hth April. The Commander and Council, &c. (see page 1 of the free 
letters) grant to 

Herman Remajenne, of Cologne ; Jan Maertensz: de Wacht, of 
Vreelant ; Warnar Cornelisz:, of Nnnspeet ; Hans Pietersz: Faes- 
henger, of Hooven, &c., a certain piece of land, 160 roods broad 
and 200 roods deep, as shown in the above chart marked No. 1. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the Hth April, 1657. 

(Signed) KvfiKUw VAN GORNS, 



315 

A. FresA ft/ver /icr/nec/ /fsjf>eeca. 
C. ' 



1657. 



~o/-fsf. 




The Commander and Council, &c. (see page 1, &o., of the free nth April 
letters) grant to 

Steven Jansz:, of Wageningen ; Otto Janaz:, of Vrede ; 
Hendrick Elbertsz:, of Osenbrugge ; and Jacob Cornelisz:, of Rosen- 
dael ; a certain plot of ground, broad N. by W. and S. by E., 160 
roods, deep E. by N. and W. by S. 200 roods. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the 14th April, 1657. 

(And was signed) RYOKLOFF VAN GOENS. 

The abovementioned free burghers having pointed out to us the 27th Aug. 
unfitness of their plot as described in the above diagram No. 3, 
and granted them by the Hon. Commissioner van Goens, viz., 200 
roods W. by S. and E. by N. in depth, and 160 roods S. by E. 
and N. by W. in breadth, &c., which after inspection was found 

X 2 



316 

to be so, in consequence of the inconvenient situation of the 
thAug. Company's orchard, and principally of the wagon road and the 
stony nature of the ground above it towards the Cape mountains ; 
so that the plot, as described in diagram No. 3, could not be 
successfully ploughed or tilled, memorialists accordingly re- 
quested to be compensated with other ground, or to have the plot 
widened. We have therefore decided to refer the matter to the 
masters in the Fatherland, as it is somewhat contrary to the 
orders of the Hon. Commissioner left here, but in order 
not to check their ploughing, and at the same time promote 
agriculture as much as possible, we have provisionally decided, 
subject to the approval of their Honours aforesaid (having more 
closely inspected the situation), to grant them the land on either 
side of the Liesbeecq, which runs through the middle of it, and 
instead of 200 roods, only 160 roods in depth, however according 
to the orders of the Commissioner mentioned, West by South and 
East by North perpendicular, and on the same lines formed by 
the beacons right over the road of the great plain, above men- 
tioned, and in width 200 instead of 160 roods according to 
diagram No. 4 hereunto annexed, and yet having the same area 
as diagram No. 3. 

And as regards the corner of land on the W. side of the afore- 
said river, towards the North and marked with the lette'r B, in 
consequence of the inconvenient position of the river, it has also 
been given to them in freehold, but the public lands below and 
above the wagon road shall remain the property of the Company, 
or as it is called for the Sovereign (voor de Heer), but they shall 
be permitted to build their houses and granaries on those lands 
under such further conditions and provisions as have been more 
fully expressed in the above title deed, or may still be decreed by 
our Lords Masters, or may be altered as their Honours may deem 
to be for the best interests of the Company and the public good. 

Done in the Fort the Good Hope, this 27th day of August. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RTKBEECK. 



1st Oct. Whereas the above mentioned freemen have agreed among 
each other to divide themselves into two parties, and accordingly 
earnestly and urgently reqaest that their land may be divided 
into two parts, namely, the one half or northern side stretching 
towards Table Bay for the benefit of Otto Jansz:, of Vreede, and 
Jacob Cornelisz:, of Bosendaal, and the other half on the south 
side towards False Cape for Steven Jansz:, of Wageningen, and 
Hendrik Elbertsz:, that thus each couple may cultivate together 
with their servants their own plots according to their pleasure, 
manage them and erect their buildings on them separately : 



317 

Therefore (as we know of no reason why this should not be 
allowed) their request has been granted, and their land has been 
cut right through the middle and properly divided by the land 
surveyor in the direction ordered, viz., from W. to S. and E. to N. 
as is shown by the dotted line in the above diagrams Nos. 4 and 5, 
and with the letter E. These separated individuals have therefore 
become two companies instead of remaining one, namely, the one, 
No. 4, for Vreden's, and the other, No. 5, for Steven's Company, 
every member also of each Company being at the same time 
debited under bond for what may be advanced to him on credit 
out of the Company's stores, said mortgage bond being given on 
the lands of them all as described in the above mentioned first 
title-deed, until they shall have paid their debt to the Company in 
grain, cattle or otherwise. 

Done in the Fort the Good Hope, this first day of October, 1657. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



1657. 
1st Oct. 




SO SO 30 1O SO 60 7O BO J>> "> 
I I I I 1 I L_l \ 1 L 



B. S/na// Ara/?c/7 o/ /tie 



318 



1657. The Commander and Council, &c. (see pp. 1, &c., of the free 

isthlprii. letters) grant to 

Jan Reyniersz:, of Amsterdam, and Wouter Cornells^: Mostert, 
of Utrecht, a certain piece of land, broad S. by E. and N. by W. 
200 roods ; deep E. by N. and W. by S. 100 roods, according to 
above diagram No. 6. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, this loth day of April, 1657. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBKECK. 



N?7. 8. 



/I. Fresh /?/t;er named L/'esbeec/c. 



The Commander and Council, &c. (see pp. 1, &c., of the free 
letters) grant to Hendrick Hendricksz:, ex-master gardener of the 
Hon. Company, a certain plot of land, broad S. by E. and N. by 
W. 150, and deep E. by N. and W. by S. 160 roods. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, this 10th day of October, 1657. 

(Signed) JAN VAN KJEKEECK. 




1657. 



A. fresh /?/is 

The Commander and Council, &c. (see pp. 1, &c., of the free 
letters) grant to Jacob Cloeten of Cologne, deep E. by N. and W. 
by S. at the S. side 145, and at the N. side almost to the same 
extent, but towards the W. end, because of the river tapering 
somewhat narrowly 177 roods ; broad at the E. and S.W. by S. 
and N.E. by N. 80 roods, and at the W. end at the aforesaid 
river S. by W. and N. by B. 57 roods, thus making all together 
12,000 square roods .or. 20 morgen of ground, as shown in the 
exact diagram of the same, drawn above, viz., No. 9. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, this 10th day of October, 1657. 

(Signed) . JAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



10th Oct. 



320 



1657. 




\ 



The Commander and Council, &c. (see pp. 1, &c., of the free 
letters) grant to Pieter Visage, of Antwerp ; Jacob Theunisz:, of 
Cooltjensplaat ; Symen Jansz: In't Velt, of Dordrecht ; and Frans 
Gerritsz:, of " den Uythoom," a certain plot of land deep E. by 
N. and W. by 8. 140, and broad S.W. by S. and N.E. by N. 65 
roods ; the second plot 180 in depth on the N. side and on the S. 
side 120 roods, also E. and N. and W. by S. ; broad at the upper 
end S.W. by S. 60, and at the lower S. by E. 60 roods. The 
other two pieces both deep E. by N. 120, and broad S. by E. at 
the straight or lower end 75 roods, each plot being accordingly 15 
morgen in extent, and making together an area of 36,000 square 
roods or 60 morgen of land for the four, of 15 morgen for each, 
as already said, and can be seen from the exact drawing of the 
same in the above figures Nos. 10, 11, 12 and 13. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, this 15th day of December, 
1657. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



321 



By the Commander and Council of the Company's Fortress, 
the Good Hope, has been granted to Pieter Pouwelsz: Cley a 
certain plot of forest land situated behind and on the slope of 
Table Mountain towards the South, bounded on the South by the 
forest of Leendert Cornelisz:, of Sevenhuysen, and on the South 
by a certain bare spot against Table Mountain, named the 
" Babiaens Plecq," situated above a certain hill named the 
" Cleyheuvel," distant fully 2| hours' walk from the Fort, that he 
may, in good order and without damage to the forest, cut from it 
and saw at his own expense (in order to supply the public) all 
kinds of planks, boards, ribs, &c., for a period of fifteen years. 

Given the 1st day of May, 1658. 

(Not signed.) 



1658. 



1st May. 





SO 6O 7O 8O 9O /OO/?OOC/S 



Sca/e 



/I. 



By the Commander and Council of the Fort the Good Hope, at 
Cabo de Boa Esperance, has been given to Pieter Jacobsen of 
Bodegraven, free burgher and resident here, &c., a certain plot of 
ground situated on the side of the Table and to the N.E. of the 
Wintbergh (Devil's Hill), along the S. side of the Salt River, &c. 
broad on the W. side, S. by E. and N. by W., 60 roods, and 
deep on the S. side, E. by N. and W. by S., 120 roods, making 
altogether 3,600 square roods, or 6 morgen of land, as shown in 
the exact drawing of the same in the above figure, No. 14, made 
by Pieter Potter, &c., &c., for 12 years. 

16th November, 1658. 

(Signed) JAN VAN UIEHBECK. 



16th Nov. 



322 



J658. 




20th Nov. The Commander, Occ., grant in full ownership to Frans Grerritsen, 
of den Uythoorn, free burgher and resident here, a certain plot of 
ground situated in the large veld or the pass between Table and 
False Bays, behind the Table and eastward of the Bosbergen on 
the further or East side of the Fresh River named Liesbeecq, 
adjoining on the North Steven Jansen, of Wageningen, and on 
the South Jacob Cloeten, of Cologne, on the West the same river, 
and on the East the sandy and waste laud towards the mountains 
of Africa, deep E. by N. and W. by S. 100 roods, and broad S. 



323 



1658. 



by E. and N. by W. 70 roods, or an area of 7,000 roods, or 11 
morgen and 400 roods, as is shown on the exact diagram in figure 9M C^r 
No. 15, for the period of 12 years, &c. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, the 20th November, 1658. 




tO JO 30 fO SO 



Scs/e. 



A. 



By the Commander, etc., has been granted to Symon Jansen 
Intvelt, of Dordrecht, and Jacob Theunissen, of Cooltiesplaet, 
(who have together been in partnership with Piefr-r Visagie, of 
Antwerp, and Johannes Bietvelt, of Bredeurode, who have come 
into the place and obtained the rights of Frans Grerritsen of den 
Uythoorn, all free burghers and residents here, who, with the fore- 
knowledge of the Commander, have formed themselves into two 
Companies, and drawn lots) the plots of land Nos. 12 and 13, 
which are so poor, stony and sandy that they are deemed unfit for 
cultivation, but fell to the aforesaid Symon Janssen and Jacob 
Theunissen. 

Accordingly, at their urgent request, they have been granted iii 
exchange, and in full ownership, two similarly sized plots of 
land, situated in the great veld or the Pass between the Table and 
False Bays, behind the Table and Eastward of the Bosbergen, on 
the further or East side of the Fresh River, named Liesbeeck, 
adjoining on the North the uncultivated land between them and 
the aforesaid River, on the (South the uncultivated land with the 
Bosheuvel, on the West similar uncultivated land towards the 



:;rd Deo, 



324 



1658. 



3rd Dec. 



Cape mountains, and on the East the waste and sandy land in the 
direction of the mountains of Africa, in order to hold the said land 
for 12 years, given them collectively by virtue of this and the title 
deed of the 15th December, 1657. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the 3rd December, 1658. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 



C. S/3/-V/V- of '//re 




/oo 



200/ft 



1659. 



Whereas, about more than the half of the 33- morgen of land 
owned by the free burghers, Jan B-eyniersz:, of Amsterdam, and 
Cornelia Claesz:, of Utrecht (lawfully obtained from the first 
owner, in accordance with the deed of transfer existing of the 
same), is altogether rocky and stony, and accordingly altogether 
unfit for cultivation or pasture land, the Commander and Council 



325 

have at their request allowed them to abandon the half of the 
north side of the aforesaid land and retire towards the east beyond 
the Liesbeeok River, and there take in exchange 11,076 roods of 
land with a sandy soil, river and all, as laid down in the old title 
deed of the 15th April, 1657, on the East and West sides of the 
River Liesbeeck, which has its course through it, broad S. by E. 
and N. by W. 156 roods, and E. by N. and W. by S. 71 roods, 
adjoining on the West the southern half of the old land and a 
portion of the land of Hendrick flendricksz: Boom, on the South, 
North, and East, the ground still lying waste, forming an area of 
11,076 roods, or 18 morgen and 276 roods, just as pictured in the 
above diagram, No. 18, by the Company's Land Surveyor, Pieter 
Potter, &c., for 12 years. 

In the Fort the Good Hope, the 15th May, 1659. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEEOK. 



1659. 
15th May. 



The Commander, &o., grant in full ownership to Wouter loth Sept 
Cornelisz: Mostaert, free burgher and resident here, a certain plot 
of land situated in Table Valley, Eastward from the Lion Moun- 
tain, adjoining on the North the uncultivated land towards the 



16o<J. 



10th Sept. 



320 



seaside, on the South Table Mountain, on the West the Lion 
Mountain, and on the East the gardc-n of the Hon. Company. 
Deep N.E. and 8.W. 23 roods, 5 feet, and broad N.W. and S.E. 
15 roods, forming an area of 351^ square roods, as shown on the 
above diagram, No. 19. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the 10th September, 1659. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEEOK. 




isth Oct. The Commander and Council, &c., grant in full ownership to 
Jurien Jansz:, of Amsterdam, free burgher here, a certain plot of 
ground, situated in Table Valley, Eastward from the Lion 
Mountain, adjoining on the N. the uncultivated land towards the 
sea side, on the S. Table Mountain, on the W. do. and the Lion, 
and on the E. the garden of the Hon. Company; broad N.W. 
and S.E. 10 roods and 4 feet, and long: S.W. and N.E. 23 roods 
and N.W. and S.E. on the N.E. side 1 rood, forming an area 
of 147-^ square roods, as shown on the above diagram No. 20, 
&c. 

In the Fort the Good Hope the loth October, 1659. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBEEOK. 



Sfooc/s 



The Commander and Council, &c., grant in full ownership to 1669; 
Johanna Boddys, widow of Jan van Harwarden, in his lifetime istifoc 
Ensign of this Fort, a certain piece of land in Table Valley, 
Eastward from the Lion Mountain, adjoining on the N. the 
uncultivated ground towards the sea side, on the S. the garden 
of the Hon. Company, on the W. do. and the Lion Mountain, 
and on the E. the path or the entrance to the Company's garden 
aforesaid; broad N.E. and S.W. 9 roods and 3 feet, and long 
N.W. and S.E. 26 roods 9 feet, forming an area of 247 roods, 
5 rood feet and 6 square feet, as is shown in the above diagram 
No. 21. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the 15th October, 1659. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



2o/?ooc/s 



The Commander and Council, &c., grant in full ownership to 
Elbert Dircksz: Uiemaer, free burgher and resident here, a certain 
plot of land in Table Valley, eastward from the Lion Mountain, 
adjoining on the N. the uncultivated land towards the sea side, 
on the S. the garden of the widow of Sieur Jan van Harwarden ; 
on the W. the garden of Hendrick Boom, and on the East the 
path or entrance of the Company's garden ; long, N.W. and S.E. 
18 roods, 2 feet, and broad N.E. and S.W. 4 roods and 3 feet, 
forming together an area of 78 roods, 11 rood feet, and 9 square 
feet, as seen in the above diagram No 22. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope the 15th October, 1659. 

(Signed) JAN VAN RIEBEECK. 



328 



1658. 



/fooc/s 



15th Oct. The Commander and Council, &c., grant in full ownership to 
Hendriek Hendricksz:, of Zurwerden, free burgher and resident 
here, a certain plot of land situated in Table Valley, westward 
from the Fort, adjoining on the N. the uncultivated land towards 
the sea side, on the S. the Table Mountain, on the W. the path 
or entrance into the Company's garden, and on the E. the 
aforesaid Company's Fort ; broad N.E. and S.W. nine roods and 
one foot; long 8.E. and N.W. 10 roods 2 feet, forming together 
an area of 92 roods, 4 rood feet and 2 square feet, as shown on 
the above diagram marked No. 23. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope the 15th October, 1659. 

(Signed) JOHAN VAN BIEBEECK. 



329 



The Commander and Council, &c., grant in full ownership to 
Uendriok Hendricksz: Boom, free burgher and resident here; 
58 roods of land which he, Hendriok Boom has been 
cultivating on lease and which adjoins the lower end of his corn 
lands, and was on the 15th May last added to that of Jan 
Reyniersz: and Cornelis Claesz: (it having been found convenient 
to do so during the survey), said land is situated here in Table 
Valley, eastward from the Lion Mountain, adjoining on the 
N. the uncultivated land towards the sea side, on the S. the 
garden of the widow of the late Jan van Harwarden, on the W. 
the uncultivated land toward the Lion Mountain and on the B. 
the garden of Blbert Dirckse Diemer; long, N.W. and S.E. 8 
roods and 7 feet, and broad N.E. and S.W. 4 roods 3 feet, 
forming together an area of 36 square roods, 5 rood feet and 9 
square feet, as is shown in the above diagram No. 24. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the 18th October, 1659. 

(Not signed). 

. A 



1659 
18th Oct 




so 



200 

J 

/foods. 



The Commander and Council of the Port the Good Hope hero 
at Cabo de Boa Esperance, having seen that the land of Steven s 
Company, owned and cultivated by the free burghers Steven 
Jansz:, of Wageningen and Hendrick Elbortsz:, of Ossenbrugge, 
in accordance with the title deeds and diagrams granted them m 
partnership with Otto Jansz; of Yreede, and Jacob Ooruehsz:, ot 



1660. 
5th Jan. 



330 



1660. 
5th Jan. 



Rosendael on the 14th April, 27th August, and 1st October, 1657, 
by the Hon. Ryckloff van Goens and ourselves is very dan- 
gerously situated on th e other side of the Liesbeecq River, the 
owners being exposed to the depredations of the Hottentoos who 
would, as soon as their oxen arrive there for ploughing, 
drive them away; and as moreover it is very stony and not 
anything particular, so that the said Steven Jansz: and Hendrick 
Elbrechtsz: have requested us to give them instead the same 
quantity of land on this side of the aforesaid river ; their request 
has been granted, in accordance also with the consent of My 
Lords Seventeen, and their plots have been resurveyed accordingly 
by the Land surveyor, as shown in the above diagram marked 
No. 25. Said land is situated on the W. side of the River Liesbeecq, 
in the large veld or pass between Table and False Bays, behind the 
Table Mountain at the " Ronde Doom Boschje," now named the 
Company's orchard (? Rustenburg), the Dutch garden, along 
which it extends in its breadth, mostly E.S.B. and W.N.W. 112 
roods, 5 feet ; and along the river or the E. side 123 roods ; on 
the W. or upper side also 123 roods, and on the N. side against 
the land of Otto's Company 146 roods, 6 feet, and thus comprising 
an area of 27 morgen and 28 roods, inclusive of the bends and 
angles of the aforesaid river. The large Highway or the Public 
Road passes mostly right through the middle of it, &c. This 
grant is made to them in perpetuity and hereditarily in full 
ownership, &c. 

5th January. 1660. 



lca//ed L /esAeecp. 
\v. 




331 



The Commander and Council of the Fort the Good Hope, 
here at Cabo de Bonne Esperance having found that the 
land of Vreden's Company, owned and cultivated by the 
free burghers Otto Jansz:, of Vrede, and Jacob Cornelisz:, 
9f Rosendael, according to the deeds and diagrams given 
them in partnership with Steven Jansz:, of Wageningen 
and Hendrick Elbreohtsz:, of Ossenbrugge, dated the 14th 
April, 27th August, and 1st October, 1657, by the Hon. 
Commissioner Ryckloff van Goens and ourselves successively 
is quite dangerously situated on the other side of the river 
Liesbecq, as, should their oxen arrive there for ploughing purposes, 
they would be stolen by the Hottentoos ; and as it is also very 
stony and not anything particular, and the aforesaid Otto Jansz: 
and Jacob Rosendael have requested us to give them instead as 
much land on this side of the aforesaid river, we have, in accord- 
ance with the consent of my Lords the Seventeen granted their 
request, and had their lands resurveyed by the Land Surveyor, 
in the form as shown in the above diagram No. 26. The whole 
is situated on the W. side of the river Liesbeecq, in the large veld 
or pass between the Table and False Bays, behind the Table 
Mountain, at and against the N. side of the land of Steven's 
Company, with its S. side now mostly tending E.S.E. and 
W.N. W. 146 roods 6 feet and along the river or E. side 115 roods, 
on the W. or upper side 112 roods, and on the N. side towards 
the cultivated waste land of the Hon. Company 159 roods, 6 feet, 
forming together an area of 28 morgen and 386 roods, inclusive 
of the bends and points of the aforesaid river. The great high- 
way or public wagon road runs mostly through the middle of it, &c. 

5th January, 1660. 



I860. 
5th Jan. 




The Commander and Council of the Fort the Good Hope at 
Cabo de Bonne Esperance, having seen that Jan Martensz: de 
Wacht of Vrelant, free burgher here (who had been in partner- 
ship with Herman Eemajenne) had parted from the latter, and 
according to agreement received as his portion the halt oi the 

y 2 



332 



1660. 
otb Jan. 



land (granted thus according to diagram No. 2), adjoining on the 
N. that of Jacob Cloeten and on the S. that of his former partner 
Herman Remajenne, &c., he is by these granted a new title deed, 
showing an area of 13 morgen and 589^ roods of land according 
to above diagram No. 27. 

Given on the 5th January, 1660. 

I* 



/I. 



ca//eG/ l 



2O SO fo 400 




The same as above to Harman Remajenne of Oeulen, free 
burgher here, the area being 13 morgen and 343 roods of land. 
5th January, 1660. 




Jnt Marfh. 



The Commander and Council, &c., grant to Hendrick 
Hendricxsz: Boom, free burgher and resident here, in full owner- 
ship, a certain plot of ground situated in Table Valley westward 
from the Wind Mountain, adjoining on the N. the wagon road 
and the sea side ; on the W. the Fort and the Company's gardens ; 
on the S. the plot of Jan Reyniersz: towards the Table Mountain ; 
and on the B, the waste land towards the Windberg ; in length 



333 

N.E. and S.W. 32 roods, and broad S.E. and N.W 24 roods 
forming together an area of 1 morgen, 138 roods, as shown in 
above diagram No. 29. 
1st March, 1660. 



io. 



A/ '9 So 




/?ffoe/3 so 



The Commander and Council, &c., grant to Jan Reyniersz: of 
Amsterdam, free burgher and resident here, in full ownership, a 
certain plot of ground situated in Table Valley westward from the 
Wintberg, and adjoining on the N. that of Hendrick Boom 
towards the wagon road and the sea side ; on the W. the Fort and 
Company's gardens; on the 8. the garden of Marten Jacobsz: 
towards Table Mountain ; and on the E. the uncultivated land of 
the Wintbergh ; long N.E. and S.W. 25 roods, and broad S.E. 
and N.W. 24 roods, together forming an area of 1 morgen, as 
shown on the above diagram No. 30. 

1st March, 1660. 




1660. 
1st March. 



334 

The^Commander and Council, &c., grant to Maerten Jacobsz: 
of Amsterdam, free burgher and resident here, in full ownership, 
a certain plot of ground, situated in Table Valley, westward from 
the Windberg, adjoining on the N. the garden of Jan Reyniersz: 
towards the wagonroad and the sea side ; on the W. the Fort and 
Company's gardens; on the 8. the waste land towards Table 
Mountain, and on the E. the waste land towards the Windberg ; 
long N.E. and S.W. 26 roods, and broad S.E. and N.W. 24 
roods, forming together an arei of 1 morgen, as shown in the 
above diagram No. 31. 

1st March, 1660. 



aoth Sept. Th e Commander and Council of the Fort the Good Hope at 
Cabo de Bonne Esperance, having been requested by Jan 
Coenraed Visser of Ommen, free burgher here, to assume in full 
ownership a certain plot of ground 15 morgen in extent, which 
lately belonged to him in partnership with one Philips van 
Royen of the Hague, also a free burgher here, who died here 
insolvent and was the partner of Jan Coenraet Visser, who under- 
takes to take over as his own debt, all such liabilities as may have 
been incurred to the Company to date on the said land, or which 

may still be incurred ; and as the said land, by the death of the 
said Van Rooy, has been bonded to the Company for the debt, 
and would otherwise be left untilled ; and further, as no one else 
(there being still much land left uncultivated) has asked for it, 
and it is necessary that it should be further cultivated, the 
memorialist's, Jan Coenraet Visser's, request is granted, namely, 
that he shall take possession in freehold of the said lands for the 

debts, in order to do with it as with the other half adjoining it 
(which two plots formerly belonged to both as partners) as he may 
deem fit, and in accordance with the conditions on which the first 
owner, Frans Gerritz: of den Uythoorn, possessed it, and on which 
it was granted to him, with the same rights and dues as are laid 
down in the title deeds of the 15th December, 1657, according to 
which the petitioner shall have to regulate himself. 

Given in the Fort the Good Hope, the 20th September, 1660. 




o /a 20 so 



fe 7ii so 90 /oo 



335 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted in full ownership 1 ^- 
to Cornells Claesz of Utrecht, and Dirck Meyer of Lunenburgh, a 2 oth Sept. 
certain plot of ground situated at the foot of the Bosheuvel, 
adjoining on the East the Mountains of Africa, on the North the 
Bosbergen, on the South, False Bay, and on the West the 
cultivated land of the Hon. Commander van Biebeeck and the 
watch-house "Hout den Bui"; in length East by North and 
West by South 240 roods, as will be seen above in the line A.B. ; 
in breadth North by West and South by East as A.C., 85 roods, 
B.B. 60 roods, D.E. 108 roods, E.F. 5 roods, and E.G. 126 roods, 
together forming an area of 27 morgen and 400 roods of land, as 
shown on the above diagram No. 32. 

20th September, 1660. 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Hendriok 
Hendricksz Boom of Amsterdam, free burgher and resident here, 
at his request and in full ownership, a certain square plot of ground, 
in order to build on and occupy it, situated in Table Valley 
westward from the aforesaid Fort at the corner of the Oliphant 
Street, adjoining on the North the said Oliphant Street; on the 
South the Company's cornmill ; on the West the still uncultivated 
plots towards the Lion Mountain; and on the East the street 
before the plain of the Fort ; long North- West and South-East 
140, and broad South- West and North-East 58 feet Rhineland 
measure. (No diagram given). 

20th September 1660. 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted in full ownership to 
Elbert Dircx Diemer of Emmerich, free burgher and resident here, 
a certain square plot of ground in order to build on and occupy it, 
situated in Table Valley, westward from the Fort at the corner of 
the " Reijger Street " ; on the S. adjoining the plot of the free 
burgher Marten Jacobsz:, of Amsterdam; on the W. the still un- 
cultivated plots toward the Lion Mountain, and on the E. the 
street before the plain of the Fort; long, N.W. and S.E. 140, 
and broad S.W. and N E. 37 feet Ehineland measure. (No 
diagram) . 

20th September, 1660. 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted in full ownership to 
Johanna Boddis, widow of the late Jan van Harwarden, during 
life Ensign here, a certain square plot of ground, which to build 
on and occupy, situated in Table Valley westward from the Fort, 
at the corner of the Eeyger and Heere streets, adjoining towards 
the N. the Heere, and towards *he S. the Reyger streets; towards 



336 

i860. f^e -yj tjjg 8 {.jii unbuilt plots towards the Lion Mountain ; and on 
20th~Septs ^ ne E. the street in front of the Fort's plain ; long N.W. and S.E. 
140, and broad S.W. and N.E. 56 feet, Rhineland measure. (No 
diagram). 

20th September, 1660. 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Jurriaeu Jansz:, 
of Amsterdam, free burgher and resident here, at his request, and 
in full ownership, a certain square plot of ground on which to build 
and reside, situated in Table Valley, westward from the Fort, 
adjoining on the N. the street along the seashore ; on the S. the 
uninhabited plots sprouting from the Heere Street; on the W. 
the uninhabited plots towards the foot of the Lion Mountain, and 
on the E. at the back of the plots of the free burghers Wouter 
Cornells Mostert, Jan Martensz: de Wacht, and Hendrick 
Hendricksz:, of Zeurwaerden ; long S.W. and N.E. 72, and broad 
N.W. and S.E. 22 feet Rhineland measure. (No diagram). 

20th September, 1660. 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted in full ownership to 
Wouter Cornelisz: Mostert, < free burgher and resident here, a 
certain plot of square land, on which to build and to live, situated 
in Table Valley, westward from the aforesaid Fort, at the corner 
of the streets along the sea side and the plain of the Fort, 
adjoining on the N. the street of the sea side, on the S. the plot of 
the free burgher Jan Martensz: de Wacht ; on the W. the erf of 
the free burgher Juriaen Jansz:, of Amsterdam; and on the E. 
the street of the plain of the Fort; long N.W. and S.E. 140 and 
broad 22 feet, Rhineland measure. (No diagram) . 

20th September, 1660. 



By the Commander, &o, has been granted to Jan Maertensz: de 
Wacht, free burgher and resident here, in full ownership, a 
certain square plot of ground, on which to build and reside, situated 
in Table Valley, westward from the Fort, adjoining on the N. the 
erf of the free burgher Wouter Cornelisz: Mostert, on the S. that 
of the free burgher Hendrick Hendricksz:, of Zeurwaerde ; on the 
W. the unbuilt plots towards the foot of the Lion Mountain, and 
on the E. the street of the Fort's plain ; long N.W. and S.E. 140, 
and broad S.W. and N.E. 22 feet, Bhineland measure. (No 
diagram) . 

20th September, 1660. 

By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Hendrick 
Hendricksz:, of Zeurwaerde, free burgher and resident here, in 



337 

full ownership, a certain square plot of ground on which to build 
and reside, situated in the Table Valley, westward from the Fort, 
adjoining on the N the plot of the free burgher Jan Maertens de 
Wacht, on the S. the still unbuilt plots towards the Heere Straat ; 
on the W. the still .unbuilt plots towards the Lion Mountain, and 
on the E. facing the street of the Forts plain ; long N.W. and 
S.E. 140, and broad S.W. and N.E. 40 feet, Ehineland measure. 
(No diagram). 

20th September, 1660. 



By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Maerten Jacobsz:, 
of Amsterdam, in full ownership, a certain square plot on which 
to build and reside, situated in Table Valley, westward from the 
Fort, at the corner of the Oliphant's Straat, adjoining on the N. 
the plot of the free burgher Elberts Dircxsz: Diemer ; on the S. 
the said Oliphant's Straat; on the W. the still unbuilt plots 
towards the Lion Mountain ; on the E. facing the street of the 
plain of the Fort : long N.W. and S.E. 108 and broad S. W. and 
N.E. 22 feet, Rhineland measure. (No diagram). 

20th September, 1660. 



22 snorpe^SSS soi/as-f S-QCH/S ( 




1660. 
20th Sept. 




o fc je jo 



so ea rt> at 



By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Hendrick 
Commertsz: Hoogervelt and Herman ter Schelhovenof Westbeveren, 
free burghers and residents here, at their request and in full 
ownership, a certain plot of ground situated at the foot of the 
Bosheuvel, adjoining on the E. the opposite mountain range of 
Africa, as far as the land of the free burgher Jan Coenraet Visser ; 
on the N. the Bosbergen to near the side of the river Liesbeecq ; 
on the W. towards the watch-house " Hout den Bui," and on the 
S. towards False Bay as far as the land of the free burghers 
Cornells Cornelisz:, of Utrecht, and Dirck Meyer, of Lunenburch ; 
long on the S. side, that is, B.t). (as may be seen above) 44 roods, 
D.F. 5, E.M. 118, and M.U. 96 roods; on the N. side along the 



17th Oct. 



338 

aforesaid river Liesbeecq as P.O. 20, O.N. 84, N.L. 9, J.K. 12|, 
nth Oct. K - J - 20, J.H. 15, H.G. 37|, G.E. 15, B.C. 43 and C.A. . . . 
roods broad; on the E. side as P.Q,. 80|, and on the W. side as 
A.B. 40 roods, together forming an area of 22 morgen and 1,155 
roods of land, as is shown in the above diagram, No. 33. 
The 17th October, 1660. 




1661. By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Wouter Cornelisz: 

lothl-'eb Mostert, free burgher, and resident here, in full ownership, a certain 
plot of ground situated in Table Valley, eastward from the Lion 
Mountain, adjoining on the N. the uncultivated land towards the sea 
side, on the S. towards Table Mountain, on the W., with the same 
towards Lion Mountain, and on the E. the garden of the Hon. 
Company, long as can be seen above by CF 109, CA 18|, BD 10, 
and AB 29 roods, forming an area of 2 morgen and 16^ roods 
of land, Rhineland measure, as shown in the above diagram No. 
42, in exchange for the plot No. 19 granted him according to the 
deed on the 10th September, 1659. This has been done because 
the new grant is better suited for his brick making business, so that 
the title deed of the 10th September, 1659, has been cancelled, as 
the land which it refers to adjoins the new plot which is thus made 
much bigger, and is given him by virtue of this in full ownership, 
so that he may use the clay for bricks and tiles. (No Diagram). 
10th February, 1661. 



1st April. By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Juriaen Jansz: of 
Amsterdam, free burgher and resident here, on loan and with power 
to cancel the grant, a certain square plot of land on which to build 
and live, situated in Table valley, N. westward from the Fort on 
the sea shore, adjoining on the W. the sand hills (duyntjes) at the 
foot of the Lion Mountain ; on the S. the projected street along the 
sea side ; on the E. the Company's cable house or shed, and on the 
N. close to the sea shore ; long S. W. and N.E. 24 and broad N.W. 
and S.E. 16 feet lihineland measure, according to the survey made 
by the Company's surveyor, with authority to occupy the house 
already standing there at present, or to let the whole or part of it, 



339 

but to none except to the Saldanhars, for whose accommodation it 
has been granted to the said Juriaon Jansz:, who is still a free 
Saldanha trader. (No Diagram). 
1st April, 1661. 



S cafe 0//OO foods - 




By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Pieter de Jongh 
of Stadtmoor, and Willem Willemsz: of Deventer, free burghers 
and residents here, at their request and in full ownership, a certain 
plot of ground situated in the large field (groote veld) or the pass 
between Table and False Bays, behind Table Mountain and east- 
ward from the Bosbergen, on the other or east side of the river 
named Liesbeecq, adjoining on the north the Table Bay, on the S. 
False Bay, on the W. the said river, and on the E. the sandy and 
waste land towards the mountain range of Africa, long E. by N. 
and W. by 8. as above A B 194|, A C 126, C D 60|, D E 52, E F 
40, GF 10, GH 15, HI 28, and J B 112 roods, forming together 
an area of 25 morgen 536 roods of land, Bhineland measure, as 
is shown on the above diagram No. 43. 

1st May, 1661. 



1661. 
1st April. 



1st Mav. 



By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Hendrick Hen- 1st Nov. 
drieksz: of Zeurwaerden, free burgher and resident here, in full 
ownership, a certain square plot of ground for building and living 
on it, situated in Table valley, westward from the Fort, adjoining 
on the N. the plot of the aforesaid Hendrick Hendricksz: of Zeur- 
waerden, obtained by him before this date ; on the S. the unbuilt 



340 

1661. plots of the Heere Straat; on the W. the still unbuilt plots of the 
1st N v Leeuwenbergh, and on the E. facing the street of the Plain of the 
Fort; long N.W. to S.E. 140, and broad S.W. and N.E. 20 feet, 
Bhineland measure. (No diagram). 
1st November, 1661. 




15th Dec. By the Commander, etc., has Veen granted in full ownership to 
Thieleman Hendricx, of Utrecht, free agriculturist, and resident 
here, a certain plot of ground situated in the great field (groute veld) 
or the pass between the Table and False Bays, behind the Table 
Mountain, near to and at the fresh river named the Liesbeecq, 
adjoining on the north the land of the free burgher Jacob Cloeten ; 
on the W. the public wagon road ; on the S. the land of Com- 
mander van Riebeeck and that of the free agriculturist Jacob 
Rosendael ; and on the E. the aforesaid river Liesbeecq ; deep on 
the N. sideE. by N., and W. by 8. according to above diagram 
AK 160; on theS. side CD 110, and broad at the wagon road 



341 



A B 60 and B 105 ; and at the fresh river Liesbeecq 1) E 13 
EF10, FG30, GH11, HJ21, JK26, KL10,LM8, MN11, 
N 10, O P 36, P U 40, and Q R 67, Rhineland roods, forming 
together an area of 50 morgen and 554 roods Rhineland measure, 
as shown in above Diagram No. 45. 
15th December, 1661. 



1661. 
15th Deo, 



/? 



By the Commander, &c., has been granted to Thieleman Hen- 
dricx of Utrecht, free agriculturist, at his request and in full 
ownership, a certain plot of land situated in the " groote veld " or 
pass between Table and False Bays, behind the Table Mountain 
.near and adjoining the W. side of the river Liesbeecq; adjoining 
in the N. the still uncultivated land of the Table Bay (?) ; on the 
S. the land of the Hon. Commander van Riebeeok ; on the W. the 
public road, and on the E. the aforesaid river Liesbeesq ; long E. 
by N. and W. by S. 100 roods, and broad N. by W. and S. by E. 
24 roods, forming together an area of 4 morgen of land Rhineland 
measure, as appears from the above Diagram No. 46, 

14th April, 1662. 



1662. 
14th April. 



By the Commander, &c., has been granted to lloudrick Hen- i-tth June, 
dricksz: Boom, free burgher here, in full ownership an additional 
plot of ground at the N. end of his old land, situated in Table 
valley between the Wintbergh and the Fort ; adjoining on the N. 
the uncultivated land towards the sea side aud large main road ; 
on the 8, the petitioner's own land ; on the E. the Wintbergh, and 



342 

16 <>2- on the W. towards the Fort ; long N. W. and S E. 24, and broad 
15th June N.E. and S.W. 6 roods, forming together an area of 124 roods, 
Rhineland measure, according to above Diagram No. 47. 

15th June, 1662. 



1 7th June. By the Commander, &c., is granted the request of Herman ter 
Schelhoven of West Beveren, free agriculturist here, who asked to 
have in full ownership a certain plot of ground 22 morgen and 
555 roods in area, lately belonging to petitioner in partnership 
with one Hendrick Commertsz: Hogervelt, who stowed himself 
away last year in the return fleet. (No diagram) . 

17th June, 1662. 



;nd Oct. By the Commander, &c., is granted in full ownership to Juriaen 
Jansz: of Amsterdam, free burgher and resident here, a certain 
square plot on which to build and live, situated in Table valley 
westward from the Fort, adjoining on the N. the plot of the dis- 
penser Jochem Blanck of Lubeck, husband (naesaet) of the widow 
of the late Ensign Jan van Herwarden ; on the S. the plot of the 
free burgher Eldert Diemer ; on the E. facing the street of the 
Fort's plain, and on the W. the unbuilt erven towards the Lion 
Mountain ; long N.W. and 8.E. 140 and broad S.W. and N.E. 
48 feet, Khinelaud measure. (No diagram). 

2nd October, 1662. 



343 




By the Commander, &o., 
has been granted to Jan Coen- 
raedt Yisser of Ommen, free 
agriculturist, and resident 
here, in full ownership, a cer- 
tain plot of ground, situated 
in the " groote veld " or the 
pass between Table and False 
Bays, behind the Table Moun- 
tain, at and on the fresh river 
named Liesbeecq, adjoining 
on the N. the land of the free 
burgher Thieleman Hen- 
dricksz:, and that of Pieter de 
Jongh of Stadmoer, and of 
Willem Willemsz: of De- 
venter ; on the E. the unbuilt 
plots towards the mountains 
of Africa, and on the W. the 
aforesaid river Liesbeecq ; 
long on the E. side 190 and 
broad on the N. side 50, and 
on the S. side 47 roods, thus 
forming together with the 
bends and points of the 
length at the aforesaid Lies- 
beecq, 12 morgen and 5 roods, 

Rhineland measure, accord- 
ing to the above Diagram 
No. 49. 

20th Dec., 1662. 
(Signed) 



1662. 
20th Deo* 



344 



JOURNAL TO TRISTAN DA CUNHA, 

1655-56. 



1665. On the 22nd day of November I, Jan Jacobsz:, skipper, sailed 

away by order of Commander van Kiebeeck, from the Cape of 
Q-ood Hope towards the island named Tristan da Cunha, in order 
to explore it ; but I was first to call at Dassen Island in order to 
take on board two men stationed there and leave in their place 
two others. I sailed away with a fine S.E. breeze, but during the 
night it fell calm. I laid my course N.N.W. 

23rd November. Were this morning off the island. It was 

still calm, but we landed our two men Left in the 

afternoon, laying the course past the N. of the island, W. by S. 

31st December. A heavy storm blew from the N.W. At noon 
we obtained a good altitude and found it to be 37 32', the latitude 
of Tristan da Cunha ; the longitude was reckoned at 3 47', or 60 
(Dutch) miles to the west of the aforesaid island. We then shaped 
our course to the east, running before the wind, which was directly 
west. 

1666 1st January. With God's grace we have entered on the New 

Year. 

4th January. At daybreak we made all sail with a stiff W.N.W. 
breeze. We began to see seagulls, which seemed to us a good 
sign. Could obtain no altitude, as it was cloudy weather ; which, 
however, cleared up during the afternoon, w'len we hoped to see 
land. I then had the cables attached to the anchors. Not an 
hour later we saw one of the islands, and found it by compass 
8.E., and S.E. by E. away from us, and distant about 5| (Dutch) 
miles, but it was so covered with clouds that we could not with 
safety cast anchor. AVe, however, shortened sail and took a 
southerly course, when we reached 37 and 10' lat. and 10 1' 
long., according to guess. However, with four sea lines joined, 
we were unable to find any bottom. After sunset it began to blow 
so hard that we took off our ' benet.' The wind was west. Could 
find no bottom on 160 fathoms. 

5th January. At daybreak we beat up towards the aforesaid 
island. We had it N.N.E. from us, about three or four miles 
away. The wind was still blowing hard from the west. We neared 
the shore. We sailed along the eastern side along shore, but 
could find no bottom. The sea was dreadfully hollow. We sailed 
towards the N.E. side, luffed near by, and then passed through 
the seaweed, finding bottom at from 13 to 16 (? fathoms), A 



$45 

black sandy soil. We anchored in 16 fathoms, a third of a mile 
from the shore, and had slack water here. We lowered our sloop 
and with the mate I sounded the spot. This was on the N.E 
side of the island, Here the depth varied from 17 to 14 fathoms. 
On 10 fathoms one could throw a stone on shore. It was a fine 
bottom, but a little distance from the roadstead it suddenly 
deepened. I then rowed to the shore, but could hardly land ; 
finally, however, I succeeded with great danger, as the sea there 
rushed in very violently. I jumped up to my middle in the water, 
and reaching the shore found numbers of sea-lions, seals and 
penguins. Our men killed many of the seals, but it was difficult 
to kin the lions, as they were so frightfully tough and also 
immediately made for the sea, for it was a steep beach of clear 
shingle and large rocks. The beach was hardly six fathoms from 
the mountains, which were as steep as a wall and impossible to 
climb. We found also water here running down from the moun- 
tains, but it would be obtainable with difficulty, as it is so frightfully 
rooky and stony there, with a violent surf continually beating 
against the shore. We found a small oripplebush here, but the 
trees were hardly as thick as a leg (been) and mostly withered. 
The mountains were covered with reeds with which in Holland the 
ships ae breamed. It was a barren island on which I found no 
greens or anything fit to eat. Having viewed all this I returned 
on board, bringing with me a little wood and 1, 2, 3 penguins as 'a 
curiosity. The sloop then left for the shore with the mates to see 
whether some more wood could not be obtained (bochschare) , as 
we were very much in want of it. Towards evening the sloop 
returned with some wood, and the officers reported that she had 
nearly been swamped. 

6th January. During the morning it was calm weather and 
the sloop went on shore to obtain more fuel which was lying about 
on the beach. Here they found a small copse of cripplewood. It 
was very near the sea-lion cove. On entering this copse they found 
it full of sea-lions, fully 10 or 20 together. They were as large as 
cows. We killed a considerable number. I was lying in the 
sloop to see whether I could not catch any fish near the shore. 
Our people were busy in the copse cutting and looking for fuel. I 
caught as many fish as I wished to have for my pleasure. They 
consisted mostly of sea perches and a considerable number of 
'klipfish.' I also saw sharks here, but could not catch any as I 
had brought no hooks for that purpose with me. Towards evening 
we returned on board with two boat loads of fuel and a quantity of 
fish. 

7th January. This morning our men landed to fetch water, 
but with great difficulty they obtained a boat full. We had to 
carry it over the rocks with 'glairats' towards the shore, and 
afterwards draw it into the boat through the surf by means of 



346 

1656. gca li neSt They also found many sea-lions and seals near this 
water pool, which is about a quarter of a Dutch mile distant from 
the sea-lion cove. We could find on this island no greens or any 
refreshment. It was full of gulls but we could not reach their 
nests, which were on the top of the mountains. This day we 
fetched two more boatloads of water and caught a few fish. I also 
oaught four or five lobsters (creefte) with the hook. This moun- 
tain range has a greenish hue from outside when one is sailing 
close by, but it is all reed, the same which is used in Holland for 
braeming the ships. No other green stuff is obtainable here, and 
there is no suitable place for a vessel to lie, for one has to lie too 
near the shore, exposed to many changeable winds. During the 
evening, in the sixth or seventh glass after sunset, we drifted away 
from the roadstead with a slight breeze from the west, but as it 
was so steep (schor) we weighed our anchor and made sail, think- 
ing that we would again find anchor ground on the roadstead, but 
it was impossible as our galiot would not veer, and we were 
to continually keep her before the wind. We accordingly kept as 
near as possible until daylight. 

8th January. Still tacking during the morning. Sent our 
sloop on shore to fetch what we had forgotten, two sea lion and 
thrje seal skins, which we had hung out to dry there. During the 
aft' rnoon the sloop returned on board with the skins, and we laid 
oui course for the Island Tristan da Cunha, which lies E.N.E. 
abc at five miles (Dutch) distant from the island above mentioned, 
wh ch we gave the name of ' Het Nachtglas.' We could not 
disi over that any human beings had ever been here before. Thus 
saiKng along we arrived at Tristan da Cunha, at its W.S. W. side ; 
but we could find no bottom. The wind being N.W. we sailed 
round the point on the S.B. side near the shore, in order to find 
anchorage there, but we could find no bottom. Yea ! We were 
almost on the beach, but we were on the weather side and again 
male for the sea. In the evening it began to blow stiffly and we 
took in our topsail and ' bonet ' in order to lie to until the next 
day. The wind was N.N.W., and during the night it became 
good weather again. 

9th January. The same good weather in the morning but 
daik, so that one could hardly see six ship's lengths away. The 
wii.d was variable and blew from all quarters with heavy rain. 
Thus we sailed round and close to the Island Tristan da Cunha. 
Towards evening the wind turned towards the south and the 
weather became good. Hope to be next day close in shore to see 
whether no anchor ground can be found. 

10th January. Still fine weather, but the seas commenced to 
be fearfully hollow from the west. We were not far from the 
island, but here also we were unable to see a roadstead or find 
bottom. On the eastern side of the island should be the best 



347 

roadstead, as no suitable one could be possible on the other side, as 
the sea beats violently against it from the west. At noon we ran 
to the north side on the east side, where the ship * Heemskerck ' 
had lain. We ran close in, but could find no bottom. I deemed 
it unadvisable to anchor there as we were hardly a pederero's shot 
distant from the shore, without as yet having found any bottom. 
We accordingly sheered off and sent our sloop on shore to see 
whether there was any chance (of anchoring). It was fine weather, 
the wind blowing along shore, that is N.E., so that we could 
nicely go to and fro. The boat returned on board in the evening, 
and reported that there was no facility there for anchoring as it 
had merely found from 30 to 20 fathoms vile stony bottom, so 
near the land that one could with a sling hurl (a stone) on shore, 
against which the surf beat very violently. They landed at once, 
and laid their sloop between two small reefs right in, front of the 
water place. It was a very bad place, but water could have been 
easily obtained there if only a roadstead could have been found for 
the galiot. They also said that there was a number of sea-lions 
and seals. They had also seen many penguins, and also a mark 
at the waterplace mentioning that the flute ' Heemstede ' had 
been there on the 17th February, 1643, and obtained water there. 
Our men also left a mark there, but they had not been able to find 
any greens or refreshments or trees. It was a bare, barren island 
covered with wild reeds on the slopes of the mountain. The 
beach was of large rocks and stones hardly six or seven fathoms 
distant from the mountains. The latter were so steep that it was 
impossible to come near to or ascend them. Having sailed round 
and examined it, we set our course for another island S.S. W., about 
five miles distant from the aforesaid one. During the evening the 
wind turned to the N.W. We thanked God that we did not reach 
an anchorage there, as it began to blow hard, so that we sailed 
away under small sail from the shore, for if we had anchored 
there so near the shore we would very likely have had a mishap. 

llth January. At daylight we were at the island. We sailed 
about it and found it to be a small one. Two large rocks were 
lying near it. From a distance they seemed to be three islands. 
We gave them the name of the ' Broken Island.' Here also there 
was no roadstead for any vessel, as the sea beat violently all 
round, and there were many foul rooks in every direction. This 
small island or rock was barren, nothing green and no tree could 
be seen on it. After we had sailed through and examined these 
barren islands and not been able to do anything there or obtain 
any benefit, or find any harbours or bays or anchorage, as they 
were not, we set our course to the S.E. to the Island ' Digp de 
Alvaren ' in order to visit that also. These islands of * Tristan 
d'Acunha ' lie in the latitude of 37 23', and according to guess 
10 longitude, and here there is 12 N. eastering.,of the compass 
needle. These islands are almost always covered with clouds, 



348 

1663. especially the large island 'Trista de Aina,' which was always 
covered. Here also we had almost always a cloudy sky and much 
drizzling rain with varying winds. 

12th January. Fine weather, but obtained no altitude. Guessed 
that we were in 38 11' latitude and 11 11' longitude, the wind 
being S.W. After sunset we discovered that our two lowest 
' vingerlingen * (rudder pins) were broken, so that we were in great 
danger of losing our rudder. We accordingly resolved to pass 
the island ' Allevares ' and not to haul close to it, but to make for 
the Cape. Set at once to work to repair the damage to the rudder 
pins in the best way we could. 

January 13th. Further repairs effected to the rudder. Fine 
weather in the morning. Found no altitude to-day, guessed that 
we were in latitude 38 11' and long: 13 11'. 

January 14th. Found that we were in lat- 37 42 and long. 
15 25'. 



January 26th. In the morning at daybreak WP saw the land 

N.E. two miles from us. It was clear weather At 

noon we were before the Fort, anchoring about one mile beyond 
the right roadstead. At first we could not come nearer, as it was 
blowing so hard from the south 

January 27th. Fine weather in the morning. Very calm. 
Beached the right roadstead before the Fort the Good Hope at 
noon by rowing and towing. 

All this has been written and experienced b}- Jan Jacobsz:, 
skipper, with the galiot Hrt Nadityla*. Document of truth. 

(Signed) JAN JACOBS/:, skipper of Amsterdam. 

(The above is an extract from a verbatim copy of Jacob^z:'s log, 
received by me from the Archive Office at the Hague. In a 
marginal the copyist writes as follows : " The following copy haa 
also been sent, because the description of the voyage of Jan Jacobsz: 
was so badly expressed and unintelligible that it was thought 
useful to draw up a more intelligible one for the information of 
the Government, extracts from which now follow." H.C.V.L. : ) 

1655. 

Laus Deo ! In the galiot the Nachtghis. 
1655. Monday 22nd Nov. Left about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

January 1st. Entering now on a new year, we pray God that 
He will let us live through it witli health, with more holiness and 
less sin. 



349 

January 4th. Fine, but cloudy weather. Obtained no altitude ; 1 65t " 
yesterday we had reached 37 11', S. Latitude, our course being 
E. by N. f E. 20 miles. The difference of latitude according to 
the course steered was 00 5', the wind being W. by N. and 
W.N.W. The difference oi : longitude was 2 14'. During the 
Oth glass of the afternoon watsh we saw land ; one of the islands 
uf Tristan de Cunha, the most westerly of all those islands. In the 
chart it lies in longtitude 9 0', a difference of 1 42' compared 
with our conjecture according to which we had it S E. and S.E. 
by E. from us, about five miles away according to conjecture. It 
is a high island. We then turned towards the west and sailed S.W. 
y W., glory and thanks be to God the Lord, who has brought us 
thus far that we have been able to sight the islands. A stiff 
breeze towards evening. We took in our great " benet " and 
sounded for bottom, but could find none with 160 fathoms. 

January 5th. At daybreak we sailed N.E. by N. and close in 
shore, along the coast, to and fro, but could find no bottom until we 
luffed, when we found bottom in 20, 18, 17, 16 and 15 fathoms, 
black sandy soil, where we anchored. Lowering our boat the skipper 
and junior mate landed in a small bay, consisting wholly of flint 
rock. Here they found very many sea lions, which were very large. 
They named this little bay the Lion Bay. We also found very 
many seals here, but no wood whatever, either for timber or fuel. 
The latter we searched for, but only found a few old sticks which 
were lying on the rocks. There is no brush there, only reeds, 
among which the penguins make their nests. We were anchored 
on the E. side near the shore. About half a gun shot distance 
from it it would not be advisable for large ships to lie, except whim 
forced by dire necessity when water is needed, which can l>e 
obtained here but with very great difficulty. A veasel lies 
sheltered here from all W. winds, but the surf is very heavy along 
shore, so that by lying there a vessel is very severely tossed about. 
This island is so full of mews, that when the evening sets in and 
they come up from the sea, they are like snow flakes, which during 
winter float in the skies of Holland. They had been unable to 
discover any trace of a human being. They gave this island the 
name of the Nachtglax. It is the most westerly of all the islands. 
No greens whatever were found for refreshment. 

January 6th. Eowed once more on shore this morning, and 
collected two sloop loads of dry sticks for fuel, which we brought 
on board. Killed some sea lions and seals which were lying in 
our way. Having brought the fuel on board, our sloop went out 
fishing towards evening, and returned with more than 200 klip- 
fish and some breams. Thus the day was brought to a close. 

January 7th. Landed the next morning to fetch water, which 
it is very difficult to obtain, as it is to be carried over the rocks in 
sliding casks on the shoulders, and after that drawn on board 



350 

through the surf with a lead line. The colour of the water is that 
of Spanish wine and just as red. When we reached the shore 
with the sloop, we could hardly land because of ail the sea-lions. 
We had first to beat a lot to death with hand spikes. During the 
afternoon the boat returned on shore to look for fuel, which she 
brought on board. This island most likely lies in the right latitude., 
but we never had sunshine to take the altitude. Towards evening 
our boat returned towards the land in order to fish but only obtained 
a small quantity. We therefore decided to leave the next morn- 
ing, but the same night the galiot drifted from the roadstead and 
was kept under sail until daylight, when we sent our boat ashore 
to fetch the samples of lion and seal skins which had been left 
there to dry, and which it brought on board. 

January 9th. The boat having returned on board, we made 
sail, and laid our course E.N.E. straight for the island Tristan de 
Cunha. Though having approached it very near, we could find no 
bottom in 160 fathoms on the whole of the S.W. side, whilst the 
surf ran mountains high. Arriving at the S. side we had the same 
experience, for the land is high and steep, without any beach or 
sand, only bare rocks. Under the land we had calms and whirl- 
winds, drifting very rapidly towards the shore. We put the vessel's 
head towards the sea and found a N.N.W. breeze. Obtained an 
observation of 37 24' S. latitude. In the evening when the watch 
was stationed, we turned our vessel's head towards the land, the 
wind being N.N.W. right towards the shore. Our course was W. 
so that we thus had at dark the N. point from us. This is a large 
island, but without any trees, being only covered with reeds. 
The island Nachtglas is next in size to it. The other islands are 
large rocks and boulders. When the first night watch was ended, 
we again kept away from shore. Thus the day ended. 

January 9th. During the dog watch last night we tacked 
towards the shore. It was calm the whole day with heavy rains. 
We took in our sails and drifted until the evening, when a slight 
breeze from the E. arose. Sailed off and on the whole night on 
the E. side. In the morning we were close under the land, but 
could find no bottom. The wind was N.E. and we ran along the 
shore. 

January 10th. Saw a flat point of land before us, forming the 
N. side. We approached it, but could find no anchorage at the 
distance of a gunshot from the shore. We found that this flat 
point of land was the spot where the Ifeemstede had lain, as we 
understood later. Having approached very near the land, and not 
having found any bottom, but seeing some running water, and 
finding that we were on a lee shore, we resolved to keep away once 
more, in consequence of the great danger to which we were 
exposed, by lying off a lee shore and having no shelter 
from any wind, excepting a S. one; but in order to satisfy 



351 

our chiefs who had dispatched us to explore this and the 1662. 
other islands, and report the result, we lowered our boat 
and proceeded towards the shore, in order to discover whether 
anything might be there from which the Company might derive 
some profit, but we only found reed bushes, under which the 
penguins had made their nests, which were in thousands tiiere. 
We also wished to explore the place thoroughly and perf actly 
sound the waters with the boat, to find out how near and how 
far the ships might venture, which through distress might be 
compelled to seek refuge there, and what kind of anchorage 
existed. Accordingly we found at the distance of three or four lengths 
of a galiot from the shore in 21 fathoms of water, coarse shingle 
bottom. Good water is obtainable there, and fairly well ol tain- 
able. One passes with the boat between two small stone reels, on 
which the surf is very heavy, but between the two and near the 
shore the water is slack, so that one might almost step on shore 
dryfooted. Here also there are no trees, but only high and naked 
rocks, sea-lions and seals mostly sea-lions, however. Arr ving 
at the water place we found a small board or plank nailed to the 
rocks, on which the year " 1643 " was written, also " the flute 
Heemstede, the 17th February." The names were Claes Ge -ritse 
Bier and Brootspot of Hoorn: and Jan Coertse van den Eroec. 
We in our turn annexed to it another board on which wa,; cut 
" the galiot Nachtglus, Jan Jacobsz:, skipper, the 10th Jan tary, 
1656." We had done the same thing on the island Nach. glas. 
Towards evening we made sail and passed between the Nachiglas 
and the broken island. Near the latter we had a W.N.W. braeze. 
Seven islands have been laid down in the chart as surrounling 
Tristan d'Acunha. This seems to be so at a distance, but passing 
through them no more than three are to be found. For as they 
lie in such a broken state they appear as if they are so many. 

January llth. In the morning we ran towards the broken 
island, to discover whether there was any serviceable road- 
stead for ships or any other vessels, but we only found dry 
barren rocks and heavy surf in every direction. We accord- 
ingly decided to return to the Cape of Good Hope, as 
there was nothing profitable for the Company on these 
islands. We however, at the same time, resolved to sight 
the island Diego Alvarez in order to explore that also. We there- 
fore laid our course straight S.E. with a steady stiff breeze, the 
wind being S.W. by S. Could obtain no altitude at noon, und no 
dependence can be placed on a trade wind through the group, all 
the winds being variable and blowing from every quarter. Once 
we had an observation on the E. side of Tristan de Cunha and 
found that we were 21 N.E. of the needle. At noon we had the 
western point of the island Tristan de Cunha N.N.W. from us, 
about eight miles, and from this spot 1 commenced my return 
voyage 



852 

Saw land at daybreak to tht 8. of False Cape 

Having arrived below the Lion Mountain we were bocalmed 
until we rounded the rump, when it began to blow so hard 
as if it was half a storm. The wind being S.E. we could not 
reach the right roadstead, but had to anchor in 10 fathoms sandy 
bottom mixed with small pebbles, the Fort lying S.W. by S. from 
us During the night it became calm. 

Reached the roadstead with a N.W. breeze. Commander van 
Riebeeck at once sent a sloop on board to ask whence we came, 
but our skipper had already rowed to the land in order to com- 
municate full particulars to Mr. lliebeeck. 

(Signed; JACOB GOMMERSHACIT. 
1656, 28th January. 



ATTESTATIONS, DECLARATIONS AND 
AFFIDAVITS. 



354 

ATTESTATIONS, DECLARATIONS AND AFFIDAVITS. 



1652. September 4th. The undersigned declare that the commander 

4th Sept. an( ^ a P ar ty Qft d been out picnicing at the side of the river 
in the copse about f of an hour's walk from the port ; 
that having a headache after having caught some fish, 
which it was the intention to partake of on that spot, 
Corporal van der Laak ordered the drummer to beat the 
drum and was requested by Biebeeok not to do so, as he 
could not bear the noise. The corporal being drunk would not 
listen and called Biebeeck a droll fellow (Commandeur gy syt 
een drollige Carel) threatening to thrash the drummer if he 
desisted. Biebeeck was compelled in consequence personally to order 
the drummer to desist and to go home The latter was followed by 
the Corporal thrashing him with the cane. The Corporal thereupon 
returned to the table, placed in the little copse to eat the fish at, and 
grumbled saying that the Commander had no right to order the 
drummer; that he alone had it; and if there had been war, he 
would have ordered the drummer to beat as long as he liked with- 
out inquiring whether or not it pleased Riebeeck. The latter tried 
hard to quiet him and told him that there was peace and no war 
and that his head could not stand the noise. 



355 
ATTESTATIEN. 

No. 1. 

Op huijden den 4 Septembris, A 1652, hebben wij onderge- 1652. 
sohreve ter requisitie van den gerechte deser f ortresse de Goede ~ 
Hoope alhier aen Cabo de Boa Espirance verclaert ende g'attes- 
teert gelijck wij verclaaren ende certificeeren bij desen hoe waer 
emta waerachtich is dat de E. Johan van Biebeeok, opperkoopman 
eude opperhoofft der gemolte fortresse heden met sijn huijsvrouw 
ende schipper van't jacht de Goede Hoope, mitsgaders den siecken- 
trooster neffens sijn huijsvrouw gegaen sijnde omtrendt een half? 
quartier uijres gaens buijtent fordt op de cant van de rivier in den 
cleijn bosjen omme sigh daer met gemelte geselschap (een soo vis 
gevang : hebbende) wat te vermaecken. Ondertusschen door den 
Corporael van de soldaaten Joost van der Laeck (beschoncken 
sijnde) geeommandeert is den from te slaen, ende alsoo gemelte 
Kiebeecq seijde pijn in't hoofft te hebben offte qualijek te passe te 
wesen sulck geraes van de trom niet coste verdraegen, maer gecomen 
was om sigh daer wat te verfrissen ende verluohten dat dierhalven 
de trom soude doen stilhouden, soo heefft gemelten Corporael sulcx 
niet willen obedieren, maer daer tegen per force den tamboer 
g< commandeert echter de trom te slaen, seggende met eenen : 
" Commaudeur, gij sijt een drolligh carel dat gij 't geraes van de 
trom niet moeght verdraegen," waer op denselven Riebeecq seijde : 
" ick ben soo drolligh dat het mijn hoofft (seer doende) niet ver- 
draegen magh ende daerom soo laet de trom stilhouden," waerop 
den Corporael seer etoutelijok tegen den tamboer seijde, slaet den 
trom off ick sal u slaen ende den E. van Biebeecq geboot stil te 
houden, maer des nietjegenstaende mandeerende den Corporael 
voornt : de trom te slaen gelijok den tambour oock -dede, sulcx 
den Ed. voorn* genootsaeckt was (siende d' ongehoorsaemheijt 
van den Corporael verschreve) den tamboer selfis te gebieden, 
om stil te houden ende na huijs te gaen als wanneer gemel- 
teu droncken Corporael seer moeijelijck sijnde ende sijn 
heet niet durvende wreecken tegens 't opperhoofft den tamboer 
met de rottangh slaende naliep quansuijs om hem voort te drijven 
ende wederom comende ende aen de taeffel ittende die daer int 
bosien gestelt was om de versz : soo vis te eeten begond denselven 
Corporael vrij te morren ende wel stoutelijok te fleggen gij Com- 
mandeur en hebt met den tamboer niet te doen denselven moet 
op mij passen ende niet op u, ende alsser oorlogh nier int land 
was ick soude den tamboer laten slaen ende optrommelen iia mijn 
believen ende sonder u te vraegen 't waer u lieff off leedt, waer 
op gemelte Biebeecq hem noch soeokende ter neder te setten ende 
met goeticbeijt te doeii gerust wesen, met seer groote ja al te 
groote patientie seijde 't is nu nooh vrede ende geen oorlogh ende 



350 



But the Corporal replied: "Commander you are a fool"; 
4th Sept. whereupon he was ordered to leave the company, and go to the 
fort ; he would however not go and continued his saucy conversa- 
tion, three times repeating it that the Commander was a fool. 



Shortly afterwards three or four Hottentoos arrived with some 
fine crayfish for the Commander, and escorted by the drummer who 
had met them on his way to the fort. The Corporal again attacked 
the drummer with his cane and made such a noise in spite of 
Itiebeeck's orders to the contrary that not only the drummer, but 
also the natives, who could not understand what was the matter 
ran away and so prevented Kiebeeck from returning their attentions 
as was his ordinary custom with a present of tobacco and food, 
in order to gain their affection and confidence. 



The Corporal is consequently the cause of the natives having 
been made somewhat afraid of us, and the Commander being very 
much put out by his conduct, left for the fort, the whole party 
breaking up. 



The above declaration is confirmed by oath. 



357 

't hoofft doet mij seer laet daerom de trom stil sijn ende weest gij 
gerust alst eens tijt van oorlogh is sal men spreecken van de 
trom te roeren, nu mach't mijn hoofft niet verdraagen ende den 
noot en vereijst oock tegenwoordich sulcx niet. Waerop den 
Corporael antwoorde : Commandeur gij sijt maer een geek ende 
weet niet wat het beduijt, op't welcke hem zijn E. voornoem*. 
geboodt uijt zijn geselschap ende na 't fordt te gaen. Maer hij 
wilde niet ende bleeff tegen wil ende danck van den selven Bitten 
ende veel trotse ende onbeleeffde woorden aen de taeffel voeren 
ende andermael tot nooh 2 distincte malen repieteren, gij Com- 
mandeur sijt een geek. Ondertufeschen comen 3 a 4 Hottentoos 
den tamboer onderwegen te gemoet met eenige schoone groote 
creefften om aen gemelte Biebeecq te vereeren welcke den 
tamboer nevens gemelde Ottentoos bij ons quam begind 
voorsz : Corporael d". tamboer met de rottangh weder met 
groodt onfatsoen te slaen ende soodanigen gebaer te 
maecken onaengeaien: dat het hem van gemelt Biebeecq 
ende schipper van't jacht werdt verbooden dat niet alleen den 
tamboer maer oock de gemolte hottentoos offte wilden (niet 
wetende watter te doen ware) deur liepen, dewelnke gemelte 
Kiebeecq (gelijok altijt ende doorgaens sijn ordinaren last ende 
bevel is) noohtans meenende wat minnelijck te bethoonen, ende 
voor hunne betonende vrintschap met wat tabacq ende eeten te 
vereeren ende te onthaelen om hun langhs soo meer tot ons te 
treoken, ende genegen te maecken waervan door de onhebbe- 
lijckheijt ende ongehoorsaamheijt des gemelten dronoken cor- 
poraels voor dees tijt beleth bleeff, ende de versz : wilden eenigh- 
sints voor ons bevreest gemaeckt wierden invoegen Zijn E. voor- 
noemt door alle deese moetwilligh 1 van gemelte corporael vrij 
ontroert ende in zijn voornemen (in plaetso van sigh wat te ver- 
frissen offte verluohten) verstoordt sijnde met desselffs voorge- 
melte geselschap is na huijs gegaen. Also 't welcke wijonder- 
geschreven rerclaeren de oprechte sincere waerheijt ende in onse 
presentie geschiedt te wesen ende presenteren des nopts ende 
versocht zijnde met solemn ele eede te bevesten. Actum in't Fort 
de Goede Hoope, ter presentie van Seur Henrich van Amstel : 
M r Metselaer, ende Jacob Spaer, yan Amstel : timmerman, als 
getuigen van goeden geloove hier toe versocht, ende desen neffens 
ons onderget : hebben ond* ten dage ende jare als boven. 

Als getuigen : P. v. D. HELM. 

HENDRIJCK HENDRIJOKSE, F. VERBURGH. 

van Amsterdam. JELLIS FREDRIK. 

JACOB DIRCKSZ: SPAER, Dit is't X merck van 

van Amsterdam. JOOST CARSTENSZ : van 

Congelff. 

SIJMON HUIJBRECHTSZ : van 
Port. 



358 

Attestation confirmed bv oath. 



1652 . September 4th. Declaration of the undersigned that the 
4th Sept Corporal Joost van der Laack returning to the fort searched 
for the drummer and running after him like a madman 
thrashed him severely. Being told that the Commander 
was coming he answered who cares for the Commander, 
he may be commander of the fort, but I am commander of 
the soldiers. I have had enough of the Commander, &c., all 
being expressions savouring more of mutiny than becoming 
obedience. 

The above confirmed by oath. 



859 

OHB attestanten dese boventtaende attestatie andemael voorge- 1652 - 
leeen persisteren als noch bij't voorgaende soo waerl : moet ons 
Godt Almaohtigh helpen, desen 7* Septemb: 1652. 

JELLIS HENDERICKS. P. y. D . HELM. 

Dit 1st X merck van F. VERBURQH. 

JOOST CARSTENSZ : van Congelf. 
SIJMON HUIJBRECHTSZ : van Dordrecht. 



No. 2. 

Op huijden den 4 en September 1652 hebbn wij ondergesohrev 
ter requisitie van den gerechte deser fortresse de Goede Hoope 
verclaert ende g'attesteert gelijck wij verolaereu ende attesteren bij 
desen waer ende waerachtich te wesen dat den Corporael Joost 
van der Laeck heel droncken sijnde van buijten in't ford comende 
den tamboer sender eenige reden heefft gaen opsoecken ende 
bestaen wel dapper te slaen mitsgaders den selven over al gelijck 
een sot na te lopen, ende gewaereohout wordende dat den Com- 
mandeur Biebeecq quam aengaen antwoorde wel stoutelijck wat 
bruijt mij den Commandeur, is hij Commandeur van't fort iok 
ben Command : van de soldaten ende ick heb den bruij van den 
Commandeur, met meer andre trotse ende opposite woorden meer 
hebbende na muterie ende oproermaeokinge als sohuldige 
obediente. Alle 't welcke wij onderschreve verclaeren d'oprechte 
sincere waerheijt ende alsoo in der daet ende waerheijt geschiedt 
te wesen het weloke wij presenteren des noots ende versocht 
sijnde nader met solemnelen eede te bevestigen. Aldus gedaen 
ende geattesteert ter presentie van den eersamen Sijmon Turver 
schipper op't Jagt de Hope als getuijgen van goeden gelove 
hiertoe versooht welcke desen neffens ons attestanten hebben 
onderteijckent ten dage ende jare als boven. 

Mij present ah getuijge GERRIT ABELSEN. 

SIJMON PIETERSZ : CORNELIS JANSZ : MAJARP. 

TURVER. P. v. D. HELM. Secrets. 

Ons attestanten bovenstaende attestatie andemael voorgelesen 
sijnde persisteren als noch bij't voorgaende, soo waerl : moet ons 
Godt Almachtioh helpen, desen 7 en Septemb : 1652. 

Mij present als getuijghe CORNBUS JANSEN MAJARP. 

GERRIT ABELSEN. 
SYMEN PIETERSZ : TURVER. P. v. D. HELM., Secrets. 



SCO 



September 25th. Declaration of the undersigned, that when 
25th~spt speaking together about the desertion during the night of Jan Planx 
and Willem Huytjens and likewise of Q-errit Dircks : van Elsen and 
Jan van Leyden ; Pieter Brackenier had said that he wished that 
he was in their company, and uttered other words inclining to mutin}" 
and the creation of rebellion among the men, who might thus also 
be tempted to take a wrong course, instead of obeying their 
officers in accordance with the rules of honor and the oath taken by 
them as required in the "Articles" signed by them. 



26th Sept. September 26th. Declaration of the undersigned, that Harman 
Vogelaer sitting in tho guard house among the men had said, 
"to-day is meat day and if justice were done we ought now to 
have meat and fish together but instead meat is withheld and only 
fish is given what can half a fish help a man ? If this continues 



361 

No. 3. 

Op huijden den 25 en September 1652 hebben wij ondergesz: 1652. 
ter requisitie van den gerechte deser fortresse de Q-oede Hoope .,. ~^ 
verclaert ende g'attesteert gel: wij verclaren ende attesteren mitg 
desen waer ende waerachtigh te wesen dat wij ondergesz: met 
Pieter Brackenier, boss 1 , op dato voor de gemeene tente samen 
staen pratende bij ons geseijt wiert dat de personen, met nanien 
Jan Planx ende Willem Huijtjens, mitsgaders Gtarrit Dircksz: 
van Elssen ende Jan van Leijden desen nacht hun vuijgitijff 
gestelt, ende van aff te landewaert in gelopen waren, waerop hij 
Braokenier voorsz: antwoorde dat wenste bij haer in oomp e te wesen 
omme met haer alsoo deur te mogen gaen ende meer andere dier- 
gelijcke woorden gebruijckende, hellende deselve meer nae 
muijterije ende opmaeckingh van 't gemene volck (die door sulok 
middel van seggen verleijt ende op den doolwegh soude gebracht 
ounnen worden) als schuldige obedientie eer ende eedts halven 
naer luijt van den generalen articulbrieff hare respective Opper- 
hooffden te be wij sen, alle 't welcke voorsz: staet wij ondergesz : 
verclaren d' oprechte cincere waerh* ende also in der daet geschiet 
te wesen het welcke wij presenteren des noots ende versocht 
bijnde nader met solemnelen eede te bevestigen. Aldus gedaen 
ende g'attesteert ter presentie van Frederick Verburgh, bouck- 
houder, ende Sijmon Huijbreohtsz: adelborst, als getuige van 
goeden geloove hiertoe versocht die desen nevens ons ondergesz: 
ende mij als bouckhouder hebben onderteijckent ten dage ende jare 
als boven. 

WILLEM GERRITSEN. 
Dit merck X van SWITSERT TEUNISZ: PIJL. 

Mij present, 
P. v. D. HELM. 
Als getuijge : 

F. VERBURGH. 

SIJMON HUYBRECHTS, van Dordrecht. 



No. 4. 

Op huijden den 26 Septemb : 1652 hebben wij ocdorgesz: 26enSe P t. 
ter requisitie van den gerechte deser Fortresse de Goede Hoope 
verclaert ende g'attesteert gel : wij verclaren ende attesteren mits 
desen waer ende waerachtigh te wesen dat Harman Vogelaer op 
dato voorez : in de cortegaerde sittende onder 't gemeene volck 
seijde 't is van daghe vleijs dagh ende als het recht soude 
gaen behooren wij nu vleijs ende vis samen te hebben ter 
contrarie wort ons 't vleijs onthouden ende maer vis alleen gege- 
ven, wat mach ijder man een halve vis helpen, ende als het voor- 
laen soo soude gaen, wensch ick datter niet een vis gevangen 

AA 



362 

I wish that no more fish are caught or that there is not a single 
26th Sept one in the river and such like unnecessary prating." 



September ^6th. Declaration of the undersigned that some days 
ago Jan Swynshooft, coming into the kitchen, had said that Harman 
vogelaer had incited the common people and told them that every 
day they had to work hard and did not get enough to eat, and 
that it was nobody's fault but that of Walvis, the butler, that only 
penguins were served out instead of pork and meat. Said 
Swynshooft, having been examined by the court, had acknowledged 
that Vogelaer had said " May the devil take Walvis for with- 
holding frum us the pork and giving us instead penguins without 
the knowledge of the Commander." 



363 

wierd off geen meer in de ganscbe revier was, met meer andere 1652 - 
diergel : onnodighe praetjens onder 't volck maeckende, alle 't 2 6enSept 
weloke voorsz : staet wij ondergesz : verolaren d' oppreohte oinoere 
waerh* ende alsoo in der daet gesokiet te wesen, het welcke wij 
presenteren des noots ende versocht sijnde nader met eede te 
bevestigen. 

Aldus gedaen ende g'attesteert ter presentie van Jelis Frede- 
ricksz : Walvis ende Joost Carstenez : van Congelff ; getuijgen 
van goeden geloove hier toe versocht die desen nevens ons onder- 
gesz: ende mi j als bouckhouder hebben onderteijckent ten dage 
ende jare als boven. 

VALENTIJN LEHMAN. 

PlETER WlTSINCK. 

Als getuijge : T' oirconde, 

IELLIS FREDERICKS. P. v. DER HELM. 

Dit is 't X merck van JOOST CARSTENSZ : 

van Congelff. 



No. 5. 

Op buijden den 26 en September 1652 hebben wij ondergesz. ter 
requisitie van den Gerechte deser fortresse de Goede Hope ver- 
claert ende g'attesteert gelijck wij verclaren ende attesteren mits 
desen waer ende waerachtigh te wesen dat Jan Swijnshooft eenige 
daghen geleden in de combuijs comende geseijt heeft dat Har- 
man Vogelaer 't gemeene volck heeft opgerookent ende tegens 
haer geseijt, dat afie dagen swaeren arbeijt moeten doen ende niet 
genoegh naer behooren gesohaft wierd, ende datter nu peguijns 
in plaets van speck ende vleijs gegeven wert niemants sohult ende 
te wij ten is dan Walvis, den bottelier, waerop Swijnshooft voorsz : 
voor gerechte gehoort sijnde bekent heeft dat Vogelaer voorn* ge- 
seijt heeft de duijvel moet Walvis halen dat hij ons 't speck ont- 
hout ende peguijns in plaets geeft sonder weten van den Com- 
mandeur. Alle 't geene voorsz : staet wij ondergesz. verclaren 
d* oprechte cincere waerh* te wesen het welcke wij presenteren des 
noots ende versocht sijnde 't alien tijde nader met solemnelen 
eede te bevestigen Aldus geclaen ende g'attesteert ter presentie 
van Fredrick Verburgh, bouckhouder, ende Pieter Wissingh, adel- 
borst, getuijge van goeden gelove hier toe geroepen die desen 
nevens ons ondergesz : ende mij bouckhouder hebben onder- 
teijckent ten dage ende jare als boven. 

F. VERBURGH, 

Dit is 't X merok van JOOST CARSTENSZ : van 
PIETER WISSINGH. Congelff. 

Dit is 't X merck van SIJHRANT RINCKES. 
JOHAN T' Oirconde, P. v. D. HKLM. 

AA 2 



364 



1353 October 4th. The undersigned, summoned by the court to declare 

4th"oet * n wna ^ manner Juriaen Willeke was drowned, testify that they had, 
with the permission of the Commander thirteen in number gone 
out fishing. Some had proceeded in the sloop, others had walked 
along shore towards Salt River, at the mouth of which the boat 
had encountered such a heavy current that it could not enter. 
The gunner had then said, " Let us throw a line to those on shore 
that they may pull us in." This was done and Jan Gabriels and 
Grerrit Hermens endeavoured to get hold of it, but, in consequence 
of the quicksands, did not dare to go in deeper than to below their 
knees. Juriaen Willeke then came, saying, " I will run for it, I 
can swim," passing at the same time the others and standing a 
hand's breadth above his knees in the water. He caught the line 
but before he could gain the shore with it he was thrown down by 
the heavy current. He threw up his arms, cried out and dis- 
appeared at once. The other two, who were about a yard behind 
him had enough to do to gain the shore, declaring that the sand 
was in such motion that, being only up to their calves in the 
water, they could hardly keep their feet. 



"Whatever trouble those on land and in the boat took to recover 
the body of Juriaen Willeke, they could get no sight of him again 
or assist him in any possible manner. 



Signed on the 4th Oct., 1653, by 

BAKTEL SOHAOHT and 
the others, 17 in number, 

and confirmed by oath on the 14th Oct., 1653. 



365 

No. 6. 

Wij ondergeschreven geroepen sijnde voor den Eaet deser 
f ortresse de Goede Hoope ende door denselve ondervraesrht worden- 

31 J A T TTT'll 1 

de hoe ende op wat maniere Juriaen Willeke was comen te 
verdrencken verclaren wij ondergesz. gesamentlijck op onse 
manne waerheijt in plaetse van solemnelen eede dat soo als wij 
met consent van den Commandeur onder ons derthienen met de 
sloep van 't Fort waren gescheijden om te gaen vissen, eenige van 
ons langhs strandt gaende ende d' andere met de sloep roijende 
na de soute reviere, ende in de mont van deselve comende soodani- 
geharde uijtlopende stroom bevonden dat niet costen de stroom 
door roeijen dier halven door den constabel geseijtwirt laet ons 't 
volcq (aen lant sijnde) de Ujn toe werpen omme van de selve 
binnen getrocken te worden, sulcx die van de sloep doende, Jan 
Gabrielsz : ende Qerrit Hermensz : daer na toe liepen om de lijn 
te vangen ; maer niet dervende vermits de wellende santgront ende 
hart uijtlopende stroom verder als tot hare knie'n toe in 't water 
lopen, was Juriaen Willeke gecomen seggende ick salder wel na 
lopen, ick can swemmen ende alsoo de andere twe int water verbij 
gaende tot omtrent een hant breet boven de knie'n creegh de lijn 
van de sloep gevaet, edoch eer met deselve coste aen lant comen, 
wiert van de gemelte hardt lopende stroomen onder de voet ge- 
stroomt, steeckende sijn handen boven ende een galm van geroep 
gevende bleefE soo voorts terstont heel wegh, ende d' andor twe 
niet boven de knie'n als geseijt omtrent een stap weeghs aohter 
hem staende genoegh te doen hebbende dat het vaste strant cregen 
verclarende de sandige gront soo welachtigh was, dat tot de kuij- 
ten maer int water sijnde qualijck op haer beenen costen 
ataende blijven, ende wat moeijten die aen lant ende dewelcke in 
de sloep waren om gemelten Juriaen Willeken deden, costen hem 
niet weer te sien crijgen nochte eenige hulpe ter werelt doen. 
Allen 't welcke wij ondergesz : verolaren d'oprechte ende cincere 
waerheijt ende alsoo in dev daet toegegaen te wesep, met presen- 
tatie omme 't selve 't alien tijden met solemnelen eede te bevestigen. 

Gedaen in 't fort de Goede Hoope desen 4 C " October 1653 ter 
presentie van de ondergesz : raetspersoonen die desen neffens ons 
verclaerders in teijcken der waerheijt hebben onderteijckent. 

Ons present 

JOHAN VAN ElEBEECK, 1653. BARTEL ScHACHT, 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1653. MIEWIS JANS/: 

Dit merck X van JOCHUM ALBERTS/ : 

JOANNIS KLASEN. 

Dit is't merck X van BNGEL VAN DAM. 
Dit merck X van JAN GABRIELS/ : 
Dit is't merck X van WOUTER EVERTSZ : 
Dit is 't merck X van MELLE HENRIC/. 
Dit is't merck X van PIETER BRACKENIFR. 
WILLEM GERRITSEN. 
PIETER JANSEN. 
GERRART HARMENS/ : 



366 



1653. November 19th. The undersigned declare that they have heard 

l9th~Nov. an< ^ 8een ^at Adriaen, the provost-marshall, being drunk, had 
wished to go to bed above the guard house from which, as he stated, 
he was prevented by the men who were upstairs, and that having com- 
plained to Marcus, the corporal, who was likewise drunk and had the 
watch, the said corporal went upstairs, and, with his cane, commenced 
beating the men indiscriminately, without knowing who had pre- 
vented the provost from going to bed. That the men, seeing that 
they were being beaten without cause, commenced to cry out and 
ask what it meant as they had not done it. That upon this the 
corporal went down again and the provost went to bed without 
being molested by anybody. That a little while after G-errit 
Fagels went down for some business he had been innocently 



367 

No. 7. 

Ons ondergeschreven dese bovenstaende verklaringe ten tweeden 1653. 
maele dinstmctelijck weder voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij onse 
daer bij gedane verclaringe persisteren, soo waerlijck moet ons 4en Oct> 
Godt Almachtich helpen. 

In't fort de Goede Hoope den 14 en October 1653. 

BARTEL SCHACHT. 

MIBWIS JANSZ: 
Bit merck X van JOCHEMUS ALBERTS. 

JOANNIS KLASEN. 

Dit merck X van BNGEL VAN DAM. 
Dit merck X van JAN GABRIBLSZ: 
Dit merok X van WOUTER EVERTS : 
Dit merck X van JELLE HENRICKS. 
Dit merck X van PIETER BRACKENIER. 

WlLLEM GERRITSEN. 

PIETER JOHANNES. 
GERRART HARMENSZ : 



No. 8. 

Op huijden den 19 Novemb. 1653, compareerde voor mij 
Fredrick Verburgh, boeckhouder deser f ortresse de Goede Hoope 
in dienst van de Vereenighde Nederlants g'ootroijeerde Oost 
Indische Comp e . d'eersame Johannes Klaesen, metselaer van 
Amsterdam, Willem Grabrielsen, timmerman, van Amsterdam, 
Jan Hendrickse Doorn van Lints, adelborst ende Hermen 
Vogelaer mede adelborst, alle in gemelte dienst ende fortresse 
bescheijden welcke gesament 1 . verclaerden bij hare manne waarh*. 
in plaetse van eeden ter requisitie ende versoucke van den gerechte 
deser fortresse, dat sijluijden gehoort ende gesien bebben dat 
Adriaen den geweldiger (beschoncken sijnde) boven de corpus du 
garde, te koij wilde gaen 't geene hem geweldiger van 't volcq die 
boven waren (soo hij seijde) belet wierdt, ende 'tselve aen Marqus 
den Corporael (die mede beschoncken was ende de waght hadde) 
claeghden seggende, Corporael 't volcq wil mij niet laten passeren ; 
waerom hij Oorporael naer boven ginok daer hij met sijn rotting 
begond int hondert te slaen sender t weten wie den geweldiger 
belet hadde ende 't volck siende dat sender oorsaeck geslagen 
wierden begond een ijder te roepen wat het beduijden dat hij 
Corporael haer sloegh dewijle sijt niet gedaen hadden. Waerop 
den Corporael naer beneden ginck, als doen den genoemde gewel- 
diger (sender van ijmant gemollesteert te worden) vredelijok naer 
sijn coij gingh. Een weinigh daer naer is Gerrit Fagels beneden 
gecomen om sijn water te maken die van te vooren van den 



368 

1653. beaten by the corporal upstairs and that when going through the 

19.th~Nov. passage he was again beaten by the corporal, who said, " There is 

Q-errit Fagels, who believes that nobody dares to thrash him." 



That upon this Fagels said, " you beat me unjustly as you did 
Febus upstairs." That upon that he went outside, and on his 
return went to bed, thinking that everything was at an end. 
That the corporal again commenced with his cane. That upon 
this the cadet, Symon Huybrechts, roused by the improper pro- 
ceedings, of the corporal, who had no cause to continue beating 
Fagels, kindly took the corporal round theiieck and said, " Do not 
beat the man any more as he is innocent." That the corporal, 
however, would not listen and continued beating Fagels, who, 
being in his shirt, could stand it no longer, and after a severe 
struggle managed to get outside. That the corporal then dropped 
his cane at the door, which Symon returned to him, but that he 
was asked, "What have you to do with my cane, do you want to 
usurp the command ? " the corporal at the same time lifting it on 
high in a threatening manner. That Symon, fearing that the 
corporal would strike him seized it by the end, but the 
corporal forcibly wrenched it out of his hand, and at the same time 
drawing his sword in great wrath, endeavoured to stab Symon, 
but missing him, the weapon stuck fast in a pole standing 
near ; that the corporal had to draw it out Avith great force, and 
that thereupon lifting it again, struck Symon with it, who cried, 
" Halloa ! Corporal ! you are not in earnest." That the latter 
again struck out and wounded Symon, but that in conseqence of 
the darkness and the number of the men who rushed towards the 
spot, we could not see the wound given. That re any then came 
near and that the corporal Jan van Gulick and Dirck Gerrits, 
lance-corporal, also approached, and with sweet words calmed down 
their comrade. And that Symon, finding himself wounded, 
quietly slipped outside to have his wound dressed by one of the 
surgeons. 

(Signed by) JOHANNFS CLAASSEX 
and three others. 

Declaration affirmed by oath on the 27th November, 1653. 



Corporael (bo\en sijnde) met den rottingh verscheijde malen 1653 - 
(onschuldigh wesende) geslagen was, ende nu door de ghangh 19 "^ , 
wilde gaen, heeff den Corporael Gerredt Fagelsz : voorsz : ander- 
mael weder lustigh met sijn rottingh gebastonneert, seggende daer 
is Gerrit Fagels den walmeester die beelt hem almeede in dat men 
hem niet soude durven slaen, waerop Gerrit Fagelsz : voor 1 seijde': 
Gij slaet mij ten onrechte sonder reden, gelijck gij Febus boven 
zijnde oock gedaen hebt ; waerop buijten is geraeckt ende aldaer 
siju water gemaeckt hebbende weder binnen gegaen is, hem alsoo 

erust stelde denckende dat alles gedaen soude wesen, begond hij 
orporael Gerrit Fagels op een nieuw met sijn rottingh weder aff 
te slaen waer over Sijmon Huij breghts : adelborst (alhier mede 
bescheijden) beweeght sijnde ende d' onbehoorlijokh' van den 
Corporael siende dat sonder reden te hebben Gerrit Fagels soo langh 
was slaende heeft hij Sijmon voors : den Corporael mindelick om 
den hals gevat seggende slaet den man doch niet meer want hij geen 
schuldt en heeff daer hij Corp met willende naer hooren ende int 
slaen volharden 't geen Gerrit Fagels (dewijl in't hempt was) niet 
coste verdragen, eijndelijck met veel worstelen omtrent den deur 
geraeckte daer den Corporael sijn rottingh heefft laten vallen, 
die hem van Sijmon voors : opgeraept wiert ende hem Corporael 
gaff die den rottingh weder siende (niet weetende waer hij die 
gelaten hadde) seer hevig seijde wat hebt gij met mijn rottingh 
van doen wilt gij mijn 't commando nemen ; grijpende den 
rottingh ende deselve willende opheffen, 't geen Sijmon voors : 
sagh en vreesde dat daermede geslagen soude werden, hielt 
deselve aen't ent vast doch wiert hem met forsch van den 
Corporael uijt sijn handt geruckt ende sijn deegen daerop uijt 
ruckende met een groote furij daermede naer Sijmon stack ende 
't selve mis sijnde bleeff in een stijl (daer omtrent staende) 
steecken die hij met groote moeijte ende forse most uijt halen, 
hem weder opheffende sloegh Sijmon daermede, die daer onder 
tus : seijde : holla Marqus 't is soo niet ^emeent als does hij 
Corporael voors : andermael seer hevigh naer Sijmon stack, ende 
is comen te wonden doch dewijl het doncker was ende veel volcq 
toeliep hebben igentl : de wonde niet cunnen sien geven als 
wanneer daer veel volks was omgelopen, ende doort gewoel den 
Corporael Jan van Guij lick ende Dirck Gerritsz : lants passaet daer 
mede bij quamen ende hebben haer cammeraet den Corporael 
Marq : met soetigheijt gestilt ; ondertusschen Sijmon gevoelende 
dat gequets was is stillekens deur gegaen om 't selve door een van 
de meesters te doen verbinden. 

Alle 't welcke sij attestaaten verclaren waer ende waeragh* te 
wesen ende presenteren des noots ende daertoe versocht sij ml e t 
selve fallen tijde vocr alle heeren hoven gerechte ende rechters 
met eeden te bevestigen ; in teijcken der waerheijt hebben sij com- 
paranten desen nevens de ondergeschreve getuijgen ende mij 
boekhouder voors. onderteijckent. 



November 19th. The Tindersigned declare at the request 
i9th~Nov f Marcus Robbeljacht, corporal, that they have heard 
that the sergeant, after having made the rounds, ordered 
the corporal not to allow the provost to leave the corps 
de garde. That the latter, wishing to go to bed, was 
consequently prevented from doing so by the men upstairs, and 
went to complain to the corporal. That upon that Marcus went 
upstairs, and, standing on the ladder, beat all indiscriminately, 
amongst them Fagels, who was descending to go outside for some 
reason, but whom the corporal would not allow to go, again beating 
him. That Fagels, having returned, said, ' ; You beat me without 
cause as I am not the one who prevented the provost from going 
to bed." That the corporal answered, " You may go to bed," but 



371 

Actum in't fort de Goede Hoope ten dage ende jare als voren 
ter presentie van Jan Woutersen ende Caspar van Weede, adsist : 
berjde geloottwaerdige getuijgen hier toe versocht. 

JAN WOUTTERSSEN. JOHANNIS CLASEN. 

CASPAR VAN WEEDE. WILLEM Q-ABRIELSZ : 

Mij present, JAN HENDHICKS : DORN. 

F. VERBURGH. HARMEN FOGELAER. 

Ons onderges: dese neffenstaende attestatie te tweede male 
distinctel: voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij ons daerbij gedane 
verclaringe persisteren, soo waerlijok moet ons Godt Almachtigh 
helpen. 

In't fort de Goede Hope desen 27 en November 1653. 
Oris present : 

JOHAN VAN ElEBEECK, 1653. WlLLEM GABRIELSZ : 

JACOB REINIERSZ: JAN HENDRTCKSZ : DORN. 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1653. HARMEN FOGELAER. 
F. VERBURGH, Secrets : 



No. 9. 

Op huijden den 19 November 1653 compareerde voor mij 
Frederick V T erburgh,bouckhouder deser fortresse de Goede Hoope in 
dienst van de Vereenigde Nederlantse g'octroijeerde Oost Indische 
Comp e d .' eersame Gabriel Linwol, adelborst, Jacob Gerritsen, adelb: 
Hendrick Maijer, mede adelb: ende Johan Jurgen Witborgh, sold*, 
alle in gemelte dienst ende in geseijde fort bescheijden welcke 
gesamentlijck verclaren bij hare manne waerheijt in plaetse 
van eeden ter requisitie ende versoucke van Marcus Robbeljacht 
corporael, dat sijluijden gehoort hebben dat den sergeant (die 
alvoren de hoofft ronde gedaen hebbende) aan hem corporael 
belaste dat hij den geweldiger niet uijt de corps du garde soude 
laten, alsdoen hij geweldiger naer coij willende gaen, 't geene 
hem van 't volcq, die boven waren (soo hij seijde) belet wiert 
waerover aen den corporael sijn beslagh dede, seggende, sij willen 
mij daerboven niet laten passeren, waerover Marcus daer naer toe 
is geklommen ende op de leere staende heeft int hondert geslagen 
en is onder alien Gerrit Fagels, boss r , comen te slaen die daerop 
naer beneden gingh om sijn water te maecken 't geen den 
corporael niet wilde toestaen, heeft hem andermael geslagen 
waerop Gerritse Fagels voors: seijde (die alsdoen sijn water buijten 
al gemaeckt hadde) gij slaet mij te onrechte want ick die man 
niet ben die den geweldiger tegen gehouden heoft ; waerop hij 
corporael seijde gij mooght te coij gaen en niet ophoudende op 



372 

.1653. nevertheless did not cease from thrashing him. That upon this 
jL9th~N<r ^he ca( let, Symon Huybrechts, left his bed and asked the corporal 
why he beat Fagels as he was innocent, and wishing to take hold 
of the corporal, the latter's cane dropped. That it was picked up 
and returned by Symon to the corporal, who cried out, " Keep off, 
whoever touches my cane touches me." That thereupon, drawing 
his cutlass, he made a plunge at Symon, but missing him, the 
weapon stuck fast in a post standing near. That Symon, seeing 
that the corporal was in earnest, wished to escape, but the corporal, 
having wrenched the cutlass from the post, wounded him in the 
thigh. 

(Signed by) GAHRIEL LUIJENWOLT 
and three others. 



Above declaration confirmed by oath on the 27th November, 
1653. 



'27th Nov. November 27th. The undersigned declare that they have heard 
and seen that the quarter-master, Jan Matthys, being drunk, was 
lying asleep on a box outside of the guard house. That when he awoke 



373 

Gerrit Fagels te slaen, is Sijmen Huijbreghts., mede adelb: 
(alhier sijn dienst waernemende) beweeghi sijnde van de coij 
gesprongen seggende tegen den corporael voornt: waerom slaet 
ghij den man want hij onschuldig is, ende hij Sijmon den corporael 
willende vatten liet denselven sijn rottingh vallen, die door 
Sijmon voors: opgeraept wiert ende aen den corperael weder- 
gaff, die daerover moeijelijck sijnde heeft, geroepen staet van 
mijn lijff aff, en oock seggende, die mijn rottingh aentast 
die tast mij oock aen, daerop sijn degen treckende stack 
naer Sijmon voors: ende 't selve voorbij sijnde raecktent 
in een stijl daer omtrent staende dat den deegen daerin bleef 
steecken, 't welcke Sijmon voors : siende dat het met ernst : op 
hem gemeent was wilde onder den degen (die den corp weder 
uijt de stijl getrooken hadde) lopen maer wiert daermede 
eijndelijck int dick van sijn been gequest. Alle 't weloke sij 
attestanten verolaren waer ende waerachtigh te wesen ende 
presenteren des noots ende daertoe versocht sijnde 't selve 't 
alien tijde met eedete bevestigen in teijcken der waerheijt heb- 
ben sij comparanten desen nevens de ondergenoemde getuijgen 
ende mij bouckhouder onderteijckent. Actum in't Fort de Goede 
Hoope ten dage ende jare als vooren ter presentie van Casper van 
Wede adsistent, ende Jan Woutersen beijde gelooffwaerdige 
getuijgen hier toe geroepen. 

CASPER VAN WEEDS. GABRIEL LUIJENWOLT. 

JAN WOUTERSSEN. Dit merck X van 

Mij present. JACOB GERRITSZ : 

F. VERBURGH. Dit merck X van 

HENDRICK MAYER. 
JOHAN JORGEN WlTTBORGH. 

Ons onderges : dese bovenstaende attestatie andemael distinctl : 
voorgelesen wesende blijven daerbij alsnoch persisteren, soo 
waerl : moet ons Godt Almaohtigh helpen. In't fort de Goede 
Hope, desen 27 Novemb : A 1653. 

Ons present, 

JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK, 1653. GABRIEL LUIJENWOLT, 

JACOB REIJNIERSZ : Dit X merck van 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1653. JACOB GERRITS : 

JOHAN JORGEN WITTBORGH. 

F. VERBURGH. 



No. 10. 



Op huijden den 27 Novemb: 1653, compareerde voor mij Fredrick 27en NOT. 
Verburgh, bouckhouder deuer fortresse de Goede Hoope, in dienst 
van de Vereenighde Nederlantse g'octrooijeerde Oost Indische 
Cornp 6 d' eersaeme Gabriel Linwol, adelborst van Steerenburgb, 



374 



1653. jj e began to sing and make a noise, which Corporal Willem Muller 
27th~Nov. forbade him to do, telling him to go to bed and keep quiet, upon 
which Matthys said, you gallows bird ! I won't be ordered by you 
to go to bed. That at the same time drawing his knife and hold- 
ing it in a sinister way he tried to stab the Corporal, who, becom- 
ing aware of it, retreated backwards, and so fell over the boxes. 



That thereupon the sentry raised his pike and prevented Matthys 
from approaching the Corporal. That Matthys was then pulled 
back by Gabriel Anwol, who, with the assistance of Muller, took 
the knife away from him. 

(Signed by) GABRIEL LUIJENWOLT 
and another. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath on the 27th Nov. 



375 

ende Jan Baltesz : van Hoorn, Cartiermeester, beijde in gemelte l(55;i - 
dienst, ende fort bescheijden weloke verclaerden bij hare manne 27on"Nov. 
waerheijtin plaetse van eeden ter requisitie ende veraouoken van 
den gerechte deser fortresse dat sijluijden gehoort ende gesien 
hebben dat Jan Matijsz :, cartiermeester, beschoncken sijnde op 
een kist buijten de corpus du guarde staende lagh en sliep, ende 
denselven wacker wordende heef t beginnen te singen ende geraes te 
maken, 'tgeene hem door den Corporael Willem Muller ver- 
boden wiert, seggende, stelt u gerust ende gaet nae ooij toe, 
waerop Jan Matijsz: voors : seijde, gij schavot springer, ick en wil 
van u niet te ooij gaen ende opstaende heeft sijn mes ttuokx- 
gewijse uijt sijn naet sack gehaelt ende 't selve avereghts in de 
hant neniende, meende den Corporael daermede te doorstooten 
't geen den Corporael voors : gewaer wordende heeft achter 
uijt getreden, ende is over de kisten comen te vallen 
als wanneer den sohiltwaght sijn pieck nam ende heeft den 
cartierm : Jan Tijsz : het toetreeden opdat den Corporael niet 
gequest soude worden, belet als wanneer Gabriel Linwol, voors : 
hem Jan Tijsz : achter over haelden, ende door hulp van den 
Corporael Willem (opgestaen sijnde) hem het mes hebben ont- 
weldight. 

Alle 't welcke zij attestanten verclaeren waer ende 
waerachtigh te wesen ende presenteren des noots ende 
daertoe versocht sijnde 't selve t' alle tijde voor alien rechten 
ende rechteren met eeden te bevestigen, in teijcken der 
waerh 4 hebben sij desen met hare gewoonelijck signature 
onderteijckent. Actum int fort de Goede Hoope ten dage ende 
jare als voorn : ter presentie van Casper van Wede, adsistent ende 
flendrick Boltingh Jonghe, barbier, getuijgen van goeden gelove 
hier toe versocht die desen nevens d' attestanten en mij bouck- 
houder hebben onderteijckent. 

GABRIEL LUIJENWOLT. 

Als getuijgen : JAN BALTESSE. 

CASPER VAN WEEDE. 
HENDRICK BOLTINGH. 
Mij present, 
F. VERBURGH. 

Ons onderges : dese bovenstaende attestatie wel ende distincte- 
lijck ten tweede male weder voorgelesen sijnde persisteren bij 
deselve onse versz : getuijgenisse, soo waerl : moet ons Godt Al- 
maghtigh helpen. 

Aotum int Fort de Goede Hope desen 27 Novemb : 1653. 

Ons present, GABRIEL LUIJENWOLT. 

JOHAN VAN RlEBEECK. JAN BALTESSE. 

JACOB BEIJNIERSZ. 
JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1653. 
P. VERBURGH, Secret. 



376 



1653. November 28th. The undersigned officers and sailors of the 

28th~Nov. Rd e Vos declare that they have never heard such things of their 

mate, Jan Symonsen as our surgeon (barber) Cornells oflthe galiot 

the Roods Vos has declared and said ; nor that they have heard it 

from any other person. 

(Signed by) ADRIAAN JORISX: 

and eight others. 



Confirmation of the above by oath on the 29th Nov., 1653. 



27th Nov. November 28th. Surgeon Cornells told us in the first place 
that the mate borrowed an inherited new testament (erf testament) 
from the gunner, Corn elisGerritsen. In the second place that Surgeon 
Cornelis Uldericksen fetched an inherited key (erf sleutel) belong- 
ing to Surgeon Aryaen to commence his operations. 

In the third place that the mate read from the said testament, 
out of the gospel of John, the first chapter, where the words are 
thus " In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with 
God and the Word was God ! " 

That then he stuck the said key in the said testameii> and 
asked, " has Cornelis Oldrichsen taken or mislaid my ring r If so, 



377 

No. 11. 1653. 

Wij offijcieren ende matrosen van't galijoot de Rode Vos 28enNov. 
bekennen met ons konsiensi ende waerheijt dat wij noeijt 
suloke diengeu gehoort hebben van onsen stuerman Jan 
bijmonsen als onsen Mester Cornells, berbier, van't galijoot 
de Rode Vos heeft verklaert ende geseijt heeft, ende van geen 
menschen sulcks gehoort en hebben ; waer van wij dit bekennen, 
ende met ons eijgen hant onderteijckent hebben. Actum den 28 
November, in't jaar 1653. 

Dijt us heet X maerck ADRIAEN VAN DB PAVBRT. 

VAN VA ELDERS JANSEN. Tus JORISZ: 

Dijt us heet X maerok SI.IWERT CLAESEN. 

Van JORGEN ROODE. CORNELIS MAOHIELSZ : 

Dit us heet X merck van PIETER JAXSEN. 

HEIJDREI.TCH RHODAS. Bij raij CORNHLIS 

USBRANT ARRIJAENSZ : KRIJGER. CLAESZ : 

Ons ondergesz : dit bovenstaende ten tweede male in rade 
voorgelesen sijnde, blijven bij 't solve persisteren, soo waerl : 
moet ons Godt Almachtigh helpen. 

In't Fort de Goede Hope, desen 29 eu Novemb : 1653. 

Ons present, Dit is 't merok x van BALTES JANSEN. 

JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK, 1653. Dit is t 'merck X van 

JACOB REIJNIERSZ : JURGEN RODE. 

ELBKRT CORXELISZ : KES. Dit is 't X merck van 

JAN VAN HARDKXBERCH, 1653. HENRICH CLOETAS. 

ADRIJAX VAN DE PAVERT. 
Tus JORISZ : 
SIJUERT OLAESENS. 
IJSBRANT ARIJAENSZ : KRIJOBR 
F. VERBURGH, Secrets. 



No. 12. 

Een memorij van het seul van de sohipper ende steurman als 27en Nov - 
dat ons meester Cornells vertelt heeft voor eerst heeft de steur- 
man een erf testament geleent van onse konstapel Cornells Ger- 
retsen ten tweeden heeft Meester Cornells Uldericksen een erf 
sleutel gehaelt van Meester Arijaen om dit werck te beginnen. 

Ten derden heeft de steurman geleesen in het voorschreven 
testament in den Evangel! jum Johannus het Eerste Kapittel, 
daer de woorde aldus luijde: In den beginne was het woort ende 
het woort was bij Godt ende dat woort was Godt. 

Ende doen heeft hij de voorschreven sleutel in het testament 
gesteken ende heeft gevraeeht heeft Cornells Oldrichstn mijn 



378 

1653. turn thyself round in God's name ! " but the testament remained 
27th~Nov. immovable. 

He then again asked, " has Cornelis Jorissen taken or mislaid 
my ring ? If so, turn thyself round in God's name ! " but the 
said testament again remained immovable. 

For the third time the mate said, "has Elbert Cornelissen 
taken or mislaid my ring ? If so, turn thyself round in God's 
name ! " And then the said testament turned round of itself. 
The surgeon, becoming frightened, said, " mate, has this not been 
done by your own will ? " And then he did it over again and 
said, " Look well," and then he repeated the words mentioned, and 
the book turned again. Then the surgeon said, " I wish for a rix 
dollar that I had not seen it ! " but the mate answered, " You see 
who has been pointed out, but who dares to reveal it ? " 

These are the words which the surgeon Cornelis spoke to us as 
the witnesses show. 

(Signed by) ISEBRANT ARIJAANSZ: KRIJCHER 
and two others. 

The above declaration confirmed by oath on the 27th Nov., 1653. 



23rd Nov. On the 23rd Nov., 1653, 1, Cornelis Uldricksen, sat on a Sunday 
evening with the mate in the hut at dinner. After dinner, the 
mate commenced speaking about the skipper, how he had heard 
on shore that the commander knew of it, and that it would be 
revealed. The mate asked me if I would maintain my words, for, 
he said, " if you don't, you will get into trouble." 



I, Cornelis, then answered, " Mate, Jan ! neither for yon nor 
anybody else will I burden my conscience, and oppose the truth, 
for you know that you have done so. In the first place you asked 



379 

rijngh oock genoomen of oock verleit soo keert u om in Gkxlts l653 - 
naem ende het testament is stil staen blijven. 

Ende doen heeft hi] weeder gevraecht, heeft Cornells Jorissen 
raijn ringh oock genomen of oock verleit soo keert u om in Godts 
naem ende het voorschreven testament bleef weder stil staen. 

Ten derden heeft de steurman geseit heeft Elbert Cornelisz : 
Kes mijn ringh oock ghenoomen of oock verleit soo keert u om in 
Q-odts naem ende doen dreijden het voorschreven hem om waer 
over de meester seijde ende verschrikte steurman kan men dat niet 
al willens doen, ende doen heefft hij het weeder verdaen ende 
seijde: Kijck nu te degen toe, ende doen heeft hij de voorgaerule 
woorden weeder gesprooken ende het boeck dreijden doen weeder. 

Doen seijde de meester ick wilde wel om een rijckxdaelder dat 
ick het niet gesien had ; doen seijde de steurman nu siet men wien 
beurt dat het gevallen is maer wie deurt het te openbaren. 

Dijt sijn de woorden die de meester Cornells tot ons gesproken 
heeff als de getuijgen uijtwijsen. 

Bij mij Jsebrant Arijaensz : Krijcher. 

Bij mijn Cornelis Claesseen Preenck. 

Bij mijn Cornelis Machielsz : van Amsterdam als getuijgen. 

Ons ondergesehreven dese voorstaende verclaringe ten tweeden 
maele dinstinotelijck weder voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij onse 
daerbij gedaene verclaringe persisteeren soo waerlijck moet ons 
Godt Almaghtigh helpen. 

In't fort de Goede Hoope den 27 November 1653. 
Ons present, Bij mij USBRANT ADRIJAENZ : 

JOHAN VAN RlEBEKCK, 1653. KRIJCHER. 

JACOB REI.JNIERSZ. Bjt mij CORNELIS CLAESSEN, 

ELBERT CORNELESX : Kes. ' Preenck, Capitant. 

JAN VAN HARWARDEN. Bij mij CORNELIS MACHIELSZ . 
F. VKRBURGH, Secrets : Vrijl : 



No. 13. 

1653, den 23 November op een Sondach savonts heb ick, Cor- 23en 
nelis Uldricksen, bij de stierman in de hut .geseten dat wij de 
maeltijt deede deselvige gedaen sijnde heeft de stierman begonnen 
te praten vant werck van de schipper, hoe dat hij aen lant gehoort 
hadde dat hedt de Heer Commandeur wiste en dat hedt selvige aen 
den dach komen soude heeft mij de stierman gevraecht ofte ik de 
woorden die ick gesprooken hadde wel stant wilde houden want 
hij seijde bij aldien ghij deselvige geen stant en hout soo suit ghij 
jn de klem loopen. Waerop dat ick Cornelis geantwoort hebbe : 
stierman Jan jck en wil om u nochte om niemant van de werelt 
mijn gemoet beswaren ende strijden alsoo tegen de waerheijt 
want Rhij weet wel dat ghije sulckx gedaen hebt, te weteu dat 

B]', 2 



380 

1053. me> wna t is your name ? which I told you, and then you stuck the 
2?,rdNov. key into the testament and spoke the words " In the beginning, 
&c." the testament not moving at all. 



Secondly, you asked the name of the cabin boy, which I also 
gave, when you uttered the same words without any movement of 
the testament. 

Thirdly, you asked the name of the skipper, which I gave as 
Elbert Cornelisz:, and then you spoke for the third time 
" Elbert Cornelisz:, have you been in my chest and taken 
the ring from it or mislaid it ? so turn round in God's 
name ! " Upon that, the book commenced turning. All 
this I related to him, upon which he answered, " If you say 
so, I will say that you lie like a rogue, for my lie will be 
as good as your truth, and nobody will believe you as you have 
before denied it, and if you say so I will bring much trouble upon 
you and make it hot enough for you." I answered, " if you give 
me the lie you will do so as an impious man ; I took you for 
another man, not believing that if you appeared before the Com- 
mander you would deny such true things." I did deny the above 
and say that I knew nothing about it, because I did not like to 
have anything to do with other people's affairs, not thinking that 
they would take such a turn, and also because I feared that yon 
would deny it, as you are already doing, and your words would 
be more readily believed than mine." 

(Signed by) TYS JORISZ: 
and another 
(sailors) . 



The above declaration confirmed by oath on the 27th Nov., 1653. 



381 

ghij ten eersten mij gevraecht hobt seggende hoe is Ul. naem 't 1G<53 - 
welck jck geseijt hebbe endo doo hobt ghij de sleutel jn 2 3eu ~^ 
hedt testament gestoken endo dese woorden gesproocken: In 
den beginne was dat woort ende dat woort was bij Gtodt 
en dat woort was Qodt etc., waerover dat hedt voorez : 
testament geen beweginge gehat heeft, ten 2 de " soo hebt ghij 
gevraecht hoe de kajuijtwachter sijnen naem was 't welck jck oock 
geseijt hebbe ende ghij hebt deeelvige vorechreve woorden daer 
weder over gesproocken van den welcke hedt voorschreven testa- 
ment ten 2de mael geen beweginge gehat heeft; ten 3d en eoo hebt 
ghij na de schipper sijn naem gevraecht 't welck jck seijde 
Elbert Cornelisz : en doe hebt ghij ten J3de mael geseijt Elbert 
Comelisz: hebt ghij in mijn kist geweest, en daer de ringh uijtge- 
haelt ofte deselvige verleijt soo keer om in Godts naem, 't welck 
hem hedt boeck terstont begon te bewegen ende te draijen, ditalles 
heb ick hem verhaelt waerover hij mij Cornells Uldricksen tot 
antwoort gegeven heeft, indien ghij sulcx seght, jck sal seggen 
dat ghij 't lieght als een schelm, want mijn leugen sal soo goedt 
sijn als ul : waer, en oock soo suit ghij daerover geen geloof 
hebben, door dien dat ghij 't eerst ontkent hebt, ende bij aldion 
ghij sulckx seght jck sal u veel dingen op u hals werpen jck zal 
u lastich genoech vallen, waarop jck geant woort hebbe, jndien 
ghij mij belieght, soo doet ghij als een onvroom man. Ick had u 
voor een ander man gehouden niet geloovende alst voor Mijnheer 
Commandeur quam dat ghij sulcke waerachtige dingen soudt 
lochenen, dat! jck het voorgaende ontkent heb en geseijt daer niedt 
van te weten, dat heb ick gedaen, door dien dat jck mij niet geern 
met een ander sijn dingen woude bemoeijen niet menende dat het 
werok soo veer soude verspringen en oock door oorsaecke dat jck 
vreesde dat ghij stierman hedt selfde soudt lochenen gelijck ghij 
nu alreede doet, ende dat u woorden oock meer geloof gehadt soude 
hebben als de mijne. 

Bij mijn Tijs Jorisz : ghehoort heb 

Bij mijn Cornelis Machielsz : Seijlaes, getuijgen. 

Ons ondergesz : 't voorstaende distinctel : in rade voorgelesen 
sijnde persisteren bij alle 't solve behalfen eenl: dat de 
stuijrman in plaetse van mijn leugen sal soo goet seijn als 
ul. waer, geseit heeft, mijn neen sal soo goet sijn als ul. ja. Soo 
waerl : moot ons Godt helpen. In't fort de Goede Hoope, den . 
27 November 1653. 

TIJS JORISZ: 

Ons present, CORNELIS MACHIELSZ : 

JoiIAN VAN ElKBEECK, 1653. 

JACOB REIJMERSZE. 
ELBERT CORNELISZ : KES. 
JAN VAN HARUENBERCH, 1653. 
P. VERBURGH, Secret""' 



382 



1653. 



!9th Nor. November 29th. The men of the Roode Vo* declare that, at 
the request of Jan Symons, mate of the said galiot, they had 
heard and seen 'that Cornells Ulrichs, surgeon of the said vessel, 
had said to the mate mentioned, " you are a lying rascal ; your 
statements are villainous and so are all your witnesses. 

(Signed by) JURGEN ROODE 
and three others. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath on the 29th Nov., 1653. 



November 29th.- Declaration of the undersigned, that Surgeon 
Cornelis had said iu their presence loudly, " 1 wish that this day 



383 

No. 14. 1883. 

Op huijden den 29 November 1653 compareerde voor mij 29en NoT * 
Fredrick Verburgh, bouckhouder deser fortresse de Goede Hoope 
in dienst van de Vereenighde Nederlantse g'octroijeerde Oost 
Indische Comp" d'eersame Jnrgen Roode, cartier meester, Claes 
Beusingh, boss r , Cornells Maghielsz :, boots" ende Adriaen van de 
Pavert, sold*, alle in gemelte dienst ende op't galjot de Roode Vos 
varende, welcke gesamentlijck verolaerden bij hare manne waer- 
heijt in plaetse van eede ter requisitie ende versoucke van Jan 
Sijmonsz : stierman op't voors : galjot dat sijluijden gehoort ende 
gesien hebben dat Cornelis TJlreghs, meester des meer 
genoemde gal jots, tegens den stierman voors : geseijt heeft 
gij bent een logenachtige schelm, u ding-en sijn 
schelmaghtigh, ende al u getuijgen. Alle 't welcke sij attestanten 
verclaren waer ende waerachtigh te wesen ende presenteren des 
noots ende daertoe versocht sijnde 't selve 't alien tijde voor alien 
rechten ende rechteren met eeden te bevestigen ; in teijoken der 
waerheijt hebben sij desen met haer gewoonlijcke signature nevens 
de onderges : getuijgen ende mij bouckhouder voors : onder- 
teijckent. 

Autum iut fort de Groede Hoope ten daegeende jare als vooren, 
ter presentio van (Jasper van Wede, assistent, ende Jan Wouters : 
van Middelb : beijde getuijgen van goeden geloove hier toe 
versocht. Dit X merck is van 

Als getuigen : JURGEN ROODE. 

CASPER VAN WEBDE. KLAS : BUIJSEIN. 

JAN WOUTERSSEN. CORNELIS MACHIELS : 

Mij present ADRIJAEN VAN DE PAVERT. 

F. VERBURGH. 

Ons ondergeschreve 't voorstaende distinctelijck in rade voorge- 
lesen sijnde persisteren bij alle 't selve ; soo waerlijck nioet ons 
Godt Almaghtigh helpen. 

In't fort de Goede Hoope, den 29 November 1653. 
Ons present. Dit X morek is van 

JOHAN VAN RlEBEECK, 1653. JuKGEN LioODE. 

JACOB EKTJNIERSZ: CLAS : BUIJSEIN. 

ELBBRT CORNELISZ: KES. CORNELIS MACHIELSZ : 

JAN VAN HARDBNBERCH. 1653. ADRTJAEN VAN DB PAVBRT. 
F. VERBUKGH. 



No. 15. 

Ick Klucs Peusen ende Hendrijok Oloutasbekeimen met onse kon- 
siensij ende waerheijt als dat meester Cornelis, berbier, in presensij 
van ons beijden heeft geseijt ende gesproken luijdende aldus: 
ijck woade dat desen dach al f,en eijnde was en dat ick 



384 

had already come to an end, and myself were at liberty with 50 
2Sth~NoT. cu ^ s ou m y posteriors." 

That we had replied, " Surgeon, if you are not guilty, you need 
not fear a thrashing for uttering any truth whatever." The sur- 
geon replied, " the mate would do well by saying that he (the 
mate) had done it, when he would get off, and the mate could well 
say so without incurring any risks." We replied, "if he is not 
guilty of it, he cannot say that he is, with a clear conscience." 

(Signed by) FREDERIK CLOETAS 
and another. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath on the 29th Nov., 1653. 



2uth Nov. November 29th. The undersigned declare that they have 
heard the butler saying that " he would help the mate to the devil 
and bring him into all possible trouble," and also other similar 
things, in order to create great quarrels among the officers and 
men, trying as he does every day more and more to do so. 



Great mischief is accordingly caused by the butler and that 
secretly, so that the mate can have no idea of the abuse to which 
he is subjected. 

(Signed by) ADRIAAN VAN DE PA VERT 
and two others. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath on the 20th Nov., 1653. 



385 

met 50 slagen voor miju gat vrij was. Wij antwoorden 
wederom meester hebije geen schult, ghij hebt geeu noot 
voor slagen voor geiiige swaericheijt, waer de meester 
wederom antwoorde en seijde dat de stuerman soo wel doeu woude 
ende seggen als dat hij 't gedaen hadde weerover ick dan soude 
verschoont wesen, ende de stuerman kon dat wel seggen sender 
eenige perijkul daer af te verwachten. Wij antwoorden daer weder 
op, meester als ghij daer geen sohult toe en heeft soo kan hij dat 
niet seggen met een vrij gemoet ende konsiensij. Dit bekennen 
wij voor alle hoge raden ende met ons eijgen hant ondergeteijckent; 
dese voorschreve dingen sijn geschiet den 27 November, voor 
middagh, actum den 28 November 1653. 

CLAS BUNSSIN. 
Dit is X 't merk van FREDRICK CLOUTAS. 

Dese ommestaende onse verclaeringe voor den gerechte deser 
fortresse de Goede Hope andermael distinctel: voorgelesen sijnde 
blijven bij deselve voor als nooh persisteren. Soo waerl 1 moet 
one Grodt Almachtigh helpen. 

In 't fort de Goede Hope, desen 29 Novemb: 1653. 
Ons present, CLASS BUNSSUIN. 

JOHAN VAN RIEHEECK. Dit merok X is van 

JACOB RKIJNIKHSZ: FREDRICK CLUETAS. 

EL BERT OORNELISZ: KES. 

VAN HARDENBERCH, 1653. 
F. VERBURGH, Secrets. 



No. 16. 

Wij bekennen met ons konsiensi ende waerheijt als^dat^wij 20enNor. 
alle dagen van de bottelier gehoort hebben als dat hij seijde 
dat hij wilde de stuermau voor den duivel brengen ende 
in alle moeijten helpen soo verre als 't mogelijek was ende 
dit ende veul andere woorden wordende geseijt ende dat 
om grote twist te maken onder de offisieren ende 't volck 
ende soecken 't nooh alle dagen meer ende meer soe datter 
een groote quaet valt van de bottelier ende dat al in 't 
heimmelickheijt sender de stuerman daer eenig dunck van te 
weten van sulcke scheltwoorden. Dit bekennen wij ende met 
ons eijgen hant onderteijckent. Actum den 20 November in't jaer 
Ons Heeren 1653 

ADRIJAEN VAN DE PAVERT. 

CORNELIS MACHI^LSZ : 

KLAS BTINSIN. 

Dit bovenstaonde ons voor den gerechto van 't fort de Goodo 
(Hope) andemael distinctel : voorgelesen sijnde, blijven bij t 



386 



April 16th. Jan van Ghilick and Abram Abramse declare that 
16th April, they have heard and seen the sailor Grerrit Fagels of Oldenburgh, 
when ordered to go to work this morning, say the corporals may 
order us to proceed to our duties, but they may also speak in our 
favour to get us more food, upon which they had heard a soldier, 
Evert Barents: of Grroeningen, say if they were all of the same 
mind as I am, they would all lie down, and if they wish to beat 
us for it, we should break the necks of two or throe of them. 



It is better to be beaten to death than to be starved ; and when 
ordered by the Commander to be arrested for saying so, said 
arrogantly, fill their stomachs; and oilier impertinent things tend- 
ing to create dissatisfaction and mutiny. 



1653. 
Nor. 



387 

selveals noch persisteren, soo waerl: moet ons Godt Almachtigh "&'< 
helpen, In t fort de Goede Hope, desen 29 November 1653. .,^ r ~ 

ADRYAEN VAN DE PAVERT. 

CORNELIS MACHIELS/ : 

KLAS BUNSIN. 
Ons present 

JuHAN VAN RlEBEECK 1653. 

JACOB REIJNIERSZ: 
ELBERT CORNELLS : KES. 
JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1653. 

F. VERBURGH, Secrets. 

No. 17. 

_ Op huijden den 16" April A"16~>4 conipareerde voor mij, Fred- 1654. 
rick Verburgh, bouckhouder ende secretaris van dese fortresse de 
Goede Hope, d' eersame Jan van Gulick en Willem Muller, cor- 1Geu April 
poraels, ende Abraham Abrahams :, matroos, in dienst van d' E. 
Cornp" in de gemelte fortresse bescheijden, ende den getuijge na- 
genoempt, weloke ten versoeeke van Jen gerechte deser fortresee 
voornoeinpt verclaeren ende getuijgheu bij hunne maune waer- 
heijt in plaetse van solemnelen eede, als te weeten eenel : Jan van 
Gulick ende Abraham Abrahamse dat se hadden gehoort ende 
gesien Gerrit Fagels, van Oldenburgh, matroos alhier, oock 
bescheijden desen morgen na 't werck wordende bevolen te 

gaen seggen de corporaels cunnen ons wel 

t Willem Muller ende j r * i 

gemelte Abraham Abra- aen den wberjt commanderen, sij mogen oock 
Iiamse getuijgen dat. voor ons spreeoken dat men wat meer eeten 
crijglit, waerop eenen Evert Barents : van 
Groennigeii, soldaet, hadden horen eude sien seggen indien se alle 
malen gesint waren als ick men soude maer gaeii leggen neder, 
eude als se ons dan slaen wilden mochten wijder 2 a 3 den hals 
breecken. 't Is beter doot geb(r)oohten als doot gehongert 
eude soo als daer over van den Commandeur gelast wierd g'appre- 
hendeert te worden seijde wel opiuiatel : geefft se soo den buijck 
vol, met meer andere opstinate ende alts trotse woorden nict 
weijnigh na oproer ende tumulte hellende alien welcke sij attes- 
tanten alsoo verclaren d' oprechte cincere waerh 1 te sijn ende alsoo 
in daet gepasseert te sijn, preseuterende des noots sijiide alien 't 
selve met solemnelen eede gestant te doen. In teijckeu der 
waerh 1 hebben sij comparanten dese neffens d' onderget. getuijgen 
ende mij vers : met eijgen handen onderteijckent. 

In't fort de Goede Hope ten dage ende jare als bovca ter 
presentie van Casper van Wede, adsisteut, ende Henr : Boltiagh, 
jongh barbier, getuijgen van goeden gelove, hier toe veraocht. 

Als getuigen. Dit merck x van JAN VAN Guncu. 

CASPER VAN WEEDE. WILLEM MULLER. 

HENURICK BOLTINGH. ABRAM AHRAMSE. 



388 



1654. 



29th Mar. The undersigned declare that they have heard out of the mov 
of Gisbert Jans: van Haverbesch also called the " schout," a sail 
that he knew a man who carried two knives for the Commander 
the Fort ; but had heard nothing more nor the reason why. Hi 
heard it the day before the departure of the Roodc Vos the 
instant for Madagascar. 



Above declaration confirmed by oath. 



1st June. The undersigned declare that when they folt Jan Daniels: v 



389 

No. 18. 

Op huijden den 29 en Maij 1654, oompareerde voor de onderges : 29 
nets persoonen ende raij gesubstitueert Secrets : van de selve 
''eersame Jan Matijs : van Duijnkercken ende Adriaen Jans : 
aeerbroecq, matrosen, mitsgaders Jan Jans : van Nijkerck, 
flelborst, alien ten dienste van de g'octroijeerde Oost Indische 
temp 1 bescheijden in de fortresse de Q-oede Hope weloke ten 
rsoucke van den gereohte der selver fortresse verolaerden bij 
nere manne waerheijt in plaetse van solemnelen eede dat uijt 
en monde van Qlsbert Jans : van Haverbeecq (in de wan- 
elingh toegenaempt Schout) mede matroos in dienste van 
'' opgemelte Comp e alhier bescheijden, hadden verstaen, dat hij 
3hout een man wiste die 2 messen droegh op den Commandeur 
,n't fort, sonder ijts meer offte waerom gehoort te hebben, alien 

welcke sij comparanten ten versoucke als boven verclaren d' 
arechte ende cincere waerh* te wesen ende geschiet te sijn daeghs 
oor't vertreck van't galjot de Eode Vos, den 8 en stantij, na 
ffadagascar verseilt; met vrijwillige presentatie omme 't selve des 
/oot ende vereijscht met solemnelen eede gestant te doen. 
L.ldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hope ten dage ende jare als 
oven ter presentie van d'onderges : raets personen die deze 
wffens de bovengenoemde comparanten ende mij gesubstiti^ secret 8 . 
ebben onderteijokent. 

Ons present, 

COHAN VAN EIEBKECK, 1654. Bij mijn JAN MATTTJSEN. 

IA.N VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. Bij mijn ARRIJEN JANSKN 

AN VAN HARWARDEN. LEERBROECK. 

T'oirconde, 

B. DE MAN, 1654, 

Sub* Secret 6 , 
JOHAN NETJKERK. 

Bovenstaende comparanten vers : hare verclaringe andemael 
raijdel : voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij deselve volharden. In't 
ort de Q-oede Hope, desen p mo Junij 1654 ; soo waerlijck moet 
mn Q-odt Almachtigh helpen. 

Ons present, Bij mijn IAN MATTIJSEN. 

IOHAN VAN RIEBKECK, 1654. Bij mijn AERIJEN JANSSEN 

AN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. LEERBROECK. 

"AN VAN HARWARDEN. JOHAN JAN NUKERK. 

T'oirconde, 

B. DE Man Sub* Secret 8 . 



No. 19. 

Op huijden den Eersten Junij comparareerde voor den raedt ien Jni. 
lleser fortresse de Goede Hope d'eersame Jan van Hardenbercl* 



390 



1654. Wurne, surnamed " Doctor," to know whether he carried any 
1st June sharp instrument about him, he had said, what do you know, I 
never in my life carry any knives about me. 



Above declaration confirmed by oath. 



2nd June. June 1st. The undersigned declares that on the 6th April ult., 
he had left with the smack for Robben Island to fetch penguins, and 
had then heard from various persons that Jan Daniels: van Veurne, 
arquebusier, commonly known as " Doctor," had most shamefully 
cursed him behind his back and raged against him without any 
cause whatever. Returning from the island to the fort he had asked 



891 

sargt, ende Jan van Harwarden, Cap" des armes, mede raetsper- 1654. 
sonen ende hier ter plaetse bescheijden, welcko ten versoucke van le ,,y uni 
den gereohte derselver fortresse verolaeren eude getuijghen bij hare 
manne waerh* in plaetse van solemneelen eede hoe waer ende waer- 
achtigh is, dat doen sij Jan Daniels : van Wurne toegenaempt 
doctor (d'eerste mael voor den raedt geroepen wordende) bevoelden 
off ooit eenigh scherp bi] sich had, den selven gesecht had wat 
weet gij iok draagh mijn leven noijt geen messen bij mij ; alles 
't welcke sij comparanten verclaren d'oprechte ende cinoere 
waerh* te wesen, presenteerende totmeerder becraghtinge des noots 
ende versocht wordende 't selve met solemnelen eedetebevestigen. 
Aldus gedaen in't fort de GoedeHope ten dage ende j are alsboven 
ter presentie van de onderges : raets personen, die dese neffens de 
comparanten ende mij gesubstitueert secret" hebbenonderteijckent, 
Ons present, JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. 

JOHAN VAN KlEBEECK, 1654. JAN VAN HARWARDEN. 

Dit is 't merck X van JAN 

VAN GuLIJCK. 

WILLEM MULLER. T'oirconde, 

R. DE MAN, gesubs* : Seoret s . 
1654. 

De comparanten andermael bovenstaende hunne verclaring wel 
ende duijdel : voorgelesen sijnde, blijven bij deselve persisteren, 
soo waerl : moet haer Godt Almachtigh helpen. Datum ende ter 
presentie als boven. 

Ons present, JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1 654. 

JOHAN VAN RIKBEECK, 1654. JAN VAN HARWARDEN. 
WILLEM MULLER. T'oirconde, 

R. DE MAN, gesubs : Secret". 



No. 20. 

Op huijden den 2* u Juni 1654 corapareerde voor de onderges: 2enJuni. 
raedts persoonen ende mij gesubst : Secretaris van deselve Juriaen 
Roode van Lubeck, quartierm : ten dienste van de Neder- 
lantse g'octroijeerde Oost Indisehe Comp r besoheijden in dese 
fortresse de Goede Hope welcke ten versoucke van de E. gerechte 
ilereelver fortresse heeft verclaert, bij sijn manne waerheijt in 
plaetse van solemnelen eede, dat hij getuijghe, op den 6 en April pass" 
met d' opgeboeijden boot was vertrocken nae 't Robben Eijlant 
om peguijns te haelen ende doen ter -tijt van verscheijden per- 
soonen hadde verstaen dat eenen Jan Daniels : van Veurne, 
bosschieter in de wandelingh genaemt doctor hem seer lelijckende 
schandel: achter den rugge hadde gevlouckt, ende getiert, 
sonder in 't minste daertoe nochtans eenige reden ofte oorsaecke 
te hebben dos hij comparant wederom van 't voors : eijlandt in 
dese fortresse comende, ende den gemelten Jan Daniels : van 



1861. y an Veurne why he had so shamefully ill-treated him behind his 
2ndjime back, when he was t old that he had never said such things and 
that it was untrue, upon which the quartermaster replied that he 
was well informed that such words had been spoken, upon which 
Jan Daniels: answered, if they again order me to the island and 
force me to flay seals as they did before, I will bowl over one or 
two, or they must do it to me. Upon this witness answered, " 1 
don't think so," and the " Doctor " replied, " I don't mention 
names "; upon this we parted. 



6th June June 6th. The undersigned having been asked by the Court 
whether Juriaen Bode of Lubeck, quartermaster, after his return 



393 

Veurne daer over aenspreeckende ende hem affvragende wat 1654> 
redenen bij hadde om hem aehter rugge soo schandel : ende ._) en Tuui. 
qualijck te bejegenen, d* voors : doctor daerop in antwoorde, 
ontkennende sulox geseijt te hebben, endo oock dat het onwaer- 
achtigh was, daerop den gemelte quartier m r . seijde wel te wetea 
dat soodanighe woorden bij hem Jan Daniels : waren gesproooken 
op 't welcke den voors : Jan Daniels : tegen hem comparant weder 
seijde soo 't gebeurt dat ick wederom werde geoommandeert om 
nae 't Eijlandt te gaen, ende aldaer soo geprest wordt aen 't 
robben villen als sij mij voor desen hebben gedaen soo sal ick 
er een ofte 2 op 't oor nemen, ofte sij sullen 't mij doen, waerop 
hij comparant seijde dat denok ick immers niet ende antwoorde 
den doctor wederom ick en noeme niemant, waermede van den 
anderen waren gescheijden, alle 't welcke hij comparant ver- 
claerde d' oprechte waerheijt, ende alsoo in der daet geschiedt te 
sijn, presenterende des noot, ende daertoe versocht wordende 't 
selve oock met solemnele eede gestandt te doen. Aldus gedaen 
in't fort de Goede Hope ten dage ende jare als boven ter 
presentie van d' onderges : Raedts persoonen die desen nevens den 
voorn. oomparant ende mij gesubs' 1 ' Secretaris hebben onder- 
teijckent. 

Dit is 't merck X van JURIAEN ROODE., 
Ons present, T'oirconde, 

JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK, 1654. R. DE MAN, 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. Sub* Secrets, 1654. 

JAN VAN HAR WARDEN. 

Den comparant andermael bovenstaende sijne verclaringe wel, 
ende duijdel : voorgelesen hebben : blijfft bij deselve persisteren, 
soo waerlijck most hem Godt Almaohtich helpen. Datum den 
6 ea Maij 1654. 

Dit is 't merck x van JURIAEN ROODE, 
Ons present, T'oirconde, 

JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK, 1654. R. DE MAN, 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. Sub* Secrets, 1654. 

JAN VAN HARWARDEN. 



No. 21. 

Op huijden den 6 en Junij 1654, compareerden voor d' onderges : 6en Juni. 
Raedts personen van't fort de Q-oede Hoope, M rs . Jan Jans : van 
Naerden ende Cornells Ulricx: Gerdis, onder barbier ten 
dienste van de Generale Nederlantse g'octroijeerde Oost 
Indisehe Comp p in dese gemelte fortresse bescheijden haerl : 
Comp 1 " gerechtel: door desselffs Raedt affgevraegt sijnde, off 
Juriaen Rode van Lubecq quartierm r mede alhier sijn dienst 

cc 



394 

from Kobben Island, had not been at the house of Surgeon 
eth Jime Matthys Witsma and whether at that time there was not a 
certain Jan Danielsen van Veurne there, surnamed the " Doctor," 
at present a prisoner, also whether they had heard, seen, or 
understood that Juriaen Rode had, amongst others, asked said 
Jan Daniels: what reason he had to libel him so shamefully 
behind his back, and whether the Doctor did not say, if I am 
again ordered to go to the island and ground down so much in 
flaying seals, as they did before, I will first bowl over one or two 
or they shall do it to me ; declare that they had not heard and 
had no knowledge of the same. 



14th July. July 14th. The undersigned declares that 3 r esterday afternoon 
coming into the redoubt from the Groufslhm he had found Willem 
Huytjens very drunk, and having asked him what had made him so 
intoxicated, he had replied that Pieter Borgers had made him a 
present of 5 or 6 pipes of tobacco, which had made him drunk. 



Further, at night when Van Harwarden also arrived at the redoubt 
Fagels asked him whether he had given any liquor to Huytjens, to 
which he said " No." Upon this witness and said Van Harwarden 
at once proceeded to the powder room to look at the things of the 



395 

waernemende lestelijck van't Dassen Eijlandt, wederom met 't 1654 
galijot de Rode Yos gecotnen sijnde, niet en is gecomen ten huiise 

Ifr "If J-J.1_ * * TTT J y~w* J 0671 

van M . Matthijs ^ Witsma, opper Chierurgijn alhier, ende off 
doen ter tijt ten huijse voors : niet mede was, eenen Jan Daniels : 
van Veurne, in de wandelingh toegenaampt den doctor, Jegen- 
woordich 'a heeren gevangen, ende dat de voors : comparanten niet 
hebben gehoort, gesien, of te verstaen dat Juriaen Bode den voorn : 
Jan Daniels : van Veurne onder andere vragende wat redenen hij 
haddo om hem soo groffel : ende schandelijck achter rugge te 
sohelden, ende daerop den gemelten doctor tegen hem quartierm : 
niet en seijde soo ick wederom werde gecommandeert om nae 't 
eijlandt te gaen ende aldaer soo geprest worde aen't robben villen 
als sij mij voor desen hebben gedaen soo sal ick eerst een ofte 
twee op't oor nemen ofte sij sullen 't mij doen. Verclaren sij 
comparanten sulcx niet gehoort, noehte geen kennisse van te 
hebben. Aldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hoope ten dage ende 
jare als boven, ter presentie van d' onderges : Eaedts persoonen, 
die dese nevens d' voorn : comparanten ende mij gesubstitueerde 
secret aris hebben onderteijckent. 

JAN JANSEN, van Naerden. 

CORNELTS ULTDRICKSEN GERDIS. 



No, 22. 

Op huijden den 14 en Julij 1654compareerden voor mij secretaris Hen Juli. 
van den Raedt van't fort de Goede Hoope, benevens de getuijgen 
naegenoempt Gerrit Fagels van Oldenborgh. booss" ten dienste 
van de Nederlantse geoctroijeerde Oost Indische Comp e bescheij- 
den in dese selffde fortresse welcke sonder eenige dwanck, persu- 
asie ofte induction maer uijt eijgen vrijen onbedwongen wille ten 
versoucke van Jan van Herwarden, Cap" d'armes mede alhier 
bescheijden bij sijne manne waerheijt in plaetse van solemnele 
eede verclaerden ende getuijchden, gelijck doet bij desen, waer 
ende waerachtich te zijn, dat hij attestant op gisteren middach 
van't schip de Goudtsblom ende daernae op de redout (gen* Duijn 
hoop) comende aldaer ter selver tijt gevonden heeft, eenen 
Willem Huijtjens, boots mede sijn dienst alhier waernemende, 
seer beschonken sijnde, welcke hij comp* affvragende waer hij soo 
beschoncken van was, hadde g'antwoort van Pieter Borgers 
5 a 6 pi j pen tabacq tot een vereeringhe gecreghen hadden 
ende daervan droncken was geworden, wijders des avonts 
desselven van Harwarden mede op voors: redout comende 
vraeghde den voorn: Faghels hem, off hij aen Willem Huijtjens 
eenigen dranck hadde geschoncken, daerop van Herwaerden tot 
antwoord gaff van neen, op 't welcke hij comp* met d' voorn: 
Cap" d' armes datel: haerl: vervouchde na de kruijtkelder om nae 

CC2 



396 

Master-at-Arms. Discovered that the room had been broken 
1 4tL July. P en an( ^ ^ ne staple was very loose, which when touched fell to the 
ground. Entering the room they found in it an empty keg, in 
which brandy had been, belonging to Van Harwarden. When in 
the evening Huytjens arrived at the redoubt from the Fort, words 
passed between him and Van Harwarden, the Master-a1>Arms ; 
Huytjens saying to Harwarden, " I have been alone here in the 
redoubt, do you miss anything, I will pay for it." 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



July 14th. The undersigned declare that they saw Willem 
Huytjens last night very drunk and full said Huytjens saying to 



397 

des Cap u d' armes goet te sien, bij deselve comende om te openen 165 *- 
bevonden dat de kruijtkelder open was gebroocken geweest, en de 14ei rj u 
kram in de deur heel los, die aen deselve raeckende op de aerde 
neder viel, ende daerin comende onder andere vondt een ledich 
vaetjen in weloke brandewijn hadde geweest toecomende de meer 
genoemde van Herwarden. Denselven avont Willem Huijtjens 
wederom van 't fort op de voors: redout comende tusschen he;a 
ende den voorsz: Cap" d' armes eenige woorden passerende, Lad 
onder anderen hij Huijtjens teghen van Herwarden geseijt, itk 
ben hier op de redout alleen geweest, mist ghij wat, ick sal het u 
betaelen, alle 't weloke hij comp verclaert in der daet alsoo gej: as- 
seert ende geschiet te wesen met presentatie om 't alien tijden 
't selve met solemnele eede te bevestighen. 

Aldus gedaen in 't fort de Goede Hope ten dage ende jare als 
boven, ter presentie van Abraham de Min, adsistent ende Mr. 
Mathias Witsma, Chirurghijn, getuigen van goede gelooven 
hiertoe versocht die desen nevens den Comp* ende mij Secretaris 
hebben onderteijokent. 

Dit is 't merck X van GEBRIT FAGHELS. 
Als getuijgen : T'oirconde, 

ABRAHAM DE MIN, R. DE MAN, Secret 8 . 

MATHIAS WITSMA. 1654. 

A 16-54. 

De comp andermael de voorstaende sijne verclaringh wel ende 
duijdel: voorgelesen sijnde blijft bij deselve persisteren,soowaerlijck 
moet hem God Almachtich helpen. Datum 16 C " Julij 1654 ter 
presentie van d' onderstaende Raetspersoonen. 

Ons present, Dit merck X van GERIUT FAGELS. 

JOHAN VAN EIEBEECK, 1654. T'oirconde, 

SIJMEN SUMENSEN. B. DE MAN Secrets :, 1654. 

PIETER MAKTENSEN. 
JAN VAN HARDEN BEKCH, 1654. 



No. 23. 

Op huijden den 14"" Julij 1654, compareerden voor mij secre- 
taris van den Raedt van't fort de Goede Hope beneffens deu 
getuijgen nageiioemt Pieter Hosick, soldaet, Gijsbert Andriesseu 
van Langesont ende Isaack Sijbrants :, beijde boss 18 , alle in dese 
gemelte fortresse bescheijden dewelcke sender eenige dwanck 
persuasie ofte induction maer uijt eijgen vrijen onbedwongen wille 
ten versoucke van Jan van Harwarden, Cap" d'armes, mede sijn 
dieust alhier waernemende bij haerl : mannen waerheijt in plaetse 
ran solemnele eede verclaerden dat sijl : gesien hebbende dat 
WilJem Huijtjeus, boots", op gisteren avont seer boschoncken endo 



398 

185-t. van Uarwarden thai he would pay for any damage done to his 

HthTuly things. Gysbert Aiidries : of Langesont declares that the master 

at arms (Harwarden) had in his hands and showed witness a staple 

which had come from the door of the powder cellar, much bent 

at one end, and crooked. 



The above declaration confirmed bv oath. 



3rd Sept. September 3rd. Officers of the Dofyhin and Ifctuictta Louixc at 
present in Table Bay declare that iu their presence in the store 
room a dirty square case had been opened filled with tobacco and 
marked JNo. 7o. and sent from Amsterdam per yacht '( Vlielant. 



399 

vol sijnde geweest, ende d'gemelte Huijtjen tegen d' voors : Van 
Harwarden seijde soo hij eenige schade aen eenich goet van 
deselve hadde gedaen wilde 't selve aen hem betaelen. 

Verclaert den voors : GHjsbert Andries : van Langesont wijders 
dat d* voorn : Cap" d'armes in sijii handt hebbende ende aen hem 
comparant verthoonende seecker kram gecomen uijt de dour van 
de kruijtkelder, dewelcke aen het eene eijnde seer gebogon ende 
orom was, alle 't welcke voors : sijl : comparanten verclaerden in 
der daet waer ende waerachtich te wesen met presentatio om 't 
selve 't alien tijden met eede gestant te doen. 

Aldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hope ten dage ende jare 
als boven ter presentie van Abraham de Min, adsistent, ende Mr. 
Jan Jans : van Naerden, onder barbier, getuijgen van goeden 
geloove hier toe versocht, die desen neffens den comp 1 ende mij 
seoretaris hebben onderteijekent. 

Dit is 't merck X van PIETEK HOSICK. 
Als getuijgen : GIJSBERT : ANDRIES. 

ABRAHAM DE MIN. ISAACK SYBRANTSEN. 

JAN JANS : VAN NAERDEN. T'oirconde, 

R. DE MAN, Secretaris, 1654. 

De oomparanten de voorstaende haerl : verclaringh wel ende 
duijdel: voorgelesen sijnde, blijven bij deselve persisteren, soo 
waerl : moste hunl : God Almachtich helpen. Actum den 16"" Julij 
1654 ter presentie van de onderges : Kaetspersonen, 

Ons present, Dit merck X van PIETER HOSICK. 

JOHAN VAN BlEBEECK, 1654. GlJSBERT ANDRIESS. 

SlJMEN SlJMENSEN. . IJsACK SlJBRANSEN. 

PIETEB MARTENSEN. T'oirconde, 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. 11. DE MAN, Sects., 1654. 



No. 24. 

Wij onderges: hooft offioiereu van de schepen Delphi jn ende Sen Sept. 
Henrietta Louise jegenwoordich in de Taeffelbaij aen Cabo de 
Boa Esperance ter rhede leggende, attesteren ende verclaren bij 
onse manne waerheijt in plaetse van solemnele eede ten versoucken 
van de E. heer Johan van Eiebeeck, Commandeur van't fort de 
Goede Hope ende verderen ommeslach dat wij attestanten ons 
hebben vervoucht ende getransporteert op het packhuijs van de 
voors : fortresse ende aldaer in onse presentie is g'opent seecker 
vieroante vuijlen casjen met Clooster tabacq geteijckent No. 75, toe- 
gesonden van de Ed. heeren Bewinthebberen van de Gamer Am- 
sterdam per 't jacht 't Vlielant, A" 1654, voor ditto Caop, volgtms 
facture dfter van sijnde, welcko tabacq wij bevondeu hebbon t euiie- 



400 

1654. Tobacco found to be entirely spoilt, and rotten, and consequently 
3rd*iept. Da ^ to be thrown away on the dung heap. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



sth Out. October 8th. The undersigned declare that on the night of 
Sunday last they had in the kitchen seen and heard that Willem 
Gerritsen van Aeldenburgh, garden labourer, had called in u 
dirty and nasty manner Gerrit Harmans : of Deventer, likewise a 
garden labourer, a fawner and beggar, as soon as he came out of 
the garden in which he had been doing something by order of 
the gardener, because he had shown himself somewhat diligent, 
and for that reason the said Willem Gerritsen as it seemed could 
not bear him; upon which Gerrit Harmuus: had answered " I will 
make no trouble here but speak to you to-morrow." 



401 

mael bedurven verroth ende daeromme inde mestouijl weohgewor- 1664 - 
pen te wesen, alle 't weloke wij verclaeron in der daet waer ende 3eil s" ep t 
waerachtigh te wesen presenterende 't selve tallen tijde met 
Bolemnelen eede te bevestigen. 

In't fort de Goede Hoope den 3 <;u {September Ao. 1654. 

CORNELIS VAN GfiOET. 

HENDRICK VAN DE PUTTE. 

Als getuigen : PIETER VAN DUIJNEN. 

JANN SIJMENSEN. 
Louus PHILIBERT VERNATT. 

De eomparanten andermael de voorstaende henluijder 
verclaringen wel duijdel: voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij 
deselvQ persisteren, soo waerlijck moste hun luijden Godt Almach- 
tich helpen. Actum den 5 e " September 1654, ter presentie van Jan 
Sijmons : schipper van het galjot de Rode Vos ende de S r Louijg 
Philibert Vernatt, onder coopman op 't schip de Delphi jn als 
Eaetspersonen hier toe versocht. 

Ons present, CORNELIS VAN GROET. 

JANN SIJMENSEN. HENDRICK VAN DB PUTTE. 

Louus PHILIBERT VERNATT. PIETER VAN DUIJNEN. 



No. 25. 

Op huijden den 8 eu Octob. 1654 eompareerden voor d'onderges : 8en 
Raetspersonen ende mij Secrets, van deselve Eldert Jans: van Oost 
Vrieslandt, thuijnknecht, ende Sijmon Hubrechts : provisioneel 
corporael welcke hij hare manne waerheijt in plaetse van solem- 
nelen eede verclaren gel : sij doen bij deser dat Sondagh avondt 
verleden in de combuijs gehoort ende gesien hebben dat Willem 
Gerritsen van Aeldenburgh, thuijnkneght seer vijl ende leelijck 
hadde uijtgeseholden eenen Gerrit Harmans: van Deventer, 
niede thuijnkneght, voor een flickHoijer ende soubatter, soo als 
deselve uijt te thuijnen was gecomen daer op 't commando van den 
m r thuijnier eenighen nootsakelijcken dienst had willen doen 
omdat quansuijs daerinne sigh wat neerstigh had gethoont ende 
den genoemden Willem Gerritsen * na 't 

* Waerop Gerrit scheen hem daerom met wel lijden moehte ; 
Harmans: had geant- & n en ^ we lcke sii eomparanten alsoo ver- 

Troort, ick wil hier geen , , ., , J x , ii-v 

moeijte maken, maer sal claren m der daet waer ende waerachtigh ge- 
u morgen wel spreecken. schiet te weseu presenterende 't selve 't alien 

tijde met gestaeffde eede te bevestigen. 

Aldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hope ter presentie van d' 
onderges : Raetspersoonen die desen neifens de eomparanten ende 
mij secrets, hebben onderteijckent. 

Ons present, SIJMON HUIJBRECHTS. 

JOHAN VAN KIEBEECK, 1654. Dit merck X van 

JAN VAN HARDENBBRCH, 1654. ELDERT JANS : van 

Oofit Vrieslaudt. 



402 



i54. The above declaration confirmed by oath. 

8th Oct. 



October 8th. The undersigned declare that last Monday 
morning Gerrit Harmans : of Deventer had said to "Willem Gerrits: 
of Aldenburgh, yesterday you called me a beggar, come on now 
and you will see what a fawner will do. 



Confirmation of the above by oath. 



De comparanten voorslaende hare verclaringe ten andermale 165 *- 
wel ende duijdel . weder voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij deselve 
persisteren soo waerl: moest hun Godt Almachtigh helpen 
Actum 11 Octob : 1654. 

Ons present, SIJMON HUIJBRECHTS. 

JOHAN VAN BIEBBECK, 1654. Dit merok X van 
JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. ELDERT JANS : van 

Oost Vrieslandt. 



No. 26. 

Op huijden den 8 en Ootob: 1654 compareerden voor d' 
onderges: Raetspersonen deser fortresse ende mij secrets: van 
deselve Bldert Jans : van Oost Vrieslandt ende Henrich Dircxs : 
van Naerden, thuijn kneghten, weloke bij hare manne waerheijt in 
plaetse van eede verclaerden gel : sij doen bij desen dat se 
's Maendagh 's morgens verleden Q-errit Harmans : van Deventer 
mede thuijnkneght nebben sien ende horen seggen tegen Willeiu 
Gerrits : van Aldenburgh (insgelijcx thuijnkneght) gister avont 
hebt gij mij voor een soubatter uijtgescholden, oompt nu voor 
den dagh soo suit gij sien wat u een nickfloijer doen sal : alien 't 
weloke sij verolaren in der daet alsoo gesien ende gehoort te 
hebben met presentatie omme 't selve t' alien tijde (versocht wor- 
dende) met eede gestant te doen. 

Aldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hope ter presentie end 
datum als boven. 

Dit is 't merck X van ELDERT JANS : 

van Oost Vrieslancfcfc. 
Dit is 't merok X van HENDRICH DIRCX : 

van Naerden. 
Ons present, 

JOHAN VAN RTEBEECK, 1654. 
JAN VAN HARPENBERGH, 1654. 

D'attestanten voorstaende hare getuijgenisse andermael duijdel : 
voorgelesen sijnde, blijven bij deselve persisteren soo waerl : 
moesten hun Godt Almachtigh helpen. Desen 11 Ootob : 1654 ter 
presentie als in margine. 

Dit merok van X HEN RICH DIRCX : 

van Naerden. 
Dit merck X van ELDERT JANS : van 

Oost Vrioslaudt. 
Ons present, 

JOHAN V AN EIEBEECK, 1654. 
JAN VAN HARWAUDKN, 1654. 



404 

1664. 

October 8th. The undersigned declare that they have seen that 
Gerrit Harmans : and Willem Gerritsen both garden labourers last 
Monday inorning fought with each other with knives and that 
Willem was wounded by Gerrit in the arm ; do not however know 
who was first to draw the knife. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



6th Oct. October 6th. Wo the undersigned attest and declare on our 
manly truthfulness, honor, loyalty and piety at the request of the 
Hon. the Commander Johau van B/iebeeck that in opening a parcel 
numbered 1764 and supposed to contain according to the declaration 
found in it of Sr. Vincent de Vette and the witnesses Frederick 
Kesslerus and W. Diendorp, 80 pieces bleached JSaluipouris ; they 
had found no more than 70 pieces. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



405 

No. 27. 1654. 

Op huijden den 8" Octob : 1654 compareerde voor d'onderges : 
Eaets personen van't fort de Goede Hope eade mij secrets : van 
deselve Jan Miohiels : van Amsteidara ende Jelle Hendricxs : van 
de Cuijnde beijde thuijn kneghten welcke bij hare manne waerh 1 in 
plaetse van eede verclaeren gel : doen bij desen dat se hebben 
gesien dat Gerrit Harmans : ende Willem Gerritsen mede thuijn- 
kneghten verleden Maendagh 's morgens tegen maloander met 
messen vochten ende dat Willem van Gerrit in den arm is gequest 
geworden sender noohtans te weten wie eerst 't mes getrocken 
had, alien 't weloke sij comparantea verclaren alsoo gesien te 
hebben presenterende 't selve met eeden te bevestigen als daertoe 
versooht worden. 

Aldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hope ter presentie ende 
datum als boven. Dit merok X van JAN MICHIELS : 

Ons present, Dit merok X van JELLE HENDRICXS : 

JOHAN VAN ElEBEECK, 1654. 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. 

D' attestanten voorstaende hunne verclaringe andermael wel 
ende duijdel : voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij deselve volherden soo 
waerl: moeste hun Godt Almachtigh helpen. Datum 11 Octob : 
ende ter presentie als boven. Dit merck X van 

Ons present, JAN MICHIELS : 

JOHAN VAN EIEBEECK, 1654. Dit merck X van : 
JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. JELLE HENRICXS : 



No. 28. 

"Wij onderges : attesteren ende verclaeren op onse manne waer- een Oct. 
heijt, eere, trouwe ende vromicheijt ten versoucke van den E. hr. 
Gommandeur Johan van Biebeeck dat in't openen van een pack 
zijnde genombert No. 1764 ende volgens de verclaringe daerin 
gevonden van S r Vincent de Vette ende de getuijgen Fredrick 
Kesslerus en W. Diendorp soude inhouden 80 stucx gebleeckte 
salmpouris, dochin't openen vernoemt nietmeer en hebben bevonden 
dan 70 stucx 't welcke wij onderges : attestanten jn tijde daertoe 
vereijschende 't selve met eede te bevestigen daertoe bereijt zijn. 

In't fort de Goede Hoope aen Cabo de Boa Espranse, desen 
6 en October Anno 1654. 
Ons present, 

JAN WOUTERSEN. 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH 1654. 

D' oomparanten de bovenstaend.e haerl: verolaringhe andermael 
wel ende duijdel: van woorde tewoorden voorgelesen sijnde, blijven 



406 



1654. November 8th. The undersigned declare at the request of Com- 

8th~NoY niander van Riebeeck that the latter had been invited on board his 
ship by the skipper Jan van Kampen to the marriage feast of his 
third officer married to-day ; that in the evening there was some 
trouble between the chief mate Hendrik Yries van Bliksem and 
some of the Commander's people of the fort the Good Hope, and 
that the latter wished to tell the Commander something in the 
saloon, that the Commander wished to keep the chief mate away 
from the men, but that the mate hit the Commander so severely in 
the face with his fist that the signs remained on his eye. They 
likewise declare that the Commander was at the moment, as he 
was the whole evening quite sober, and required that the mate 
who was quite drunk and all the time had caused much trouble in 
the company, should be put in irons which the skipper van 
Kampen, after objecting for a long time, said that he had had 
done (though the contrary was evident to us.) 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



407 

bij deselve peraisteren, Boo waerlijck moet hen luijden Q-odt 165 *- 
Almachtich helpen. 

6en Oot. 

Datum als boven. JAN WOUTERSEN. 

0ns present. JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. 



No. 29. 

Op huijden den 8 en November A 1654 hebben wij onderges: 
Abraham Arents : , sohipper, Adriaen van de Marck, bouckhouder, 
Marcus Masius, predio 1 , Anaries Arents:, opperstnijrman, ende 
Fredrick Hendrick Doucq, Command: van de soldaten, alien 
bescheijden op 't schip de Bui bij onse manne waerh' verclaert 
ende getuijght soo wij doen bij desen sender eenige de minste 
persuasie offte inductie ter werelt, ten versoucke van den Com- 
mand 1 ' Jan van Riebeecq, door den sohipper Jan van Campen op 
sijn schip genodight ende gecomen sijnde te bruijloffte segge van 
sijn derde waeokt heden getrout, hoe datte op den avondt eenige 
moeijte is geweest tusschen den opperstuijrman Henrick Vries 
van Blixem ende anders oock tegen eenige van des Commandeurs 
volcq bescheijden in 't fort de Goede Hope ende dat deselve bij 
den voors: Commandeur apparent ijtwes wilde comen seggen in 
de kajuijte sulcx de gemelte Commandeur den voors: stuijrman 
willende affhouden (in margine " mitsgaders eijgen bevintenisse ") 
gemelte stuijrman de vuijst nam ende daermede voors: Comman- 
deur sodanigh in 't aansight sloegh volgens eijgen vertooningh, 
dat van de teijcken aen sijn oogh bleeff ende getuijghen wij inson- 
dorh f dat denselven Commandeur alsdoen ende oock den geheelen 
avont gansch niet beschoncken was, begeerende den Commandeur 
bij desen dat den gemelten stuijrman die heel beschonoken was 
ende den ganschen tijt veel moeijte in't geselschap gemaeokt 
had in de boeijen soude gesloten worden, sulox de sohipper Van 
Kampen na langh tegenstreven noch seijde dat (in margine 
"hoewelons al te samen anders gebleken is ") laten effectueren 
had. Alle 't welcke vers : staet verolaren wij in de daet alsoo 
geschiet te sijn presenterende 't selve voor alien rechten, ende 
reohteren met gestaeffden eede te bevestigen in't fort de Goede 
Hope datum uts : 

ABRAHAM ARENTS: 

ADRIAEN VAN DE MARCK. 

MARCUS MAAS. 

ANDRIES AARENTSEN. 

FREDRICK HENDRTCK DOUCK. 

D' voor : comparanten haere bovenstaende verclaringhen 
Jienl : van woorcle te woorde wel duijdel : ende perfect voorge- 



408 



i/>4. November 9th. "We the undersigned Abraham Arents: skipper of 

9th Nov. the Pull and Roeloff de Man bookkeeper of the i'ort the Good 
Hope, commissioned this day, the 9th November with the skipper 
Jan van Kampen and the junior merchant Mostart, by Com- 
mander van Riebeeck to investigate as impartial persons the 
case of the chief mate Hendrik Vries van Bliksem, who last 
night had hit the Commander in the face with his fist 
and caused much trouble in the Company, state that said mate 
Having been summoned before us, declared with some witnesses 
called by him that the Commander's crew had caused much trouble 
in the ship and amongst others had drawn a dagger or sword also 
having had trouble with the hunter Jonas la Ghiere in the saloon. 



He (as he says) struck the Commander with his fist without knowing 
that it was Riebeeck, because he saw as he thought that the Com- 
mander was standing behind the corner of the galley door and 
listening to what was going on. We also wish to state that Skipper 
van Campen favoured his mate very much, for it being proposed 
to him (Campen) that he should proceed to the shore, as he could 
come to no decision, he had replied that it was not necessary, he 
had his own rights on board and so forth. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



409 

lesen sijnde, blijven bij de selve persisteren soo waerl : most 

hunl : Godt Almachtigh helpen datum uts : 8en~Nov. 

ABRAHAM ARENTS: 

ADRIAEN VAN DE MARCK. 

MARCUS MAAS. 

FREDRICK HENDRICK DOUCK. 



No. 30. 

Wij onderges : Abraham Arents : schipper op 't schip de Bui 9en Nov. 
ende Roeloff de Man bouckhouder van't fort de Q-oede Hope, 
heden den 9 en November beneffens den schipper Jan van Campen, 
ende den ondercoopman Mostart gecommitteert sijnde van den 
Commandeur Jan van Riebeeok om met ten anderen als onpartij- 
dige te decerneren de saeck van den opperstuijrman Hendrick 
Vries van Blixum, over dat den sellen den gemelten Com- 
mandeur gister avont met de vuijst voor 't aensicht 
geslagen ende vele moeijte gemaeckt had, soo ist dat desellen voor 
ons geroepen sijnde, heefft verclaert nevens eenige getuijghen daer 
toe van sijne cant geroepen dat den Commandeur's volcq vele 
moeijte op 't schip hadden gemaeckt, ende onder anderen een 
degen offte swaerde soude hebben getrocken ende met den wilt- 
schut Jonas la Ghiere in de kajuijte moeijten hebbende, seght den 
stuijrman dat hij gemelten Oommandeur hadde met de vuijst 
geslagen sonder te weten dat hij 't was omdat hij sagh soo hij 
meende dat den Commandeur om den hoeck van de galdrij deur 
stond ende luijsterde watter omgingh, verclaeren willen bij desen 
dat vers : schipper van Campen sijn stuijrman vrij favoriseerde 
ende van ons voorgestelt wordende dat hij dan soude dienen aen 
lant te comen dewijle hij tot geen deoisie coste geraken had 
schipper van Campen g'antwoort dat sulcx niet behoeffde, hij had 
zijn eijgen recht op 't schip ende soo voorts, al 't gene vers : staet 
verclaren wij in de daet alsoo voor ons gepasseert tot sijn presen- 
terende 't selve t' alien tijde versocht wordende met eede te 
bevestigen. 

In't fort de Goede Hope, datum, uts : 

Ons present, ABRAHAM ARENTS : 

MARCUS MAAS. B. DE MAN. 

ADRIAEN VAN MARK. 

Voorstaende raport ende verclaringe van de bovenstaenden 
sehipper ende bouckhouder haerl : andermael distinctel : voorge- 
lesen hebbende blijven bij 't selve persisteren, soo waerlijck 
moeste hun God Almachtigh helpen. 

In't schip de Bui, datum als boven. 

Ons present, 

MARCUS MAAS. ABRAHAM ARENTS: 

ADRIAAN VAN MARCK. B- ^ E MAN. 

DD 



410 



1654. November 9th. We, the undersigned, commissioned by the 

, T: Commander Riebeeck to bring to him the mate Hendrik Vries 
from on board the Bull, in order to hear his defence regarding his 
conduct of yesterday evening, report that the mate had said "I do 
not leave the vessel before the Captain sends his order " He was 
told that this morning the skipper with the knowledge of the 
Commander had sent an order for the purpose, but he replied that 
the skipper had sent him a verbal message to the contrary and that 
he at the same time had written the following letter of apology to 
the Commander, declaring again that he would not leave the ship 
before the skipper was on board. 

The following is the letter : 

"To the Hon. 'Heer'. 

" Mister Governor at the Cape de bona Esperance, I humbly beg 
pardon from you, and that you may be pleased to excuse me for 
what I have done to you. I wish heartily that it had never hap- 
pened, it was caused in ignorance (? by mistake). I hope that you 
will not look at it in the worst light. I shall not leave the ship 
as long as the skipper is absent." 



Said mate also forcibly retained our written notice and would 
not return the same. 



loth Nov. November 10th. Roeloff de Man declares that on last Sunday 
afternoon he had come out of the saloon of the ship Walvix on 
deck and had then seen that Hendrik de Vries, chief mate on said 
ship, struck Joost Carstens of Congelff, cook, with his hand in 
the face. 



November 10th. Matthys Witsema, chief surgeon of the Fort, 
declares that on Sunday evening, an hour after sunset, he had seen 
standing before the door of the saloon Joost Carstens of Colgelif , 



No. 31. 

Wij onderges : gecoramitteert sijnde ommo uijtten name ende 1054. 
van wegen d. E. Commandeur Jan van Riebeecq bij gesohrifte ~ 
ende commissie ; omme den stuijrman Henr : Vries bij hem te 
halen aen 't schip Do Bui ende aldaer te aenhoren wat deselve 
tegen hem sal hebben te seggen over de faulten gister avondi 
begaen rapporteren dat den stuijrman hadde gesecht ick en gae 
niet uijt 't schip voor mij de schipper daertoe ordre stuijrt, op 't 
weloke hem gedient dat de sohipper huijden morgen met weten 
van den Commandeur daertoe ordre had gestuijrt, heefft g'antwoort 
dat de schipper hem bij monde anders had later weten schrijvende 
met eenen een brieffken aen Gomraandeiir van excuse ende dat 
niet uijt schip soude gaen bevoren den schipper present is soo 't 
onderstaende copie dicteert. 

Aen d' E. heer. 

Mijnheer den Gouverneur aen de Caep de Bona Esperance. Ick 
versoeck oitmoedel : aen mijn H' dat gij mij gelieffd mij te 
excuseren tegen dat u van mij geschiet is, ick wenschte wel het 
noijt gedocht geweest hadde, tis uijt onwetenheijt geschiet ick 
hoop dat de dat het de heer mij sal ten quaesten niet affnemen, 
ick gae niet uijt het schip soo langh de sehipper niet present is. 
Gedaen in't schip de Walvis den 9 Novemb : Was geteijckent H. 
Vries, ul. dienaer. 

Soo verclaren wij oock bovengenoempt dat den gemelten stuijr- 
man onse schriftel : commissie per force heefft gehouden ende niet 
willen wederom geven. 

In't schip Den Bui desen 9 November 1654. 

Ons present, ADRIAEN VAN DE MARCK. 

ABRAHAM ARENTS : R. DE MAN. 

ANDRIES AARENTSEN. 



No. 32. 



Wij onderges : attesteren ende verclaren bij onse manne waer- io e n Nov. 
heijt in plaetse van eede ten versoucken van den Ed : Eaedt van 
't fort de Goede Hope, ick Roeloff de Man, bouckhouder in d" fort 
bescheijden dat op Sondach naermiddach laestleden ben gecomen 
uijt de cajuijt van 't schip de Walvis boven op den overloop 
comende doen gesien dat Hendrick de Vries, opperstuijrman op 
d' J sohip Joost Carstens : van Congelff, oock, met een hant voor 
sijn aensicht sloech. 

Ick M r Mattijs Witsema, opper chierurghijn van d" fort 
verolare dat ick op Sondagh savonts een uijre nae son ondergangh 
hebben sien staen voor de deure van de cajuijt Joost Carstens: van 

PD 2 



412 

1654. cook, who wished to speak to the Commander, that then Skipper 
ioth~Nov. de Vincq, accompanied by the chief mate Hendrik de Vries, and 
the boatswain, came out of the saloon, that the skipper asked 
Carstens what business he had there standing and listening before 
the saloon, saying get away from this ; upon which they immediately 
seized Carstens and threw him down, beating him with their fists 
and kicking him until at last he fell down the ladder upon the 
lower deck ; also that the skipper, mate and boatswain were standing 
upon the grating, and that the skipper said, the devil take me, see 
whether there is anybody, stopping in his discourse and turning 
round asked what men are these ? he was answered men from shore. 



Then he replied shoremen move away from this forward; the 
devil, if you belong to the shore then go on shore, upon which he 
ordered the mate and the boatswain to drive them forward, without 
distinction of persons ; this was done at once, and the two com- 
menced to strike promiscuously all round with ropes' ends and 
their fists, so that I also received a kick or a thump from the 
boatswain which sent me stumbling two or three yards away. 

Jonas de la Guere, cadet and hunter on shore, declares that he 
saw on Sunday last the chief mate Hendrik de Vries striking 
Joost Carstens on the face before the saloon. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



413 

Congelff, kook, om den E. Command' van't fort te spreecken, dat 16i54 - 
doen terselver tijt uijt de cajuijte quam schipper Jan Ids: d'Vincq i 0o n"Nov. 
vergeselschapt met den opperstuijrman Hendrick de Vries, ende 
den hooch bootsm" dat den vers: schipper tegen Joost Carstens 
seijde wat hebt ghij hier te doen staen ende luijsteren voor de 
cajuijt, seggende bruijt hier van daen, waerop sijl: aenstonds de 
vers: Joost aenvatten ende hem onder de voeten smeeten op den 
overloop te neder, ender soo voorts hem met vuijsten slaende ende 
met voeten schoppende tot dat hij eijndel: de trappen affviel op 
den ondersten overloop, verclaren wijders dat de schipper, opper- 
stuijrman ende hooch boots'" boven op 't roosterwerck staende, 
seijde de schipper vers: de duijvel moet mijn halen siet soo der 
ijmant is, van sijn discours ophoudende, ende omsiende segge wat 
volcq heb ik hier, daerop geantwoort wierde lands volcq ; doen 
geijde hij schipper lants volcq bruijt van hier nae vooren toe, voor 
den duivel, hoort gij aen landt, soo bruijt aen landt, waerop de 
sohipper vers: belaste aen sijn opperstuijrman endo hooghbootsman 
't volcq na vooren te jagen sender aensien van personen, waerop 
aenstonds sulcx geschieden ende sloegen met daggen ende vuijsteu 
lustich in 't hondert waeronder ick mede van den hoochboots" croech 
een schop ofte stoot dat ick 2 a 3 stappen voortstruijckelde. 

Ick, Jonas de la Geure, adelborst ende wiltschut bescheijden in't 
fort de G-oede Hoope verclare dat ick hebbe gesien dat op Sondach 
laetsleden den opperstuijrman Hendrick de Vries Joost Carstens : 
van Congelff voor eiide in sijn gesicht sloegh, 'twelck geschiede 
voor de cajuijte, alle 't geene voors: in ijders bijzonder boven- 
staende verclaringe staet, verclaeren inderdaet waer ende waer- 
achtich te wesen, met presentatie om 't selve 't alien tijde met 
solemnele eede te bevestigen. 

lu't fort de Goede Hoope, den 10 cn Novemb : 1654. 

R. DE MAN. 

MATTIJS WITSEMA, 1651. 
JONAS DA GUERRE. 

De voors : haere verclaringen honl : van woorde ton woorde 
voorgelesen sijnde, blijven bij deselve persisteren, soo waerlijck 
most hun Godt Almachtich helpen. Datum ut supra, ter presentie 
van d'onderges : Raetspersoonen. 

Ons present, R- DE MAN. 

JAN VAN HARDENHERCH, 1654. MATTIJS WITSEMA, 1654. 
JAN VAN HERWEROEN, 1654. JONAS DA GUERRE. 

(N.B. Het eigenhandig schrijven van Hendrik de Vries waar- 
van Copij in No. 31 wordt gevonden gaet het bovenstaande vooraf; 
eene herhaling alhier is alzoo onnoodig.) 



1654. 



414 



loth Nov. November 10th. The undersigned declares that on Sunday 
afternoon last, he arrived on board the Wale is, when he 
was approached by the chief mate of the vessel, Hendrik 
do Vries, who struck him in the face without saying a 
single word to him or without having received any offence. 



This happened four times in succession. After that the 
skipper d' Yint-q, approaching witness when standing before 
the chamber or saloou, likewise beat him and kicked him and trod 
on him with his feet until ho fell from the poop through the hatch 
on tlio lower deck very much hurt in the face and shamefully ill- 
used. 



The above declaration confirmed by oath. 



January 13th. Abraham Abrahamse declares that on the 19th 
isth Jan. December last there came on board the yacht at sunrise and with 



415 

No. 33. 

Ick onderges : Joost Carstens : van Congelff, kock, bescheijden 
in't fort de Goede Hope verc^aro bij mijn manne waerheijt in lOon Nov. 
plaetse van eede dat ick, attestant, op Sondach na de middaeh lest 
leden ben gecomen in 't scbip den Wai vis, is bij mijn gecomen 
den opperstuijrman Hendrick de Vries sonder eenige woorden 
jegens mij te gebruijeken met de handt in't aengesicht sloegh, 
sonder in't minste eenige reden van offentie gegeven te hebben, 
't welok tot vier diverse malen na den anderen is geschiet, daernae 
den schipper Jan Ides : d'Vincq bij hem attestant voor de kamer 
ofte cajuijte comende, hem mede sloegh ende schopte ende 
met voeten tredende tot hij van de stuijrplicht neder viel 
door het luijcke op den ondersten overloop seer leelijck in't 
aengesicht gequest geworden ende schandel : getracteert. Alle 't 
gene voors : staet verclaren de opreohte waerheijt te sijn, ende in 
der daet soo gepasseert sijnde, preseiiteerde des noot endo daertoe 
versocht sijnde 't selve met solemnele eede te bevestigeu. 

In't fort de Goede Hoope, den 10 e " November 1654. 

Ons present, 't Merck X van JOOST 

JAN VAN HARDEN BERCH, 1654. CARSTENS : van Congelff, 

JAN VAN HERWERDEN. 

De bovenstaende8ijne verclaringe andermael wel duijdel : ende 
perfect voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij deselve persisteren, soo 
waerl : moet hem Godt Almachtigh helpen. Datum ut supra, ter 
presentie van de onderges : Raetspersonen. 

Ons present, 't Merck X van JOOST OARSTENS : 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1654. van CongellL 

JAN VAN HARWARDEN, 1654. 



No. 34. 

Op huijden den 13den Januario 1655 oompar d voor ons 1655. 
oiiderges : gecouimitteerde Raetspersoonen en mij Roeloff de Man 1L , e ~ Jan> 
secretaris ende gesubstitueert fiscus van't fort de Goede Hoope 
d'eersame Abraham Abrahamse van Amsterdam, out 20 jareu, 
ende Elias Pietors van Tramintdadij timmurman mede out 20 
jaren, beijde in dienst van de B. Comp ende beschoijden op het 
alhier ter rheede leggende gal jot de Eoode Vos, welcke ter requisdtie 
ende versoucke van mij gesubstitueort fiscus vers : sonder eeuighe 
persuatie offte inductie attesteerdon ende verolaerdeu bij haer 
nianne waerheijt in plaetse van solemnele eede gelijck 
doen bij dezeii. Eorstelijck Abraham Abrahamso dat op den 
19 eu Desemb r veiieden in de baija van Saldauha des mor- 
gens met 't opgaen van den dagh aen boort vau't galjot 



416 

1655. the long boat Theunis Aukes and Buysman, who went into the 

i.3th~Jan e hin. Teunis Aukes ther. said to witness who was in it, surrender 

yourself as my prisoner, seizing a sword also in the cabin, and if 

you remain quiet we will leave you at peace ; but if otherwise we 

will bind you hand and foot and throw you into the cable room. 

Buysman then went into the saloon and after that into the cabin, 
and with an axe and crow bar broke open all the boxes and oases 
and carried the contents into the boat. 

In the meanwhile Teunis Aukes stood on guard and ordered 
Buysman what to do, saying, amongst others, take especial care 
that yon first break open the skipper's chest, and make haste for 
we may still be benefited by the wind and our enemies are nearer 
than we think it must end with us on the gallows, let us there- 
fore be vigilant. When Elias Pieters heard that Aukes would 
avail himself of the wind, he showed himself, though he had been 
obliged to keep his bed, being very ill, Aukos seeing him snid, 
" Carpenter you can do us no harm, as you are sick come here, 
you must give us tools, an axe, an adze, an augur, a mallet, 2 
shackles, and a chisel." The carpenter gave them. One of the 
villuius himself took the sledge hammer, saying, '* you shall give 
us some work or we shall knock it out of your head. Nor lias the 
boat been sunk, the boat must be sunk to prevent the boy from using 
it." Teunis Aukes then went overboard and cutting the painter 
drew out the cork likewise, letting the boat drift away as he 
thought, but it was still fast to the galiot with another old rope. 



Having done what they wanted and carried all the things into the 
long boat Teunis Aukes said " come Buysman let us have another 
drink and be jolly once more," the two then went to sit together 
on deck near a ^ aum containing Spanish wine which they had 
previously taken from the saloon, and which now they turned over 
into a tub to draw off a portion of the wine. Sitting next to each 
other Teunis had taken the chart and told the witnesses " we have 
still to go about 1100 miles before we arrive where we wish to be," 
and after they had eaten and drunk well, Teunis being very drunk, 
Buysman proposed to blow up the galiot and brought on deck a 
keg of gunpowder which he had taken from the magazine and 
placed under the ladder of the after cabin, but Teunis replied "I do 



417 

met de groote boot siju gecomen Theunis Aukes : ende 
Dirck Adams (toegenaempt buijsman) d'welcke overgekomen 
sijnde haer naer de roeff vervoeghende Theunis Aukes : tegen 
hen Abraham Abrahams : (die daerinne was) seijde tsa geeft u 
gevangen (nemende uijt geseijde roeff een houwer) ende soo gij u 
tevreden wilt stellen sullen u met vreden laten, soo niet sal men u 
handen en voeten binden ende smijten in't cabel gat ; als wanneer 
voors : buijsman eerst in de oaijuijt gingh daerna in de roeff ende 
sloegh met een bijl ende coevoet kisten ende kassen oppen ende 
daer uijt in de boot breugende wat daerinne gevonden wiert. 
Ondertueschen Theunis Aukes : op sohilt waght staende hem 
buijsmau voors : ordineerde wat hij doen soude onder andere 
seggende smijt vooral de schippers kist eerst open ende spoedt u 
wat haest want wij kunnen nu noch baet doen met seijlen ende 
onse vijanden sijn ons nader als wij wel mercken, het moet nu 
doch op de galgh aen dat doch ons Vegerlant soude sijn. Comende 
onder anderen voors : Elias Pieters : (soodra van d" Theunis 
Auckes : hoorde dat baet met seijlen coste doen voor den dagh) 
vrij sieck te coij gelegen hebben: en denselven bij gemelte 
Auckes vernomen wordende seijde tegens hem timmerman gij 
cunt ons niet doen want gij sieck bent, compt hier gij moet ons 
reetschappen geven als een bijl, een dissel, een boor, een drijff 
hamer, 2 dijff ijsers, een beijtel dat bij den timmerman vers : 
gegeven wiert, nemende een van beijde de schelmen de moker 
selffs seggende gij suit ons noch werck geven off wij sullen 't uijt 
u cop cloppen, en de boot is oock noch niet in de gront, die moet 
in de gront wesen soo connen doch geen quade jongen affloopen 
gemelten Theunis Aukes: overboort ende touw aen stucken gesnee- 
den de prop daer uijt gehaelt hebben het deselve alsdoen 'soo hij 
meende) drijven maer was met seecker anderloos touwtjen noch aen 
't gal jot vast) wesende doen tenemaele claer, alsoo alles in de grooto 
boot daermede sij aen boort gecomen waren hadden gedragen 
seijde Theunis Aukes : compt nu buijsman, wij moeten nog eens 
drincken ende vrolijck wesen voort lest gaende deselve op den 
overloop voor de roeff bij den anderen sitteii aen seeoker \ aem 
daerinne Spaense wijn was ende sij alvoren uijt de cajuijtehaddeu 
gehaelt, mitsgaders op een balij met de spons omlaegh hadde 
geleijt lieten daer een pertij in loopen ende alsoo bij den anderen 
sittende nam gemelte Theunis: Aukes de Caert ende hadde haer 
attestanten voors: geseijt wij moeten noch wel 1 ! 00 mijlen 
seijlen eer wij op die plaetse uomen daer moeten wij wesen, &c., 
ende naer voors: Theunis: Aukes ende buijsman wel gegeten ende 
gedronoken hadden daervan Theunis oock seer beschoncken was 
geworden voors: buijsman ten laesten noch seijde willen wij 
't galjot laten vliegen, daertoe een vaetjen uijt de kruijtcamer 
hadde gehaelt en al bij de trap in 't achteronder was gestelt 
waerop van Theunis Aukes tot antwoord creegh, ik wil mijn noch 



418 

not as yet wish to help myself to the devil " ; they then wont down 
13th Jau. into the boat and shoved off, saying if you commence shooting 
when we are from board we will return and break your necks. 
Abraham Abrahamse having commended them to the keeping of 
God when at sea, was answered, if God does not help us, the devil 
will. 

Witnesses further declare that shortly after the villains had loft 
the ship Claas Bensingh had swum on board. The boat having 
been bailed out, he, Abraham, and Claas rowed to the skipper Jan 
Symons who had remained on the main land, not being able to 
swim ; thence together they rowed to the island where the seals 
were killed 



Above declaration confirmed by oath. 



419 

niet voor den duijvel helpen als wanneer sij daarop beijde in de 1655 - 
boot gegaen en affgesteecken sijn, seggende soo gij begint te i 3ei ~j al , 
schieten als wij van boort sijn sullen wij weder opoonien en 
breecken u den hals, en van voorgenielte Abraham Abrahams 
in de genade des Alderhooghsten als sij in see gecomen bevolen 
sijnde tot antwoort van deselve daerop creegh, helpt ons Godtniet 
BOO helpt ons den duivel, verclarende sij oomparanten noch dat 
corts naer dat de schelmen met de boot van boort waren gosteecken 
aen boort was o omen swemmen eenen Claes Beosingh, provisio- 
ueel quartiermeester dewelcke naer dat de cleijne boot 
weder droogh hadden gemaeckt) hi] Abraham Abrahams 
ondo Claes Majores uaer den schipper Jan Sijmons: die 
aen 't vaste lant (dat niet svvemmen conde) was blijven 
staen, roeijden ende van daer naer 't eijlaut daer de robben 
geslagen wierden. Allen 't weloken sij comparanten verclaren 
d'oprechte ende cincere waerheijt te wesen preseuterende vrijwilligh 
lijck des noots en daer toe geroepen sijnde met solemnelen eden 
gestant te doen. Aldus gedaen in't fort de Goede Hoope, desen 
dage, jare ende ter presentie van de onderges : Baetspersoonen als 
boveu die desen nevens de comparanten en mij gesubstitueert 
Secrets : hebben onderteijckent. 

T'oirconde, 

AKRAM ABRAMSEN. R. DE MAN, 

Ons present, ELIEAS PIETERSEN. Secretaris. 

F. VERBURGH, 1655. 
JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1655. 

Detomparanten de voorstaendo vorclarmge ander mael wel ende 
distinctelijck voorgelesen sijnde blijven bij alien 't selve persis- 
teren soo waerlijck moot ons Godt Almagtigh helpen. Datum als 

boven. 

ABRAM ABRAMSE. 

Ons present, ELIEAES PIETERSEN. 

F. VERBURGH, 1655, T'oiroonde, 

JAN VAN HARDENBERCH, 1655. 11. UE MAN, Seoretaris. 



420 
ATTESTATIONS, &<:. (continued}. 



1656. January 13th. Affidavit of Jan Reyniersz: and Maerten 

i3th~Jan Jacobsz: soldiers, of Amsterdam stationed here. That they had 
twice seen Severys Abraliamsz: of the Hague, also stationed here, 
plucking the pulse in the Comp's gardens and eating it : that they 
had warned him that if he did it again they would inform the 
superintendent, Hendrik Boom, that once for all these endless 
garden thefts might be prevented, and that if necessary they are 
prepared to swear to this declaration. This they do. 

May 30th. Affidavit of Joris Jorisz:, of Oldenzeel, cadet and 
Hans Jacobsz: Lisky, " that late on Sunday afternoon they were 
at the house of the master smith Hend: Juriaensz: Hartman, that 
at the same time the master mason Pieter Teunesz: Muller came 
in, who at once told the smith, it is your turn now, at the same 
time and in great passion drawing his knife from its sheath and 
rushing upon him to stab him, which he would have done had wo 
not intervened and taken the knife from him. The would-be 
murderer also said to me Joris Jorisz: "let me loose, otherwise I 
shall stab you, &c." 

The above confirmed by oath. 

August 16th. Declaration of Jacob Louw of Bochiers, lance- 
corporal on the Parel, that yesterday afternoon he had placed his 
gun outside the kitchen near the pigstye ; that the gun (or'coek) 
was in its rest, and that there was no powder on the touch hole ; 
that he went into the kitchen to light his pipe, and whilst doing 
so, the gun was discharged; that thereupon he rushed out and 
found the gun discharged and still standing where he had left it, 
nor could he see who had discharged it, &c. 

September 27th. Declaration of Paulus van den Enden and 
Brant Jansz: quarter-master on the Princess Royal that the soldier 
Jan Leendertsz : of the Oude Wetering on board of said ship, and 
Jan Meyers of Groningen are prisoners detained on the fort at the 
request of the officers of the vessel ; that the quarter-master 
had by order of the ship's council been thrashed by P. v. d. 
Enden, before the mast ; that after the sentence had been 
executed, said Leendertsz: had said to said v. d. Enden. 
for that all of you shall have to eat stinking meat, not- 
withstanding he had once before already allowed the meat 
to get spoilt, as he was the one to keep the meat fresh. V. d. 
Enden replied, then I will give you with a rope on your hide. 
Upon this the prisoner flew into a great passion, and at once drew 



421 

his knife against v. d. Enden in the presence of the whole crew 1686 - 
and roared out I will stab you to the heart &o. The above conl s,t~27th 
firmed by oath. 

September 27th. Declaration of Nic. Cryms of Brussels soldier 
on the Princess Royal, that Jan Leendertsz: of Oude Wetering had 
been for some offence put in irons on board, and had said to him, 
deponent, that he would no more say anything in anybody's 
favour. " And if I am again to be beaten, I will try and avoid it, 
and search for fire wherever I can get it and set the saloon on 
fire," &c. The above confirmed by oath. 

September 27th. Declaration of Corn. Lambsbergh, soldier on 
the Princess Royal, that once he went on the bowsprit of said vessel 
to catch fish, that Jan Leendertsz: was sitting in irons, that 
deponent asked why he sat there, that prisoner replied referring to 
the skipper, I will stab him to the heart as soon as I can reach him 
and so take revenge, &c. The above confirmed by oath. 

1657. 

January 30th. Declaration of Edmon Born of Hoorn, soldier 1657. 
of the fortress, that he owed the chief surgeon Jan Vetteman f40 
for curing him of a particular disease and requesting that the 30th Jan - 
amount might be deducted from his pay. 

March 3rd. Statement signed by Adrian van de Pavert. 

That with our rations and government it does not proceed as we 
are accustomed. Grerrit Hermans has been made our chief. By 
your orders we were made contented, and on the 5th Feb. arrived 
in the bay with a flag aloft and behind. On the 6th we received 
our first rations, so that we were victualled for a month with 
4 ankers arrack and 1 of brandy. Of that only a few obtained a 
small glass, the others got nothing. There were also 2 casks of meat, 
2 casks rice and 1 anker vinegar. We thank the commander for 
his favours but we only received the half of what had been sent, 
one anker arrack was empty. On the 6th we obtained our first 
rations of arrack and rice. On the same day he appointed a steward 
and some of the strongest men to kill seals. Then Wouter Corne- 
lissen (Mostert?) commenced to distribute the rations properly 
in the morning and evening. After 8 days, 12 or 13 days' 
provisions were given in advance, in order to be jolly, some 
got some but others received nothing, some also got for 8, others 
for 14 or 21 days. Some got a small glass of brandy, but the 
most of them not a single drop, for he said that it had been given 
for him alone, and what he gave to others was only by favour. 
We only had 7 meat days, then there was nothing more. He 
liked the fat meat for himself, and the liquor he swallowed to 
quench his thirst instead of water. There is no discipline among 



1637. th e m en, everyone grasps what he can get. Who ever can fight 
3rd March. an( ^ throw the best he promises a glass, and if Evers Barens shows 
his private parts, he promises him a glass also. The steward just 
took what he liked, whether arrack or brandy. Five or six days 
after our arrival in the bay one cask of rice was empty. There was 
an enormous waste at first. With the second cask some economy 
was practised ; at first it was thought that the winter had not yet 
set in properly, as seal killing had ceased when he arrived here. 
Some of the men complained of sickness. The wind was contrary, 
there was no rice, arrack, meat, oil, or bread, only birds. We lay 
at the Magasen Island, where there were many birds. On the 
18th they were jolly 13 of them with 8 days' rations, which 
was the last of the arrack. During the night of the 19th the 
yacht went under sail, but the boat delayed her so long, that the 
wind chopped round again and the yacht was blown some 8 or 9 
leagues to sea a heavy S.W. We had two heavily laden boats 
behind us. The small boat, laden with casks, sank during the 
night and hung on to the large one. The sailors called out that 
they were sinking, and this almost happened. Then Hermans 
came out of his bunk and said "Be quiet ! the devil take you," 
instead of encouraging them. We lost the boats the same night, 
returned to the bay and pitched our tents on land. We caught 
fish there, but as no discipline was maintained, the fish was left to 
rot, for he would give us no salt. He said that lie would find 
food though we were unwilling to provide for ourselves. At that 
time we plucked 700 margasen by your orders for 2 feather beds 
and a pillow. About 30,000 seals could be obtained here, that is 
if Wouterse had remained here. He knows the way of getting 
them. The present man works more to the injury than the profit 
of the Company, and has neither knowledge nor consideration. 
But time will show. Already the "pigs are running in the corn," 
for everyone can take what he likes. Everyone, from the cook to 
the convicts has to say something ; it has never been so before. 
No more this time. Signed by A. v. d. Pavert, in the name 
of all on the island. 

P.S. Nor do they know here of any religious services, but 
they live worse than the beasts in the field. It will be a wonder 
to me if God's blessing can rest on such proceedings, as it was 
felt in the case of his predecessor. This same Hermans in his 
conceit coolly asks, what does Riebeeck think, that he greatly 
honours me by stationing me on the island ? No, let him give 
me a flute or a yacht, that would be better. 

The above statement confirmed by oath, not only by the above 
mentioned A. v. d. Pavert, but also by the rest of the men who 
have complained. 

August 1st. This declaration refers to a deficit in a con- 
signment of linen received. 



423 

August 1st. Declaration of Ryk Overhagen of Steenwyk, soldier, l6 ^' 
aged 28 ; Willem. Hendriksz: of Aix la Chapelle, cadet, aged 43 ; i s t Aug. 
and Elias Ghirs of Stockholm, soldier, aged 23, all stationed here, at 
the request of Christian Jansz: of Hoesum, and Pieter Cornelisz: of 
Langesont, burghers and privileged hunters at the Cape, that on 
Sunday last, the 29th July they were at the redoubt " Duinhoop," 
where said hunters live ; that whilst there the servant of Jan 
Reyniersz:, also a burgher here, named Jan van Passel, called, and 
being addressed by the hunters and asked what business he 
always had with his gun at the river, and whether he did not go 
there to shoot birds or other game, replied that such was not the 
case, but that he went there for another object. Upon this 
Christian Jansz: said, " I saw you in our little houses, what had 
you to do there?" Passel replied, "If you hunters had caught 
me when I was in your houses, I would have been found guilty," 
&c. 

The above declaration confirmed by oath. 

August 6th. Declaration referring to some linen found 
wanting in a consignment. 

August 6th. A similar declaration as above. 

Declaration of Isaac Aertsz: of Rotterdam, chief mate, and 
Abraham van der Staffe of Rotterdam, second mate, both of the 
return ship, the Slot van Honingen, that on Thursday, the 27th 
instant, they were on board the return ship Arnhem, and that 
they had heard the quartermaster of that ship, Jacob ^Dirksz:, 
say to the orew, when the lower officers were called into the 
saloon, " May the devil take you all away, if you say anything 
else ; why are you standing still, come here to the works, I will 
be your spokesman," and other similar words. 

N.B. This declaration is not signed. 

December 14th. Declaration of Elbert Dircksz: of Emmerich, 
burgher and innkeeper here, and of Grysbert Andries of 
Langesondt, master woodcutter in the forest, that on Saturday 
last, the 7th instant, they had seen at the house of the 
first named witness, Dirk Adriaansz: Vreem, free carpenter, 
in a drunken state and giving a blow on the head of Peter 
Parwelsz: Cley, free woodsawyer and carpenter, but that 
they cannot account for the cause ; they only heard them 
abusing each other, and afterwards saw them seizing each other 
by the hair and using their fists freely. Witnesses separated 
them, but they again began to quarrel, and challenged each other 
to meet on the following morning at a spot to be fixed, 
this they shook hands in their drunken state, as a sign that t 
would keep their word. Elbert Dirksz then said to them that one 
of them was to go away. Dircq Vreem then left with the second 
witness and Hendrik Juriaansz:, master smith, for the latter s 



424 

1657. house to spend the night there. Cley remained ahout the half of 
Hth Dec. a i of an hour at the first witness's house, and then left with a 
hag of meat through the hack door, but when he had reached the 
entrance to the horn works, he laid the hag down and went to the 
house of the smith, where Vreem was ; he knocked at the 
door and Vreem came out and called Cley, who in the mean- 
time had taken off off his coat and thrown it down, running to 
the level heach and calling out to Vreem, " Here I am ! " The 
latter ran to him and witnesses likewise, fearing that something 
wrong might occur, as they had on approaching drawn their 
knives, and were furiously cutting each other. Witnesses 
separated them. Upon this Pieter Cley said to witness, Gysbert 
Andries, thinking that Vreem was already away towards the 
house of the smith, though he was really still loitering in the 
neighbourhood, without being seen, " Must I hold my tongue 
before a rogue." Upon this Vreem at once said, " What do you 
say ? " Cley replied that he repeated what he had already said ; 
the two then went away out of sight, and witnesses thought that 
the dispute had come to an end ; but behind the smith's house 
they again drew their knives. Who was the first one to do so 
witnesses do not know ; they heard the row and beat thorn 
asunder. Upon this Vreem, said " Do not strike any longer, I 
have had enough." They did not know that he was wounded, 
but they found ttat the blood was running down his trousers on 
his shins, whilst he kept his thumb on the wound in his right side. 
The above confirmed by oath. 

11559. 

1659. March 1st. Declaration of Gysbert van Campen, assistant in the 

Company's service here, that he had been at (iuinea in the yacht 
1st March. j{ asse it^ w ith which he arrived here on the 10th April, 1657, and 
having been required by the Commander and the .Fiscal to state 
what he knew about some gold which the officers or somebody on 
board that vessel are suspected of having privately negotiated, 
says that " we were with the yacht mentioned not even in sight 
of the Castle del Mina, but only slightly sighted the mountain 
far out at sea ; that no one of the vessel landed, and no one came 
on board ; that therefore no transaction could have taken place ; 
that our voyage was from Cape de Loop to Cape de Lou and thence 
to Ante, where somebody came on board, who received the letters 
in charge of the officers and given them by Commander Riebeeck 
for transmission to Holland ; that coming near to Accara two 
canoes were met at sea, laden with merchandize, in one of them 
there was a ' Molaet ' who owned the whole, and who stated that 
he came from the Mina and was going to Popo ; that he informed 
the officers that there were 3 or 4 ships at Ardra, and consequently 
caused mischief to the trade there ; that in consequence of the 



425 

advice of the Moelaat,' the trade was confined to Popo, and that, 1659 
as already stated no canoes or people of Mina met us. 

March 5th. Declaration of certain officers of certain return 
ships concerning deficits in the cargo. 

May 29th Declaration of Eoelof Hendricksz: and Wouter 
Jansen ter ^Winckel of the Zwjlen, that the butler of that ship 
continued, in spite of all warnings, to drink to excess, and so 
becoming unfit for duty ; that, moreover, he took of the liquor 
daily rationed out for the men, adding water to make good the 
deficiency, to the great injury of the skipper and the crew's health. 

June 24th. Declaration of a commission out of the Political and 
Burgher Councils. That they had been to the hospital where the 
burgher Otto Jansz: van Yreede was lying wounded in the thigh 
by a gun shot ; that they had asked him how he got the wound, 
and whether before this he had been at all on bad terms with his 
mate, Jacob Cornelisz: of Rosendaal ; that he had replied that 
they never had any words at any time, but lived with each other 
as brothers ; that he cannot account for the cause of the wound 
being inflicted ; that after he had been shot and was standing up- 
stairs near the window, he had heard his mate call out to the 
inmates of the house, " Come hither ! I have already shot one 
Hottentoo upstairs, who climbed in through the window ; " that 
witness replied, " You did not do that, but jou have shot me ; " 
that he believes that his mate wounded him innocently, and that* 
consequently he has forgiven him from the bottom of his heart, 
and wishes the Council to do the same. 

August 19th. Declaration of certain soldiers stationed here, that 
by order of Commander Eiebeeck they had, on the 1 7th instant, been 
ordered with another soldier of the garrison, named Pieter Jacobsz:, of 
Oetjeskerck, to proceed to the Company's forest to drag from there 
some poles ; that on the way the said Pieter Jacobs of his own 
accord suggested that we should refuse to do the work of dragging 
out the wood, that all of us agreed to do so by giving our hand to 
each other and also by oath that we would remain determined and 
not put a hand to the work ; that we would say that we had been 
ordered to follow our officer fully armed, but were determined not 
to work ; that Pieter Jacobsz: further said that, if anything was 
asked or said why they would not do the work, the one who 
opened his mouth would be stabbed with the sword, as he (the 
author of the conspiracy) would also keep silence ; that said P. 
Jacobs was the first instigator of the conspiracy and mutiny, and 
endeavoured to seduce us ; that if it had not been for his counsels 
we never would have thought of it ; that they beg for forgiveness, 
&c. 

September 20th. The above confirmed by oath. 

EE 



426 

65& - September 6th. Declaration of the soldiers, Jan Lourens, &c. : 

6th~ept. '-That, on Sunday, the 31st August, said Lourens had seen Jacob, of 
Rosendaal, fall from the " Bosheuvel " wagon, that the farm 
servant of the Commander, 0. J. van Royen, came to help him 
up ; that Rosendaal struck- at him ; that Tielman Hendriksz: then 
arrived on the spot, who would not allow Jansen to lift Rosendaal, 
but said, " Come I stand for Jacob ; " that thereupon both drew 
their knives, and violently struck at each other, and that Cornelis 
was wounded in the arm. 

Jan Coenraet Visser declares that Cornelis and Tielman, whilst 
sitting on the wagon, commenced to quarrel, jumped to the ground, 
drew their knives and stabbed at each other ; that Cornelis seized 
the gun of witness, who took it away from him, and that in the 
meanwhile Tielman stabbed Cornelis in the arm, &c. 

Cornelis Willemsz: declared that, whilst sitting on the wagon, 
Van Royen said to Tielman, " I will at once remove your things 
from the wagon ; " that both used angry language, drew their 
knives, and commenced to stab at each other ; that they were 
parted as soon as possible, but that shortly afterwards they again 
jumped from the wagon, and Tielman, after some fighting, 
wounded Cornelis Jansz: in the arm. We are, however, unable to 
say that Cornelis did in any way do harm to Tielman's wife ; but 
that everything occurred as we have stated, being prepared to 
confirm our evidence by oath. 

September 18th. We the undersigned certify that the 
Commander, Jan van Riebeeck, according to our know- 
ledge and information, has bought from the Company four 
Guinea slaves and two ditto females, also three Angola 
slaves and four ditto females, as shown by the books, under 
the dates of 30th April, 10th May, and 31st December, 1658. 
Total, 13 slaves. That of the six Guinea slaves the Commander 
has returned three to the Company, taking three Angola ones in 
exchange, viz., two boys, named Thomas Keuken and Klaas 
Kelder, and one young female, named Mary Pekenyn. Further, 
that he exchanged two other Gruima slaves to the free Saldanha 
traders for two Angola boys of theirs, named Jan Meeuw and 
Jackie Joy ; and also that he has bought from Caspar Brinkman 
one Guinea slave, so that he had 14, one of whom ran away ; and 
that this day he has still 13 Guinea and Angola slaves, viz. : 
Dirk and Dirkie From Guinea : 

Matthys and Marseley ~) From Angola : Among 



Domingo and Francyn 



Thomas Keuken and Mary has placed an Angola 

Klaas Kelder ^ instead of a Malagas}' 



these the Commander 



Jan Meeuw and Mary Pekenyn 
Jackie Joy 



slave, who by mistake 
was sent to Batavia as 



Old Jan and Isabel J such. 



427 

Myndert, of Antongil, obtained from the junior merchant 1659 - 

Mary, of Bengal, bought for Riebeeck at Batavia by Jacob 

Reiniersz:, and sent hither. 

Domingo and Angela, also from Bengal, obtained here at the 
Cape from Mr. Kemp. 

f Eva and her little son, Jan Bruyn, bought 
by Sieur Verburgh at Madagascar for the 



These five 
slaves have 



Commander ; by mistake this Eva was 
sent to Batavia among the Angola slaves, 



been paid for ) as stated above. 

to the Com- j Little Eva, sent by the King of Antongil as 



pany on the 
2nd May, 1657 



a present to the Commander's wife. 
Cornelia and Elizabeth, of Abyssinia, given 



as a present to the Commander's wife by 
the French Admiral, La Croix. 

The two last named have, by order of the Hon. Van Goens, 
been provisionally lent to the wives of the late junior merchant 
Verburgh, and the sick comforter Van der Stael, for service. Of 
all which matters we, the undersigned members of the Council of 
the Fort of Good Hope, by these presents declare to have full 
knowledge and information, and to which we subscribe, instead of 
passing a formal deed. 

Dated in the Fort of Good Hope, this 18th September, 1659. 

(Signed) BOELOFF DE MAN. 

Of all the above the undersigned has likewise knowledge, 
excepting what has been said of Eva and her son, Jan Bruyn, and 
Mary, of Bengal, who were here before me, but I have, however, 
heard from others that they, as above stated, have been bought 
and brought here. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA, 1659. 

In my presence, 

GYSBERT VAN CAMPEN, Secretary. 

October20th. Declaration of Peter Everard, Sergeant of the Fort, 
and Elbert Dirksz: Diemer, freeman at the Cape, made at the request of 
J. H.son de Vries, that on the 16th July they returned from an 
expedition against the Hottentoos (our enemies), when they were 
ordered each to discharge his piece, that the one of De Vries burst 
im his hand, blowing away his forefinger and smashing his thumb, 
and that afterwards the whole hand became so stiff that he can do 
nothing with it. 

Declared in the presence of Johannes de Leeuw and Jan 
Duinsbergen, before the Secretary, G. v. Campen. 

The senior and junior surgeon declare that two joints of the 
forefinger have been blown off, that the thumb and middle finger 

IK -j 



428 

'46^. were entirely stiff, and the others partly so; that the carpus and 
20th"bcr me ^ a car P us were quite smashed. 

(Signed) WILLIAM ROBERTSON. 

PlETKR VAN KUNOKENBERGH. 

Before In presence of 

J. A. v. RIEBEECK, 1659. GK v. CAMPEN, 

ROELOFF DE MAN. Secretary. 

ABRAHAM GABBEMA. 

PlETER EURARD. 

October 21st. Voluntary statement of Allert van Haefte, Ser- 
geant on the Malacca, that he came on shore this day 
and went out of curiosity to the Hottentoos to look at 
their women. That near the tent he met Gilles van 
Muyen, who had with others been invalided on shore, 
but was nearly well again. That he asked him why he did not 
go on board to do his duty as a soldier with the others, and had 
been answered that he was on shore by permission of the skipper, 
and had nothing to do with deponent. That deponent thereupon 
scolded him, and went to the sand hills to look at the Hottentoos. 
That Gilles went to the inn to fetch his cutlass, with which he 
followed deponent, who on seeing it returned and went to meet 
Van Muyen, asking him the reason for his conduct. Deponent 
was told that if he was a brave man he would go with him (Van 
Muyen) behind the Downs, and see what they would have to do 
with each other. Deponent replied that it was not customary for 
a chief officer of Militia to fight with a soldier, giving him at the 
same time some cuts with the rattan. Van Muyen thereupon 
drew his sword and attacked deponent so vigorously that the 
latter, in order to protect himself, unfortunately wounded Van 
Muyen in the right breast, causing his death an hour afterwards. 
Van Muyen had forgiven deponent everything, and only wished 
the matter to be kept secret from the skipper. All this deponent 
declares to be the truth, and wishes nothing to be added to or 
taken from it. 

(Signed) ALLERT VAN HAEFFTEN. 
Beforje 

J. A. v. RIEBEECK, 1659. In presence of 

JAN VAN DER WASS. GYSB: v. CAMPEN, Secretary. 

PIETER GERRITSZ: 

BOELOFF DE MAN. 

W. VAN OUTHOORN. 

PIETER EURARD. 

October 20th. Declaration of Roelof Arisz:, of Hinderdam, 
junior carpenter on the outward bound ship Malacca, and 
one of the seven of the prize crew placed on the Portuguese 



429 

prize by the Hasselt on the coast of Angola, who had been 
despatched on the 15th November, 1657, from Cape Lopez 20th~0ct. 
Gonsalvo for the Cape; that after the despatch of the 
prize, and when far at sea, the vessel had been found so leaky 
that they could with difficulty keep it afloat by pumping, and 
consequently decided, as they were- too low to return to Cape do 
Lopez, to proceed to St. Croix, and there refit ; thence they would 
proceed to the Fatherland ; but after having been about six weeks 
at St. Croix, and almost ready to sail, they were plundered by a 
French ship which had anchored there. Accordingly the skipper 
provisionally in charge, viz., Jan Pietersz:, of Durgerdam, who 
had left (Europe) in 1657 in the Procintie as second mate, sold 
the empty vessel to the Governor of Tortoedis for 100 reals of 8, 
of which before deponent's departure not a penny had been 
received. 

(Signed) ROELLOFF ARYSKEN. 
In presence of 

H. LACUS and 

J. DUYNSBERGEN. 

Before me, 

GK v. CAMPEN, Secretary. 

November 8th. Declaration of the chief surgeon, William 
Robertson, and the second surgeon, Pieter Klinckenbergh, 
stationed here, in answer to the inquiry of the Commander into 
the cause why Jan Jansz:, of Munster, hurt his left eye, which 
consequently became blind, he having got a splinter or little stone 
in the eye, which had caused the blindness ; that a membrane 
had grown between the membra cornce and the christalyn hiimeur, 
and as far as they know from external causes, &c. 

WILLIAM ROBERTSON. 
PIETER VAN KLINCKENBERGH. 
As witnesses, 
J. BLANCQ. 
JOHAN DE LEEUW. 
Before me, 

GK v. CAMPEN, Secretary. 

November 8th. Declaration of Jan Munster, that some time 
ago, having come with the wagon from the " bosheuvel " and 
the forest of the free sawyer Leendert Cornelisz:, of Zevenhujsen, 
with some planks, taken out of the forest for the Company and 
intended to be used for the cattle craal at the Fort, that when at 
the craal, he wished to shorten the wagon a little and with a 
stone in Leendert's presence knocked out the bolt of the long 
wagon so that a splinter from the stone flew into his eye. 

(Connected with the declaration of October 21st. See above.) 



430 

Declaration of Willem Meeuse Cat, quarter master of the 
sth Nov. Malacca t that on the jetty Van Muyen had come to him and 
asked whether he had brought no money for him ; on his saving 
no, he asked for Ihe loan of a Rixdollar and was answered " no " 
likewise. Van Muydeii then said the sergeant has insulted me so 
much that 1 wish to challenge him, deponent answered that that 
would be improper, and that he should refrain from it. Muyen 
then left deponent and went to the inn kept by the widow of the 
ensign, where he fetched his sword and belt ; at the door deponent 
met and asked him what he was going to do and whether he w;ib 
mad ; Muyen replied, I must go to the sergeant, who as far as 
deponent knows, had gone to look at the Hottentoo women. 
Deponent Itnows nothing of the fight, but shortly afterwards saw 
that Van Muyen had been wounded, and had his hand on his 
chest, also that the sergeant had both swords in his hand. De- 
ponent and Pieter Goetheer were then together and deponent 
asked Muyen why he allowed himself to be stabbed in that way. 
Muyen replied that he had stumbled over a stone, and been 
stabbed whilst falling, deponent and Goetheer then picked him up, 
and brought him before the door of the inn mentioned. After 
that they went to their boats. 

October 21st. Declaration of Pieter Goedheer Cornells' son, 
boatman of the " Malacca," regarding the accident which befell 
the Cadet Gillis van Muyen. That the sergeant van Haefften 
had asked when he came on shore why Van Muyen had not gone 
on board like the other soldiers, but remained on shore so long. Van 
Muyen replied that he had been prevented by the wind. Deponent 
then went away, and therefore knows nothing more. Some time after 
he was with quarter-master Cat at the boathouse, where he saw the 
sergeant with two swords over his arm ; Cat thereupon called out 
from a distance, what sort of a soldier are you Muyen, that you 
allow your sword to be taken from you ; not knowing that he 
had been wounded, or how the fight had taken place. On 
approaching him, Van Muyen dropped ; Cat then said the man 
is wounded, and V. Muyeu stated that he had stumbled over a 
stone. Cat and Goedheer then brought him to the inn. 

November 15th. Declaration of the free wood sawyer 
Leendert Cornelias: that he does not know how the eye (see 
Declaration of the Sth November, above) of J. Jans/: of 
Munster had been hurt, but that the latter had some time ago 
conveyed with the u Bosheuvel " wagon some planks out of the 
forest of deponent, which were to be delivered to the Company ; 
that the planks were delivered at the cattle craal, where Jan Jansz: 
told deponent that something had got into his eye, but deponent 
did not see what it was and only wont upon what Jan Janez: had 
then told him. 



431 

November 16th. Declaration of sergeant PieterEurard and junior 16f 9 - 
surgeon Pieter van Klinckeuberg, both belonging to the Fort, made at i(Ht ~^ o 
the request of the dispenser Jochem Blaneq, that on the night of 
Friday last the 14th inst. : they heard the Freeman Hans 
Jacobsz: Lisky say that he knew so much with which he wished 
to help Jochem Blanck to the devil. The first deponent further 
states that Jacobsz: had said that Blanck had given him 4 or 5 
rolls of tobacco to carry out of the Fort, and that deponent told 
Jacobsz: to take care what he was saying; that Jacobsz: had 
replied that he knew enough to help Blanck to the devil, having 
as he said four or five witnesses. The deponent IDinckenbergh 
declared to have no knowledge of the latter circumstance. 

December 16th. Declarations of Jan Lousen, Jan Breene 
and Jan Beer soldiers at the fort, that the first deponent had 
some 4 or 5 weeks ago been addressed by the prisoner 
Pieter Barber, and asked whether he would like to join in 
going inland to (?) St. Helena that said Barber, Pasquael 
Rodrigos, a convict, Alexander Craffort, a soldier, and 
Marius Tomelson, were the chief and the first to address 
him on the subject of desertion ; especially Barber and Craifort 
inside the fort above the Corps du Garde when Pasqual and 
Marius were standing about the same. After that Barber had 
often urged him to give his word likewise, and told him that they 
were together 6 Dutch and English with 15 slaves, and further 
that Willem Mooris until Saturday 8 days ago, would not 
consent and only consented on Tuesday when persuaded by the 
shepherd Hendrik van Kloppenburgh. He knew nothing however 
about Steven Nobel and H. Wricht and did not see them in the 
company of the others. 

Ten weeks ago when working at the " Pega Pega " Barber 
had said that as soon as an English ship arrived he hoped to 
smother the commander of the Cape in the cooler, but at that 
time he was not yet aware of the intention to desert. On last 
Sunday afternoon he had seen Cornells "Willemsz: give Cloppen- 
burgh a handful of lead from his pocket at the kitchen. The 
second deponent declared that Barber and llodrigos, Marius 
Tomelson and Patrick Jock, whilst collecting the barley ears 
14 days ago on the lands had asked him to join them in running 
away inland to Angola where there were sufficient gold and silver 
to be had, in order to live like princes ; but that he had said that 
he had never committed a crime, and why should he desert from 
the Company's service; that afterwards at various times they 
spoke to him about the matter and on his refusal Barber had said, 
though you won't go with us, we are determined to go ; after 
that they always avoided deponent, who last Saturday heard in 
the Company's forest Barber, Tomelson, Patrick, Job and Eodrigo 
saying to one another in the hut of the foresters whilst he stood 



432 

: <M- outside, if we art- dont to the forest again to morrow night, we 

J6 h Dec. shall run away during the 3rd glass, when the Corporal of Cadets 

Pieter Cruythof, the Company's master-builder, is asleep. We 

shall then proceed to Angola. Deponent does not know whether 

Hendrik Wricht, Steven Nobel and Willem Moris are also guilty. 

The assistant Jan Becx, of Dondey, declares that a fortnight 
ago whilst they were cutting reeds behind the Lion's hill, Barber, 
Tomelson, and Craffort had asked him to join them and run 
away towards Angola or some other Portuguese settlement ; that 
he had refused and said that the journey was impossible. Barber 
replied that he would venture it if he could get only 4 to join 
him, and that he wished that it was as easy to become King of 
England, as to travel through the country. Deponent had also 
last Sunday afternoon heard Barber and Patrick Job say that the 
shepherd Cloppenburgh and Rodrigos were of the party and when 
last night he had been locked up in a corner house, he had heard 
from Alexander Crafford who was also there with Marcus Tomelson, 
Patrick Job, Stephen Nobel, and Hendrik Wricht, that they 
were 14 or 15 altogether, viz. : Barber, Tomelson, Wricht and 
Stephen Nobel four Englishmen ; William Moris, Jacob Born, 
Alexander Craffort, and Patrick Job, four Scotchmen ; Hendrik 
van Cloppenburgh, shepherd ; Jacob Dorene, of Antwerp ; Cornelis 
Willemse and some farm labourers ; four Dutch ; with Pasqual 
Rodrigo, a convict. They had collected on a certain spot about 
50 or 60 (Ibs. ?) meal barley and rice cheese, also 8 Ibs. tobacco 
and a fair quantity of powder and lead ; but deponent did not 
hear where the place was ; he had only heard that they intended 
to desert last Sunday, and seen that among them they had a 
horn full of powder and during the night had put a little on the 
floor with which they intended to ignite their pipes striking fire 
with their knives. Some had 2, 3 and 4 shirts on their bodies, 
&c., &c. 

December 17th. The above confirmed by oath. 

December 23rd. Declaration of Harmau der Schelhoven, of 
Westbeveren, a free servant in the service of the freemen, that on 
Tuesday or Wednesday a fortnight ago, when busy binding corn 
sheaves on the land, Hendrik van Cloppenburgh came to him and 
asked him to desert inland to the Portuguese as there were 5 of 
them, viz.: Cloppenburgh, his mate Jacob Born, Klaas Wiskebroacq, 
free servant of Jan Martensz:, Pasquael Boclrigo and deponent if 
he wished to join. Deponent answered Cloppenburgh that he 
would take a day or two to consider the matter, and in the mean 
while he spoke to Wiskebroacq who asked him whether (Cloppen- 
burgh) the shepherd had spoken to him about deserting ; his first 
reply was no ; but afterwards he said yes ; Wiskebroacq then 
said they pressed me so much that I could not refuse, Deponent 
endeavoured to dissuade him, saying that there were no i'aim- 



433 

houses inland, where a piece of bread could be obtained and that 1659< 
it would be difficult to desert, &c. On the Tuesday or Wednesday 23rd Dec. 
before the Sunday on which the desertion was to take place, 
Cloppenburgh had again asked him about his intentions, adding 
that the servant of Jan Martensz: had advised him to speak to 
deponent, which was evident from the question of said servant 
who had asked him whether Cloppenburgh had spoken to him 
about deserting to the Portuguese. Deponent at first dissimulated 
but afterwards said, " Yes, he did speak to me," the servant then 
replied, if you wish to go you must try and get a gun, powder 
and lead, or I will try and get them for you. Deponent had 
replied, %< I will not take another's gun and if I intend to go I 
will bring my own gun without your assistance. But take care 
what you do, I cannot make up my mind to it, it is not so easy to 
run away here. The shepherd (Cloppenburgh) replied, " You may 
do as you like, it is all the same. If you don't join, the four of 
us leave, but don't peach." Deponent replied, " If you have a 
good object before you, why should I peach ? " &c. All this 
deponent declared to have stated to his master in the latter's house 
during Sunday night, because his master having lived here so long 
would know what would be best to do under the circumstances, &c. 

The above confirmed by oath. 

December 23rd. Declaration of Cornelis Willemsz:, of 
Liender, Cadet, serving at the Fort, that some time ago 
A. v. Cloppenburgh, shepherd, told him that they numbered 
about 10 or 12 and intended to desert inland towards 
Angola, and that Jacob Dirks*: had given the devil his life 
and soul for the purpose, and that if tne others backed out, 
he would remain firm and go alone. That on Sunday, 14 days 
ago, at sunset, Cloppenburgh, Jacob Dirkse, Marcus Tomelson, 
Patrick Tjouck, Pasquael Rodrigo, Jacob Born and Pr. Barber 
were sitting on a garden bed at the " Schuur," when 
Cloppenburgh told deponent that these were the mates 
who intended to join. What do you think, Cornelis, of such 
fellows ? Come, go with us ! Deponent had refused and further 
stated that last Sunday, eight days ago, Jacob Dirksz: came to him 
at the " Schuur" and told him that the scheme had been abandoned, 
but when a certain Giljain Flostoers approached them, said Dirksz: 
had run away as hard as a poultry thief; if this had not been the 
case, very likely he would have said more. Deponent further 
declared that every evening Cloppenburgh visited Harmen 
Eemajenne and that he always managed to buy meal there; 
nobody else could get any. He could not say where they (? the 
other conspirators) got theirs. 

Giliain Floesters had last week told deponent that he wished to 
tell him something, but that he was afraid that deponent would 
betray him. 



434 

1659. ^H this deponent declares to bo the sincere truth, but he could 

23rd~Dc ? a ^ n no further information, as the conspirators had avoided him 

when he would not consent to join them on their trip to Angola. 

Ho had, however, heard nothing about sacking the fort, murdering 

(the people) &c., &c., &c. 

December 24th. The above confirmed by oath. 

December 24th. Declaration of Jacob Cloete and Herman 
liemajenne, both of Cologne, and free burghers at the 
Cape, that on the 19th December last year, at 9 p.m., both 
became aware at their domicile (where Jacob Cloete, being 
inside, looked through a crevice or a peep-hole in order to 
find out what was going on outside as the dogs were 
barking so) of the presence of the runaway shepherd, Hendrik van 
Cloppenburgh, to whom Jacob Cloete, standing inside, called out 
" Stand or I fire." Cloppenburgh replied, " Be quiet, Jacob, it is 
I." Cloete replied, " Well then come inside and I will give you 
a dram (soopie) and a pipe of tobacco." Cloppenburgh then came 
in and Cloete had the doors closed and Cloppenburgh bound ; 
giving the latter in charge of Herman Kemajenne until he had 
fetched the corporal of cadets and two or three men stationed at 
the " Schuur," who compelled Cloppenburgh to show the hiding 
place of his mate, Jacob Bern of Glasgow, which was in the neigh- 
bourhood. After some searching they found Bern on the banks of 
the Liesbeek, among the rushes, with two loaded guns and a 
sword lying crosswise under his legs. After having secured him 
also, both were taken to the Fort, which was reached at midnight. 
The fugitives had been away about four days. 

The above confirmed by oath. 

December 28th. Declaration of Ammon Dirksz:, of Bergen in 
Norway, superintendent, and Theunis Frederiksz:. of Westfriesen, 
servant ia the Company's forest, that some time ago some men of 
the yacht Erasmus and of the Fort were working in the forest 
dragging out some poles for the Company, when four axes were 
missed which were lent by deponent, Ammon, to the men of the 
Erasmus for cutting fuel : three were discovered among the 
rushes, but a few days later the fourth was found at the hut of 
Pieter Barber, among the rushes, &c. 

The above confirmed by oath. 

1660. 

1660. January 1st. Declaration of Dirk Jansz: Schayck, boatswain, 

and Jan Coenradtsz:, steward, that Pieter (jerritsz:, the skipper, 
an ' whilst proceeding on board, after having parted from Commander 
Kiebeeck, ordered quarter- master Thys Jansen, because some men 
were still absent, to warn them. On his return he reported that 
he had not been able to find the cook. The skipper then pro- 



435 

ceeded to the house of the burgher Juris Jansz:, where he found 1 66 - 
the cook, whom he ordered to the boat. He very impertinently t T 
replied that he did not wish to go, and accordingly the skipper 
gave him a cut with the cane. Cursing and swearing in the streets 
the cook went down to the sloop, and when he was in it he said, 
' You have no right to order me where I am to spend my money, 
and if I find you, old pugnose, in the Fatherland, I will pay you 
for it. ^ You wish to stay here until the return fleet arrives, but 
we sailors don't like it, we want to continue our voyage; the 
men whom you think ^you can depend upon will turn against you; 
you keep back our rations such as they were decreed for us by the 
Governor- General and Council of India, Instead of three halves 
you give ua two. Did I say anything improper, you are at 
liberty to put both my legs in irons, or land me in irons. If you 
wish to annoy me with your false writings, there will be something 
waiting for you and the fiscal. I do not care in the least how 
things go, but if I must be put in irons I will know how to find 
you, skipper Pieter Gerritsen, at the proper time for what you 
have done to me." These words were often repeated during the 
passage to the ship, &c. 

In the yacht Erasmus, this first day of Jan., 1660. 

January 6th. The above confirmed by oath. 

March 22nd. Declaration of certain " stowaways," made in 
presence of Commissioners and Burger Councillors, on the promise 
that they might speak out freely and tell the reason why they 
wished to desert, and that they would not be punished. 

Pieter Monti, of Dantzig, cadet, having served in the stables, 
stated that every day he had to work with the cart and horses in 
the gardens and keep watch during the night ; that he very much 
liked to go to Batavia and thought that his object would be more 
easily gained when he was in the Fatherland than here ; the return 
crews had also been vigorausly at hand and said, " What are you 
doing in this cursed country V Come, jump into the boat, we will 
manage to hide you," &c. 

Piettr Hansz: declares that he had hid himself as he was 
afraid to get into trouble because of a certain black woman, whom 
some maintained he had fructified ; also that some of the return 
crew had urged him to run away, a fact which most of the deserters 
will declare. 

Matthya Huybrecht, of Aberkerck, cadet, employed as mason, 
gives as his reason that he had to work the whole day and stand 
on guard the whole night. That he wished to get to Batavia, and 
thought that he could more easily get there from Holland. 

Ri'ne Beaudun, drummer, states that when drunk he had been 
urged by his fellow-countryman to go with him ; being drunk and 
not knowing what he was doing, he consented. 



436 

ieo. Albert Thomusz: Kerckcnraadt , of Cologne, soldier and cattle 

22ud March. ner( l, declares that ho had stowed himself away because of the 

instigation of others and the persuasions of the homeward bound. 

That he cannot come out with his pay ; that during his stay here 

he has always been in want of socks and shoes. 

Lucas Jansz:, of Grroningen, a soldier, declares that he cannot 
bear poverty ; that he could not obtain sufficient socks cr shoes ; 
that he had also been instigated by the homeward bound ; that his 
pay was inadequate to buy what he required ; that he could not 
oear the want of shoes and stockings, and therefore would have 
been glad to get away from this place. 

Joost Pietersz:, of Ley den, soldier and serving in the smithy, 
had been accepted as soldier, and was therefore not bound to make 
locks, or to work in the shop. He had therefore resolved also to 
go. lie could buy nothing with his pay and had therefore decided 
to leave, &c. 

Harmon ter Schelhorcn, freeman, declared that he had been 
forcibly drawn by the homeward bound into the boat, who asked, 
" Why do you stay in this damned Cape ? Go with us, we shall 
hide you," &c. 

Pieter Jonge^ of Stadtmore, freeman, declares that he had gone 
on board to sell a keg of herrings, and that then the men on board 
persuaded him not to go on shore again, &c. 

Hans Ran, of Angel, freeman, declares that he also had been 
instigated by the promises of the homeward bound to depart ; that 
he was obliged to keep a servant and a boy on his land, whom he 
did not know how to feed or pay their wages. For that reason he 
had often wished to buy some slaves, but could not get any. This 
induced him to run awaj r . 

Pieter Keyel, freeman, servant of Jacob Rosendaal, agriculturist, 
had been hiding because his master works him down too much and 
clears him out (or ruins him). He also had been persuaded by the 
homeward bound. 

Jan Farys, of Brussels, soldier, had gone with the Commander 
on board the Parel, and been compelled to remain on board by 
the ceaseless persuasions of the men ; the boat had also left. 

Johanna Boddix, widow of Jan van Harwarden, late ensign here, 
declared that various homeward bound men had urgently requested 
her to walk into the boat, with her children, goods, &c., and that 
they would easily hide her, using the infamous words, " What do 
you do here at this cursed Cape, leave this country," &c. 

Jufiaan Jansz:, freeman, and his wife, Jmnetje Ferdinandus^ 
declare that the homeward bound had pressiugly urged them to 
leave, promising to hide them, saying, " What are you doing in this 
cursed country? you will not want anj'thing; come with us," &c. 
The sailors and soldiers called out along the streets, " Whoever 
likes to go, let him get into the boat. Amsterdam, Zealand, 



437 

Rotterdam, Hoorn, Enckhuysen, &o.; get in, the ships are ready to I86g - 
leave." All this was screamed out about all the freemen's o 2n( iMar,-h 
dwellings, and more shameful and disdainful language about this 
place was made use of. 

Hendrik Hendriksz:, of Seurwaarden, free burgher, declared that 
this year's homeward bound had called out in the streets and at 
the freemen's houses, " Get into the boat, who wishes to go with 
us ? have you any goods to stow away ? we shall bring you casks 
in which to stow your things. Join us, freemen." &c. 

N.B. Deponent refused to sign the above declaration because 
his wife did not like him to do so. 

Jan Rei/niersz:, free burgher, declares that this year's return 
crews cried out on the ways, the jetty and near the Fort, " Get 
into the boat, who wants to join ? " &c., using much infamous 
language against this place; and that even a quarter-master of Het 
Wapen van Holland, which carried the admiral, had been guilty of 
such irregularities. 

Jacob Ro&endaal, freeman and farmer, declared that he was on 
board the Arn/iem, where all had asked him what he was doing in 
this land of famine, and told him, rather plague youreelf for the 
devil than remain in this land of famine. More bad and improper 
words were used, and they offered to take him on board with what 
he had. 

WiUem Pietersz:, of Nimwegen, agriculturist, declared that 
having come to the Fort with a wagon load of wood, he was 
forcibly pulled into the boat lying at the jetty by the homeward 
bound, who told him, " Jump in and sit in front with youx whip ; 
what are you doing in this cursed Cape ? " He had to use violence 
to get away. They also offered to take all his things on board 
free of charge. 

Leendert Cornelisz:, free burgher and sawyer, declares that 
being on business near the Fort, he saw much mischief and 
licentiousness committed by the homeward bound ; they asked 
him to go with them, and also what he was doing in this 
damned Cape. All cried out " Who wishes to join us, let him 
get into the boats; get in Cape people, get in foresters and 
wood cutters, get in, Zealand, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Delft, 
Hoorn, Enckhuysen, we will hide you all, only come." He was 
himself on board the " Prins Willem," where one of his boys was 
hiding, who had gone on board when invited as above. When he 
wished to take the boy on shore nearly the whole crew objected, 
even inclusive of the steward of the vice-admiral's ship. On all 
the other ships which he visited he heard the same exhortation, 
" Go away from this accursed place, &c." 

Witness further adds that on the admiral's ship " Het Wapen 
van Holland " the crew urged him to stay on board. Amongst 
them there was a stowaway woman and her child from Batavia 



438 

1660. who said, "you need not be afraid, go with us ; nothing will be 
d March ^ one ^ vou > wnv should they do anything to you ? " 

Declaration of Jan Ooenraad Visscher and Pieter Visagie, free 
burghers and agriculturists, regarding the great commotion 
created by the homeward bound crews, who cried out in numbers, 
Get into the boats, go with us ; what do you. do in this cursed 
land," &c. The first deponent had been on board the "Zeepaard" 
where the chief mate asked after Pieter Visagie and said that he 
was to tell him that he might freely come on board for that he 
could easily be taken on ; whilst the crew exclaimed, " We 
would rather be hanged than lie in this damned country " adding 
more curses, &c. 

Jfni Pietersz:, of Caspel ter Maire, free burgher and agricul- 
turist, declares that the crews of the return ships had caught hold 
of him near the jetty, and pushed him on from behind in order to 
drag him into the boat, saying, " You must go with us, leave this 
cursed country, what do you do here," &c. 

Fran & Gerritz van den Vyfhoorn, freeman and agriculturist, 
declares that he had been on different ships of the return fleet, 
and that the crews wished to hide him saying, " Fetch your things, 
we will take you on board, and hide you well," adding many 
contemptible expressions about this country. 

Martin Jacobs:, of Amsterdam, master gardener, declares that 
the homeward bound acted very licentiously about the fort, and 
on the jetty. That they looked at no one but cried out, " Fall in 
for the fatherland," using very defamatory expressions towards 
this place. In the Company's gardens they destroyed everything 
on which they could lay their hands, and Avhen forbidden to do so, 
they did not only proceed from bad to worse, but threatened that 
if he forbade them to do so any longer they would give him his 
hide full of licking, &c. 

Jacob Pieterfsp, of Brugge, garden servant, declares that the 
above is true, and that the men told him moreover, these gardens 
belong to us, you have no business to be here. &c. 

Declaration of Jan Pieter Pauw, quarter-master of "Het Wapen 
van Amsterdam," that he was on shore to-day, and the third 
officer of his ship, Cornelisz: Jansz:, said to Jan Brouwer go to 
the boat ; the latter however ran away, but the mate followed him 
about half the length of the jetty and gave him some cuts with 
the rattan, driving him to the boat. A little while afterwards Jan 
Brouwer again came to the boat and called out to the men, that 
the one who had beaten him was to leave the boat, Upon this the 
3rd officer at once stepped on to the jetty, and followed J. Brouwer 
about half the length of it, but when returning, a certain 
person unknown to deponent, ran up to the 3rd officer from 
behind and struck him on the body with his fist, as if he wished 
to shove him from the wharf. The third officer struck at him 



439 

standing among the men with his cane, saying, you have 166 
treacherously wounded me. Deponent did not see that he had 20Tad 
a knife in his hand, as it was dark, and as deponent says that he 
stood with his back to the scene he cannot declare anything more. 
He only saw glittering in the hand of the mate a certain weapon 
which he held before his breast ; upon this the sailor said to the 
officer " you have done it neatly, I am a dead man for my throat 
is cut off." Upon this they entered the boat with the mate and 
went on board, &c. 

The above confirmed by oath. 

No date. Declaration of Olderig Mathysz:, of Copenhagen, 
Corporal on the above named vsssel that whilst standing on 
the jetty, he heard a person, unknown to him, call out to 
the 3rd officer, come out of the boat, that the latter at once 
did so, giving Jan Brouwer whom he wished to get into 
the boat, a cut with the rattan. The unknown person 
then said, " why do you beat Brouwer in that way ? " 
The mate replied, " I will strike him," and the two com- 
menced to scold each other and the mate gave the unknown 
sailor a thrashing with the rattan. Turning round the sailor 
ran on to the mate's back and gave him a shove without deponent 
seeing whether he had any weapon in his hands, the mate turned 
round upon this and drew his weapon, and said, " Keep quiet or 
I swear I will pay you." The other replied with bad words, and 
after the mate had again given him 2 or 3 cuts, the sailor 
attacked the mate very violently, and in that way of his own 
accord ran into the mate's weapon. Deponent then went to the 
boat, and knows nothing more. 

No date. The Marine Jan Pietersz:, of Amsterdam, declares 
as above ; but he did not see that the mate turned round, and that 
the mate then came into the boat saying " I am wounded." 

The above declaration confirmed by oath. 

April 6th. Declaration of Thomas Harmansz:, of Amsterdam, 
now on board the " Vlissingen," that this evening standing at the 
stairs of the jetty he heard somebody belonging to " ( Het Wapen 
van Amsterdam," asking whether anybody could lend him a knife, 
because he had been beaten. A sailor replied, " Who has beaten 
you, I will take your part." Together they went to the end of 
the jetty where the ships boat was lying, in which the 3rd 
officer was ; they called out to the latter to come out and he at 
once did so and struck the sailor with his cane, the latter ran 
away, the mate followed him as far as the